Nordaþ pronouns

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Personal pronouns

Nordaþ language

Pronunciation
Writing system
Grammar

Here is a list of personal pronouns in the most common usages. The next section explains their usage.

Subject ("Nominative case")

  • ike/ikä, þuï/þua/þuïï, iken, þuïn, vien, heä, sie, heti, heten

Object ("Accusative case")

  • ikeite/ikeitä, þuïïtï/þuïïta/þuïïtïï, ikeiten, þuïïtïn, vieiten, heeitä, sieite, heteiti, heteiten

Indirect Object ("Dative case")

  • ikäte/ikätä, þuatï/þuata/þuatïï, ikäten, þuatïn, viäten, heätä, siäte, hetäti, hetäten

Possessive ("Genitive case")

  • ikise/ikisä, þuïsï/þuïsa/þuïsïï, ikisen, þuïsïn, viisen, heisä, siisen, hetisi, hetisen

Pronouns can be declined in other ways, as well: Refer to Nordaþ noun cases

General explanation of usage

The dative pronouns (icäte/icätä, duatï/duata/duatïï, et al) are used to replace the indirect object of a sentence. They are generally placed in front of any accusative pronouns. The accusative pronouns are used to replace the direct object of the sentence. These are generally put directly before the verb. The genitive forms are akin to the English terms "of me", "of you", "of him" etc. However, they are not restricted to either the front or the back of the word which is owned. Additionally, they can stand alone and function as the noun forms "mine", "yours", "his" etc. while still literally saying "of me" et al.

Demonstrative pronouns

  • Near the speaker ("this"): þesämä, þesämi, þesäme
  • Near the listener ("that"): þasemä, þasemi, þaseme
  • Away from both the speaker and listener ("that over there"): þesemä, þesemi, þeseme

(Note that the above are only given in the nominative forms and always decline regularly)

Relative pronouns

Ke*

Ke* is derived from the Latin QVID and means 'that' or 'which'.

Þäsemi, kei senþ, senþ. Þäsemi, kei nänsenþ, nänsenþ. Senþ þäsemi esi? Esi senþ.
That, that is, is. That, that is not, is not. Is that it? It is.

Ke* inflects for the gender of the item it is describing and declines as a regular noun in every form.

Ve*

Ve* is derived from the ancient Proto-Germanic χwas, and means 'who'/'whom'. It inflects for number and gender. Ve* can replace ke* when the subject is a person.

Kwis*, Van*, Kwe*

Kwis* means where. Van* signifies when. Kwe* means how.

Location & movement

Like ve*, kwis* can replace ke* when the subject is a location. This expression must utilise the locative case.

  • Letjendei, keääti/kwiääti sene. The place that/where I am at.

Manner

Kwe* can replace ke* when the subject concerns the manner in which something is performed. This expression must utilise the instrumental case.

  • Formdei, keþairi/kweþairi deädfikst þuïn. The way that/how you all reacted.

Time

Van* can replace ke* when the subject deals with time. This expression utilises the postpositional case of "during". Van* tends to be used in non-defining clauses, whereas ke* is usually used with defining clauses. However, they are still interchangeable.

  • Äugustmïþïï, vanmïþïï/kemïþi vekaien häbiþ fraidägeiten, byrkdei besenþ läuseis. In August, during when/during that the people have holidays, the town will be empty.
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