Mordvinic

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Some reconstruction notes.

Development from Proto-Uralic

Changes shared with Samic in gray, those also shared with Finnic in green, and those with even wider distribution in orange.

  • *V > *Vː / _x (both preconsonantal and prevocalic!)
  • *a > *o / _C*ə (except _Ć, _x)
  • *ë > *a
  • *ü > *i, by default
    • initially *wi- (*ük- > *vej-, *(w)ülä- > *veľ-; any others??)
    • *ü > *u / _velar (*mok- *pokəń *poŋə *śokś); counterfed by the previous. NB also *miŋä > *meŋ- > mej-!
  • Vowel height switch:
    1. *i *u > *ɪ *ʊ
    2. *Vː > *V
    3. *e *o > *i *u (assuming a long stage not required)
    4. *ɪ *ʊ > *e *o (but in Finnic clearly not by common inheritance, as *i *u remain)
    • *o remains before *ŋ however (*čov *joŋs *lokśəj *oŋ poŋgo/pov *sova-, possibly *poŋa ~ Es põv, or poŋgo/povə ~ Es pooma (depending on if *uŋa > BF *oo))
    • Possibly including: *ɪː *ʊː > *iː *uː > *i *u (*wêxə- > *vij-)
    • Last two stages probably postdate vowel reduction (given loanwords like *kerda > *kirda)
  • Stress shifts from *e / *o to a later-syllable *ä / *a
  • *mt > *nt
  • *ć > *ś (if PU *ć even existed; PMo *ć ∃ in Mk oćä, seems to be secondary; lenition may be later than voicing: *eś ~ itse, *śiśəm ~ seitsen, *veśə ~ P. vo/ać)
  • Medial lenition, round 1 (all this when intervocalic or prenasal)
    • *pp *tt *čč *kk > *p *t *č *k (clear examples exist only for *pp though!)
    • *p *t *k > *b *d *g
    • *s *š *ś *x > *z *ž *ź *j
    • *č, however, remains strictly unvoiced
  • *nź > ź? (Er. saźi- ~ P. *suudź-)
  • *rs *šn > š (*kürsä *warsa *wešnä > *kši *vašə *višɜ)
    • or *ər > š? (Ir. *kārt → *kšńi, but cf. Av. *rt > <š>)
  • Word-final *ə > ∅ after a single consonant, or peripheral + sibilant (*joŋs *käťks *lafś *mekš *piks *soks *sokś *suks, ? *vaks)
    • after this, unstress'd *ä *a > *ə too
    • secondarily *ə > ∅ / al_ (al kal pal sal val)
    • possibly also *ə > ∅ / {j w ŋ}_ ? (*čoŋ *toŋ *vej)
    • unclear: *marja > *maŕ, *ora(wa) > *ur
  • *d₂ > *lʲ / #_, _C (only ĺom~lajmä, *śulgə)
  • Palatalization redistribution
    • *t *d *n *l *r (but not *s/*z!) > *ť *ď *ń *ŕ *ĺ before/after front vowels/*j
    • *ń > *n initially before back vowels (the *n/*ń contrast is completely lost initially)
    • Palatalization occurs also in some back-vocalic *ə-stem verbs (*koĺgə- *moĺə- *poŕə- *sańďə- *uĺə-, possibly *pańə- if ~ F. *pane- rather than *paina-)
    • Counterfed by *a-ə > *o-a: cf. *kalə- > *kola- > *kulə-. (But, regardless, *uľə-? Cf F *olë-)
    • Also *-x- > *-j- may fall under this (however: *lukə- > *lovə-)
    • Non-alveolar consonants are also palatalized before front vowels, but this remains allophonic.
  • *j *w > ∅ / C_, *w > *v elsewhere
    • Possibly also: *j > ∅ / F_# (i.e. nominals only: *ki *pi *si(j) *ve). Counterfed by *ŋ > j, possibly also *k > *g > *j? (*vi(j))
    • No good evidence exists on retention of *-w / B_#; only *pov ~ alleged Est. dial. põv, source??
  • Medial lenition, round 2 (intervocalic)
    • *b > *v (also r_V: *karvə *ku/orva- *tərva *u/eŕva)
    • *g > *v/*j (per vowel backness)
  • But: *d₁, *d₂ > *d/*ď
  • *kt *pt > *ft; *ps *pś > fs fś (*lafś *lofsa)
  • *k > *t / C_# (in the imperativ)

