Dal'qörian prepositions alternative uses
In Dalcurian, the preposition te is not used in infinite phrases (to walk, to sleep etc) except when equating an English gerund (see Nouns). It is only used with nouns or pronouns. The definite and indefinite articles ni/di-a/the are not used with te; it already means to, to the or towards depending on the context of the sentence:
- Binä, te qaféj, göria qoÞ. I’m just going to the shop.
Usually meaning contrary to, this is also used in tag questions where in English, one would say: isn’t it/wasn’t it/weren’t they/aren’t you etc, though it MUST go at the end of a sentence. It then translates as loosely as not true, similar to the German nicht wahr:
- TaÞ mosödrämös gé'éagöra, néfaracte? That was a good film, wasn’t it?
- Binä, máriÞ séÞa, tädø, néfaracte? I’m tired of this, aren’t you?
Néfaracte cannot be placed at the beginning of a sentence where, in English, one puts the tag question first in questions of uncertainty:
- Aren’t you the man off the tv?
- Isn’t it the 7 o’clock train we’re supposed to be catching?
Again, néfaracte must go last (normally with a rising voice intonation):
- Diö di sáj, vön di televizian, néfaracte? Aren’t you the man off the tv?
If you say:
- Néfaracte di sáj, vön di televizian?
then this translates as: Contrary to the man from the tv.
Néfaracte can also be used to contradict a statement, much like the German word doch:
- Diö ábrax eÞöa nömæaj, yil? Néfaracte!
- Haven't you any money? Yes (I do/on the contrary)
Néfaracte nál is a commonly used interjection that equates to something like really! honestly! well I never! etc:
- Mæ döbátr,, taÞ mæ nöacr didér senta bréjel,, ön tirigör stæcemést. Néfaracte nál? He claims that he can drink ten pints (of beer) without getting drunk. Honestly! Really!
If you really want to disagree with a statement, you can say: néfaracte qoÞ-yeah right/whatever
qöri vs dörac-through
It is important to know the differences between these two prepositions. dörac means through as in direction, time or motion and also means during:
- Ména mösár, dörac dörÞ, gör. We have to go through there.
- Sia gä’ságr,, taÞ sia, dörac di qömbla, raföræ diöra. She said she’d phone you during the week.
Qöri means through as in because of/as a result of:
- Di vitihærádn, qöri stæmeÞodicrlámn, gä’ábrapädr stötsérämös. The government has lost support through inefficiency.
Here’s an example of where both prepositions might come together:
- Qöri di dostébrostnämös qve mæöra, minäla, dörac di qömbla, sä mæ gä’spélögr quacrialbájan, gä’ádravisör mæöra,, bratsva mæ, giráte vägámn, gä’Þalárax andri ábæÞabödä.
- Through his own stupidity, he was seen through the week playing football, even though he was supposed to be off work sick. lit: As a result of his own stupidity, they, through the week, as he played football, saw him, even though he, due to illness, resided not at work.
näø vs retfac
Like qöri and dörac, these also have slightly different uses. näø is used when something has 'finished'. However, it can also be used as a conjunction if it is followed by a subject and verb, in which case it does NOT follow prepositional word order:
- Diö nöacr, näø taÞ, görør. You can go out after that.
- Diö nöacr görør,, näø diö gä’ábrastæabetár. You can go out after you have finished.
- Binä vaquiræ ni etári,, näø séÞa inpöträmös qve t'vizian gä’ábrastæabetár. I’ll make a cup of tea after/when this programme has finished.
Retfac is used to with movement/motion, and is also used colloquially to mean behind:
- Göros retfac di beröj qve diöra,, ön ságr te mæ,, taÞ mæ solegasas mösár nöreÞár! Go after your brother and tell him to come back immediately!
- Binä gé’patiquálö,, taÞ sia, retfac binöra, gä’Þalár¿ I was sure she was behind me.
This is the only preposition in the Dalcurian language that does not adhere to preposition word order. In fact, qve is almost exclusively used only in possesive constructions:
- DanöÞ di beröj qve binöra. There’s my brother. lit: There is the brother of me.
- Di ábæødöraj dis t'vizian näocr, am træpindij, brát tirigör¿ The TV manual might still be in the box. lit: The instruction manual of the television could, in the box, still remain.
Here are somemore examples to study:
- Binä, viténi di lamæasncoj, gä’Þalgér di nömæcalblánij qve binöra. I hid my money box above the cupboard.
- Dörac di ninÞi, éren, máriÞ mæöra, gä’tirigör,, brát éren, telemná 9 ön 10S, gä’angör. They stayed with him through the night but they left between 9 and 10am.
- Binä, øatni di øaräj, gä’stelanér esti di sacéj qve binöra; quavéna tiÞ gä’ábradöbéÞr nöra! I definitely put my bag behind the couch; now it’s gone!