Conlang Relay 19/Naisek

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This is the Naisek torch from Conlang Relay 19, as sent to Fenhl and Anka by Jeffrey Jones. The English translation below is taken from the official page.

Naisek text

  1. Nel ruseko emyato u glisom faidem.
  2. Jilu dofsulu bahai, taujer kwarfam rusekum arkata "Cokmi faide jafti, ki campka?"
  3. Taujer helpam ebarkata "Swido ga nisenki".
  4. Parce po lixo testito.
  5. Dorsa xarsatwe, arkator "Oruseko! Asenkor wix jafim faidem -- asenkor pone ebasenkor -- pone lementenkor pone arkenkor noi swil noku nisenwe."
  6. Hali taujeli bosmatwe pone har parcer po har lixor soldator.
  7. Lohen tola teido, har parcer ebuparata pone arkata "Ska parep yok him faidem pone ski mentep orxa toubi po gwalnol galbil po xofrel samil."
  8. Taujer kwarfam rusekum arkata "Sepki lo xolurbwe mentax swil titsu!".
  9. Helpar taujer ebarkata "Swido ga buxmitenko".
  10. Lohen tola kuyu soudo, har lixor ebunatata pone arkata "Ska natep yok him faidem, pone ski mentep hifi lalfa po hifi folde po hifil insektal."
  11. Kwarfar taujer arkata "Ga xolbwe ga mentax swil titsu".
  12. Helpar ebarkata "Swido buxmitenko".


Only stems are cited.

  • ark- V say, tell
  • as- V go, come
  • bahai adv in the past
  • bosm- V agree
  • buxm- A happy
  • camp- V ask
  • cokmi D what kind (interrogative)
  • dofsu- NI year
  • dorsa pron when (relative)
  • ebark- V answer
  • ebas- V return
  • emy- V exist (passive of "have")
  • faide N hill
  • folde NIM grain
  • ga part no, not
  • galb- A green
  • gliso NI slope, slant
  • gwalno NI valley
  • h- D the (definite article)
  • help- D the other
  • hif- D the same
  • insekta- NA insect
  • jaf- D yon
  • ji Q much, many
  • ki pron (1st person singular dative)
  • kuyu Q 1 (temporal case)
  • kwarf- D 1st
  • lalfa NIM grass
  • lement- V look
  • lixo NA mouse
  • lohen conj after
  • ment- V see
  • nat- V walk
  • nel Q 2
  • nis- V know
  • noi pron 2nd person plural dative
  • noku conj (purpose)
  • orxa NH river, stream
  • par- V fly
  • parce NA bird
  • po conj and (joins phrases)
  • pone conj and (joins clauses)
  • rusek NI rock, stone
  • s- V (copula)
  • sam- A tall
  • sep- V wish
  • sold- V leave
  • soudo NI day (24 hours)
  • swido NI always
  • sw- Q all (plural forms)
  • t- pron 3rd person, declined like a determiner
  • tauje NA heart (metaphorical)
  • teido NI (short time)
  • tes- D that/those (verb form = "be there")
  • tol- V pass time
  • vtoub A wide, broad
  • xars- V hear
  • xofre- NI tree
  • xol- V can, be able
  • u prep at, near
  • wix prep to
  • yok prep across


  • A adjective
  • D determiner
  • Q quantifier
  • NA noun, animate
  • NH noun, heterogenous
  • NI noun, inanimate, count
  • NIM noun, inanimate, mass
  • V verb
  • adv adverb
  • conj conjunction
  • prep preposition
  • pron pronoun

Grammatical notes


  • o- (vocative)
  • ebu- back

Verb suffixes

  • -(i)t makes an adjective into a stative verb.
  • -ax infinitive
  • -ep perfect participle
  • -i/u/0 present tense (depends on adjacent consonants)
  • -a past tense
  • -en future tense
  • -ur contrafactual mood

In addition to person and number, the verb endings mark the case of the subject, which is either ergative, dative, or absolutive.

  • -ka 1st person singular ergative
  • -ki 1st person singular dative
  • -ko 1st person exclusive plural absolutive
  • -kor 1st person exclusive plural ergative
  • -bwe 1st person inclusive plural dative
  • -(n)we 2nd person plural dative
  • -0 3rd person singular absolutive
  • -ta 3rd person singular ergative
  • -to 3rd person plural absolutive
  • -tor 3rd person plural ergative
  • -twe 3rd person plural dative

Noun and modifier suffixes

Adjectives and determiners mark animacy immediately after the root:

  • -a animate (adjective or determiner)
  • -i inanimate (adjective or determiner)

Nouns, adjectives and determiners have endings marking number and case:

  • -0 singular absolutive
  • -a singular ergative (consonant stems)
  • -l plural absolutive (vowel stems)
  • -li plural dative
  • -lu plural temporal
  • -m singular genitive (vowel stems)
  • -o plural absolutive (consonant stems)
  • -r singular ergative (vowel stems)
  • -tsu plural partitive (vowel stems)

Heterogenous nouns take animate agreement in the ergative and dative cases, and inanimate agreement otherwise.

The partitive marks the whole from which a part is selected.

Prepositions are followed by genitive phrases.

Due to the case-marking, the order of phrases within a clause is somewhat free.

Smooth English

  1. There were 2 rocks on the slope of a hill.
  2. Many years ago, the heart of the first rock said, "What kind of hill is over there, I ask myself?"
  3. The heart of the other replied, "I'll never know."
  4. A bird and a mouse were there.
  5. When they heard, they said, "Hey rocks! We will go to that hill -- go and return -- and we will look and tell you everything so that you'll know."
  6. The hearts agreed and the bird and the mouse left.
  7. After a little while passed, the bird flew back and said, I've flown across the hill and I've seen a wide river and green valleys and tall trees."
  8. The heart of the first rock said "I wish we could see all of that!"
  9. The other heart replied, "We'll never be happy."
  10. After 1 day passed, the mouse walked back and said, "I've walked across the hill, and I've seen the same grass and the same grain and the same insects."
  11. The first heart said, "We can't avoid seeing all of that."
  12. The other replied, "We'll always be happy."
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