Conlang Relay 19/Naisek
- Nel ruseko emyato u glisom faidem.
- Jilu dofsulu bahai, taujer kwarfam rusekum arkata "Cokmi faide jafti, ki campka?"
- Taujer helpam ebarkata "Swido ga nisenki".
- Parce po lixo testito.
- Dorsa xarsatwe, arkator "Oruseko! Asenkor wix jafim faidem -- asenkor pone ebasenkor -- pone lementenkor pone arkenkor noi swil noku nisenwe."
- Hali taujeli bosmatwe pone har parcer po har lixor soldator.
- Lohen tola teido, har parcer ebuparata pone arkata "Ska parep yok him faidem pone ski mentep orxa toubi po gwalnol galbil po xofrel samil."
- Taujer kwarfam rusekum arkata "Sepki lo xolurbwe mentax swil titsu!".
- Helpar taujer ebarkata "Swido ga buxmitenko".
- Lohen tola kuyu soudo, har lixor ebunatata pone arkata "Ska natep yok him faidem, pone ski mentep hifi lalfa po hifi folde po hifil insektal."
- Kwarfar taujer arkata "Ga xolbwe ga mentax swil titsu".
- Helpar ebarkata "Swido buxmitenko".
Only stems are cited.
- ark- V say, tell
- as- V go, come
- bahai adv in the past
- bosm- V agree
- buxm- A happy
- camp- V ask
- cokmi D what kind (interrogative)
- dofsu- NI year
- dorsa pron when (relative)
- ebark- V answer
- ebas- V return
- emy- V exist (passive of "have")
- faide N hill
- folde NIM grain
- ga part no, not
- galb- A green
- gliso NI slope, slant
- gwalno NI valley
- h- D the (definite article)
- help- D the other
- hif- D the same
- insekta- NA insect
- jaf- D yon
- ji Q much, many
- ki pron (1st person singular dative)
- kuyu Q 1 (temporal case)
- kwarf- D 1st
- lalfa NIM grass
- lement- V look
- lixo NA mouse
- lohen conj after
- ment- V see
- nat- V walk
- nel Q 2
- nis- V know
- noi pron 2nd person plural dative
- noku conj (purpose)
- orxa NH river, stream
- par- V fly
- parce NA bird
- po conj and (joins phrases)
- pone conj and (joins clauses)
- rusek NI rock, stone
- s- V (copula)
- sam- A tall
- sep- V wish
- sold- V leave
- soudo NI day (24 hours)
- swido NI always
- sw- Q all (plural forms)
- t- pron 3rd person, declined like a determiner
- tauje NA heart (metaphorical)
- teido NI (short time)
- tes- D that/those (verb form = "be there")
- tol- V pass time
- vtoub A wide, broad
- xars- V hear
- xofre- NI tree
- xol- V can, be able
- u prep at, near
- wix prep to
- yok prep across
- A adjective
- D determiner
- Q quantifier
- NA noun, animate
- NH noun, heterogenous
- NI noun, inanimate, count
- NIM noun, inanimate, mass
- V verb
- adv adverb
- conj conjunction
- prep preposition
- pron pronoun
- o- (vocative)
- ebu- back
- -(i)t makes an adjective into a stative verb.
- -ax infinitive
- -ep perfect participle
- -i/u/0 present tense (depends on adjacent consonants)
- -a past tense
- -en future tense
- -ur contrafactual mood
In addition to person and number, the verb endings mark the case of the subject, which is either ergative, dative, or absolutive.
- -ka 1st person singular ergative
- -ki 1st person singular dative
- -ko 1st person exclusive plural absolutive
- -kor 1st person exclusive plural ergative
- -bwe 1st person inclusive plural dative
- -(n)we 2nd person plural dative
- -0 3rd person singular absolutive
- -ta 3rd person singular ergative
- -to 3rd person plural absolutive
- -tor 3rd person plural ergative
- -twe 3rd person plural dative
Noun and modifier suffixes
Adjectives and determiners mark animacy immediately after the root:
- -a animate (adjective or determiner)
- -i inanimate (adjective or determiner)
Nouns, adjectives and determiners have endings marking number and case:
- -0 singular absolutive
- -a singular ergative (consonant stems)
- -l plural absolutive (vowel stems)
- -li plural dative
- -lu plural temporal
- -m singular genitive (vowel stems)
- -o plural absolutive (consonant stems)
- -r singular ergative (vowel stems)
- -tsu plural partitive (vowel stems)
Heterogenous nouns take animate agreement in the ergative and dative cases, and inanimate agreement otherwise.
The partitive marks the whole from which a part is selected.
Prepositions are followed by genitive phrases.
Due to the case-marking, the order of phrases within a clause is somewhat free.
- There were 2 rocks on the slope of a hill.
- Many years ago, the heart of the first rock said, "What kind of hill is over there, I ask myself?"
- The heart of the other replied, "I'll never know."
- A bird and a mouse were there.
- When they heard, they said, "Hey rocks! We will go to that hill -- go and return -- and we will look and tell you everything so that you'll know."
- The hearts agreed and the bird and the mouse left.
- After a little while passed, the bird flew back and said, I've flown across the hill and I've seen a wide river and green valleys and tall trees."
- The heart of the first rock said "I wish we could see all of that!"
- The other heart replied, "We'll never be happy."
- After 1 day passed, the mouse walked back and said, "I've walked across the hill, and I've seen the same grass and the same grain and the same insects."
- The first heart said, "We can't avoid seeing all of that."
- The other replied, "We'll always be happy."