Dal'qörian adjectives with prepositions
There are a considerable number of adjectives which are linked to nouns by prepositions: scared of, angry about, grateful for, independent of, married to etc. However, in Dalcurian, the adjective is 'not' always used; sometimes the noun form is used instead. The prepositions used in English can also be different.
Dynamic adjectives denote attributes which are, to some extent at least, under the control of the one who possesses them. Unlike stative adjectives, such as red/big/small for example, which are generally considered to be permanent, dynamic attributes are not always evident, but can be called upon at any time. However, some are more commonly used with prepositions than others, especially those which denote an emotion of some sort. The following are very common:
This part of Dalcurian grammar could be considered to be a little difficult. The main points to understand are outlined:
- The adjective is rarely used with a following preposition; the noun form should be used in normal speech. (See Exceptions below).
- When, in English, we say something ‘makes’ us feel something, in Dalcurian, the noun form is used and it is ‘given’ to us.
Look at the following using dasqurinä-emotional as an example.
- Binä, tevehicamä séÞa qepétna qve di mosödrämös, sævála ábra dasqurinámn. I always get emotional at this part of the film. lit: I, towards this part of the film, always have emotion.
- SéÞa sævála ni dasqurinä qepétna qve di mosödrämös. This is always an emotional part of the film.
makes you/makes you feel
- SéÞa mösödrämös, te binä, sævála andöcr dasqurinámn. This film always makes me emotional. lit: This film, to me, always gives emotion.
- DanöÞ, te binä, andöcr qurivecsárämös,, vömä diö ságr sacéa sä taÞ. It makes me angry when you say things like that. lit: It, to me, gives anger, when you say things as that.
And again withoput preposition:
- Binä qurinistr disiri dasqurinä. I feel very emotional.
- Éren säquraséträdn,, qösra di talehaserämösel ritövag. They’re excited because the holidays aren’t far off now.
Here are more examples highlighting the use of dynamic adjectives with and without prepositions. The general rule is that, if the statement is in a negative sense, use stæcamä-against, as the noun link, and either tevehicamä-towards or öcra-for if it's in a positive sense. Literal translations are given:
- Di nörasátsi ádra, stæcamä ela, qurivecsárädn,, qöri éren ábæabödriax. The teacher was angry with everyone for not doing their homework.
- Binä qurivecsárädn,, qösra diö, te binä, gä’peclér. I’m angry because you lied.
- Mæ ábra, öcra di sövalträdn venádosámn quranörámn. He is happy with the way everything has turned out. lit: He has, for the final result, happiness.
- Mæ ábra, tevhicamä di parenöjeperös qve mæöra, vélas säquraséträdn. He is really excited about becoming a father. lit: He has, towards his fatherhood, much excitement.
- Binä qönér,, taÞ Emä ábra, tevehicamä dis qéæramä di vehærämös, nitörieÞ angræÞámn. I think Emma is getting a bit anxious over the wedding. lit: I think that Emma has, towards her wedding, a little anxiety.
- Gabe, te binä, gä'andöcr vélas angræÞámn. Gabe made me feel quite anxious. lit: Gabe, to me, gave much anxiety.
- Binä janöÞrädn,, taÞ mæ iquræax várö binä ságræ. I’m worried that he won’t like what I’m about to say. lit: I’m worried that he will like not what I will say.
- Di arangájel ádra, öcra ménöra, oncöbrasámn,, qöri di gistäjel, taÞ ména, te éren, gä’andöcr. The kids were grateful for the presents we gave them. lit: The children had, for us, gratitude, because of the gifts we gave them.
- Mæ morgérax ábra, öcra di flästa ábæa qve mæöra, vélas sæaÞögestrámn. He doesn’t seem too enthusiastic about his new job. lit: He seems not to have, for his new job, much enthusiasm.
- Éren ábra, stæcamä di decahédrátsi, qurivecsárädn,, qösra di darø sösádrämös taÞ mæ gä’sonæagenandr. They are angry with the judge because of the bad sentence he passed. lit: They have, against the judge, anger because of the bad sentence that he passed.
- Ména ábra, öcra di venádosámnel, sörelbæámn. We’re very pleased about the results. lit: We have, for the results, pleasure.
- Binä ádra, tevehicamä várö gä’Þalár øatni di Þrádäj, hacörælámn. I was slightly curious about what was behind the door. lit: I had, towards what resided behind the door, curiousity.
