Nordaþ verbs

From FrathWiki
Jump to: navigation, search


Nordaþ verbs are the fusional part of the synthetic language Nordaþ. They conjugate according to the indicative, conditional, subjunctive, potential, and imperative moods. Verbs have infinitive forms, but unlike many other languages, they do not have participle or gerund forms.

Contents

Verbs

Nordaþ language

Pronunciation
Writing system
Grammar

To illustrate the behaviour of verb conjugations in Nordaþ, let us use dekäsän "to help". First, here is the non-finite conjugation of the verb:

Valency

Verbs are distinguished by transitivity and intransitivity. Verbs often have these pairs; the intransitive form is marked wih an -i- after the stem, preceding the conjugated inflection. This can add nuance.

Transitive does not do anything special to the verb. Transitive verbs end in -en.

Anni siideþe vassa on.
Annie is boiling the water.
  • There is no necessary statement of success of action in this statement when the progressive is used. If the continuous form is used instead, then that means the boiling is the target action and it is inherently successful from the verb form.

Intransitive verbs are marked with -ien endings.

Vassa siidieci.
The water is boiling.
  • Note that the continuous is used instead of progressive here. If the progressive form is used instead, this can be translated as 'The water is coming to a boil'.
  • If one says 'Vassa siideci' instead, the meaning becomes 'one is boiling water' (presumably aimlessly).

Infinitive

To help: hiyven

In Nordaþ, verbs do not conjugate to person or number; instead, verbs are used with pronouns as necessary. For the active, conjugated verb, the -en ending is dropped according to the following paradigm.

Moods and modal verbs

Indicative

Next, there is the indicative mood with its eleven tenses. The indicative mood is used to describe factual events.

Indicative Present Praeterite Future
Neutral -e -au -oi
cinne cinnau cinnoi
I swim I swam I will swim
Perfect -e + -jë -au + -jë -oi + -jë
cinnejë cinnaujë cinnoijë
I have swam I had swam I will have swum
Progressive -e + -þe -au + -þe -oi + -þe
cinneþe cinnauþe cinnoiþe
I am swimming I was swimming I will be swimming
Perf. Prog. -e + -þejë -au + -þejë -oi + -þejë
cinneþejë cinnauþejë cinnoiþejë
I have been swimming I had been swimming I will have been swimming
Continuous -e + -ci -au + -ci -oi + -ci
cinneci cinnauci cinnoici
I was swimming I used to swim I will be swimming
Perf. Cont. -e + -cijë -au + -cijë -oi + -cijë
cinnecijë cinnaucijë cinnoicijë
I have been swimming I had been swimming I will have been swimming
Imperfect -e + -ka -au + -ka -oi + -ka
cinneka cinnauka cinnoika
  I would swim  

Directive

Hortative

A hortative mood expresses encouragement or urge. Here, hortative moods also can encompass deliberative moods. There are several types of hortative moods.

Adhortative/dehortative

In English, this is translated as "might want to/might not want to", respectively.

  • jeno
Keje jeno ; seeppa daro.
You might want to go; it'll be fun!
  • Please do not confuse this with the dubitative. "Might he want to go?" in English cannot be translated with the adhortative/dehortative because these do not express doubt; dubitative does.

Exhortative/Inhortative

Grammatically-speaking, this mood encompasses not just encouragement but also seeks encouragement. It can be translated as "should", "ought to", etc.

  • ino
Suci et vesuke ino !
You should try the sushi!
Lukae ino.
Let's study. (encouraging)

This mood includes a ponderance of action. In English, this can be translated as "shall".

Lada icy keje ne ino ka ?
Should I go to the shops?

Suprahortative/infrahortative

This form is the most extreme form of hortation, and it can be translated as "please".

  • cyno
« Ja » to ne sage cyno.
Please don't say yes.

Imperative/Prohibitive

This mood expresses an extremely strong urge to do something. It should be avoided when politeness is a concern, favouring one of the hortative moods instead.

  • ro
Kome ro !
Come here!
Ne caae ro !
Don't look!

Necessitative

The necessitative mood expresses imploring, intent, pleas, insistence and so on. In English it can be translated as "must", "have to", "need to", etc.

  • meso
Seje meso Doktor et !
I MUST see the doctor!

Permissive

The permissive mood seeks an acceptance of a request. In English this is expressed by "may" or "can".

  • lesso
Kino icy keje lesso ka?
May I go to the cinema?

Precative/Commissive

Precatives are requests, and commissives are promises to fulfil this request. This mood covers both.

  • vilo
« Hairate vilo me et ? » « Vilo ! »
"Will you marry me?" "Yes, I will!"

Volitive

Desiderative

A desiderative expresses the desire to do something. In English, this is a "want".

  • vilo
Su et seje co.
I want to see you.

Optative

In many languages, this is often expressed as a subjunctive. In English, this is expressed as "if only...were" and "may". It expresses desire.

  • ko
Leŋgae leve ja þihanna ko.
Live long and prosper.
Rikkae ese ko.
If only I were rich.

Conditional

The conditional expresses the idea of what would be.

  • jo
Jos hië ät ese ko, viraa vyyle jo.
I would be happy if you were here.

Epistemic

Assumptive/deductive

This mood expresses a notion based on some sort of inductive or deductive reasoning.

  • daro
Aa, katta ese daro.
Oh, it must be the cat.

Dubitative

The dubitative mood is less sure than the assumptive/deductive mood. In English, this is usually translated as "might be" or "maybe".

  • kamo
TARDIS ese kamo.
It might be the TARDIS.

Hypothetical

This mood offers an analysis of an event that has not happened, but could.

  • kotto
Þes he ese kotto ka ?
Could it be him?

Speculative

The speculative mood offers conjecture. In English, this is often rendered as "perhaps".

  • jeco
Vyyle viraa jeco.
Perhaps he's happy.

Subjunctive

Counterfactual

The subjunctive counterfactual offers an irrealis view of a situation that is not extant, but offers thoughts on what would be if this were so.

  • so
Jos hië ät ese so, je ne jo.
If you were here, I wouldn't be.

Instrumentative

The subjunctive instrumentative, or subjunctive exhortative is used to express the purpose or goal that the agent has. It is generally combined with the optative.

  • ho
Keve yt su keve ho ko.
I give that you may give.

Reportative

The reportative mood indicates that a direct quote is being made. Unlike the other mood particles, this one goes in between the quote and before the verb.

  • tiso
« Kië icy kejeþe ka ? » « Mitsa icy kejeþe tiso. »
"Where is he going?" "He's going to the mall."

Causative

The causative mood is used to express one causing another to perform an action. In English, this can be rendered either as passive or active, but by default this is active here.

  • neo
He ot syydite on makau neo.
I made him do his homework.
He ot syydite on makau neo vai.
He was made to do his homework.

Potentive

The potentive mood indicates the ability for something to happen.

  • dao
He ot syydite on make dao neo vai.
He can be made to do his homework.

Passive voice

The passive voice is expressed by the particle 'vai'. In the order of particles, it comes last.

  • vai
Personal tools