- Di gadöraj qve binöra ábra, stæcamä esteplédnijel qve ræatös, fræcrämös. My dog is frightened of fireworks. lit: My dog has, against fireworks, fright.
Adjectives linked with to.
Adjectives linked by to are also rendered in this way, using stæcamä-against, or tevehicamä-towards and öcra-for:
- SéÞa ábra, tevehicamä sáÞ taÞ ména ädiáda ádra, ni änligámn. These are similar to the ones we had yesterday. lit: These have, towards those which we yesterday had, a similarity,
- Qena'diö,, séÞa quáloträmös ábrax, öcra binöra, rembanámn,, nø binä ädavonas gä’ábraÞalár dérÞ. You know, this place isn’t familiar to me, yet I've been here before. lit: You know, this place has not, for me, familiarity, yet I have previously resided here.
- Diö Þöldr ábra, tevehicamä binä, oncöbrasámn,, taÞ binä gä’raförax di incatrolátsi. You should be grateful to me that I didn’t call the police.
- DanöÞ ábra, öcra binöra, tagélidámn,, taÞ ädaninÞi, sia gä’qamörax abödä. It seems strange to me that she didn’t come
home last night. lit: It has, for me, strangeness, that, last night, she came not home.
Adjectives that are used in English with of are formed the same in Dalcurian, but the noun form may still be used with adjectives of emotion/feeling:
- picalosni qve-typical of
- lasalquarädn qve-characteristic of
- viténæÞ qve-proud of (noun form: pride is the ‘feeling’)
- stæjecinträdn qve-independent of
- vincörädn qve-convinced of
However, if the following noun is a compound noun formed with qve, or a possessive noun phrase, then the genitive case must be used. Look at these examples:
- DanöÞ picalosni qve Däl ságr taÞ. It's typical of Dale to say that
- Binä disiri viténæÞ qve ela taÞ gä’ræÞatør. I'm very proud of everyone that took part.
- Éren pecléria,, ön binä disénig vincörädn qve taÞ. They are lying and I’m quite convinced of that.
In the above examples, the preposition is followed either by a noun or pronoun in a non-genitive sense. Now look at the same examples with possessive noun phrases:
- DanöÞ picalosni dis parenöj Däla ságr taÞ. It's typical of Dale's dad to say that.
- Binä ábra, öcra dis probendasámn ela, vélas viténæÞámn. I’m very proud of everyone’s effort.
- Éren pecléria,, ön binä disénig vincörädn dis beÞörämös érenöra. They are lying and I’m quite convinced of their deceipt.
In the first example, Dales dad would normally be written as di parenöj qve Däl-the dad of Dale, but because it follows qve, the genitive must be used as qve is never written twice in the same phrase or clause, neither is it preceeded nor followed by di.
In the second example, everyone’s effort would normally be written as di probendasámn qve ela-the effort of everyone (or all in this case; ela can be used to describe a group of people), again, the genitive is used because it follows qve.
In the third example, their deceit would normally be written as di beÞörämös qve érenöra-the deceipt of them.
Typical for is also rendered in some cases by of in Dalcurian:
- DanöÞ, stæcamä di estingörämös qve ni arangáj, disénig picalosni qve minä,, becöadr dasquiriøámn. It’s quite typical for people to be saddened over the death of a child. lit: It, against the death of a child, is quite typical of a person to receive sadness.
Most other adjectives that are linked by for are the same in Dalcurian, however, with feelings and emotions, nouns are still prefered and normal word order applies:
- Nöra, mæ, öcra di ofnendrämös qve mæöra, fätig. He is ready for his operation now.
- Ména ádra, öcra eladiöra, vélas quranörámn,, vömä eladiöra gä’vér taÞ nömæäj. We were really happy for you when you won all that money. lit: We had, for you, much happiness when you won that money.
- Binä, öcra taÞ véca binä gä’visör von, gé’stæ’fäticrädn. I wasn’t prepared for what I saw next.
- Ména ábra, öcra di lenandrämös, disänø oncöbrasámn,, taÞ aracievas, éren, te ménöra gä’ábra-andöcr. We are extremely grateful for the help they’ve given us lately. lit: We have, for the help which lately, they, to us, have given , extreme gratitude.
Note: If in doubt as to how to form a sentence without the preposition, the simply use it. But remember to follow appropriate word order.