[…TBC…]

Development to the individual languages

Vowels:

  • Erzya:
    • *ä > e
    • Dialectally, *e > ä (yet *ä always > e!)
    • *a > o / _j. (ojdor ojmams ojme voj kojme, perhaps ľom ~ Mk lajmä, bojar nojabŕa vojna ~ Mk bajar najabŕä vajna (< Ru боярин ноябрь война); but ajge- g/kajge- tajmaza, g/kajťan- < Ru гайтан.)
    • in later syllables e ə > e/o per harmony; some exceptions (piźol)
    • in Tambov Oblast (Kad. Kal. Kažl. Šir.), *u > *vi / _Ć (viľ- viŕaš viŕna- viśkä viźiŕ)
      — does this indicate *u > *ü > *vi, and similar late retention PU *ü > *ö > *ve?!
  • Mokša:
    • *ə > ä/a / _# per harmony; ä also after palatals, a after nonpalatal *s/*z (or other alveolars)
    • *əj *əw > i u
    • *i *u > ə / initial pretonic

A possible final *-ə/-ä contrast does not seem reconstructible (will write *-ɜ), but should medially remain in Mk. (śäjäŕ)

Consonants:

  • Erzya:
    • *š > č / #_ (dialectal)
    • *j > ∅ / _e (fed by *ä-raising; *je- previously didn't exist)
    • *nd > n / 3rd+ syllable
  • Mokša:
    • *č > š / #_
    • *k > ∅ / F_š (jäšä käšə- ľeš meš päšä ťišä äšťəŕ - but: šäkši), also sometimes #_šC (before nonpalatals? šna šta, but kšńi kšńit)
    • Devoicing: m n r l j v > p t r̥ l̥ ç f / _{p t c č k}. Dialectally ç > ɕ.
    • *s > ś / _F
    • n > ń / #_Vŕ (ńuŕa- ńuŕgə- ńuŕgamə-) (check other palatals?)
  • *ŋ > j/v per harmony, except dialectally in Erzya

A development *pt > *ft > Erzya vt (sim. for *kt) may make better sense than a common voiced stage. (Coda /v/ is generally realized as [w].)

On the correspondence PU *m > /v/

After PU *u

  • *lumə "sno" > *loŋ (!)
  • *kumV "cloud" > *kovol

Suffix exchange?

  • *śüðäm(ə) "heart" > *śeďeŋ

Versus BF *-u

  • *śëmə(-w?) > *śëëmu > *śav (cf. BF *soomu)
  • *suv "fog" ~ BF *sumu ~ S. *somō
  • *ľevəš "lime bast" ~ BF *lehmus ~ Ma. *nəməštə

Limited comparanda

  • Er. jav "joint" ~ BF *jama ~ S *jōmē (or better ~ javoms < *jëka-)
  • *šov "butt of knife" ~ BF *hamara ~ S *ši/ëmērē ← Gmc *hamaraz
  • *šovar "mortar" ~ BF *huumar ~ Ma. *šuer
  • *toŋ (!) "kernel" ~ F. tuma ~ tuuma ~ E. tuum ~ Me. tum ~ Hi. toŋ
  • *kav "granary, barn" ~ K. kum "loft"

(*luv "gap" = Ma. *lu better ~ F *lovi than *loma)

But not in:

  • Er. kumoka "fever" ~ BF *kuuma "hot"
  • *lamə "many" ~ BF *laama
  • *šamə "shape" ~ BF *haamo
  • *kuma > *koma, *juma- > *jumi-, *tammə > *tumə
  • *numələ *śumərdə- umaŕ *komər Er. umok
  • *ľem *kämə
  • #ľajmə *ľäm *śimə-

Also *p ~ Mari *m

  • *karvə "fly" ~ BF *kärpä-, Ma. #ka/arme

cf. Hungarian:

  • kumi > hava-, hó

*kt notes

Ravila '33:

  • Mk ĺiç/ɕťə- (Selišče, Pšenevo) ~ ĺifťə- "hervornehmen/-ziehen/-quellen/-sprudeln" (kausatiivi?)
  • Mk ĺiçťəma (Gorodišče) "lähde"
  • Mk śeɕťə- (Pš.) ~ Er. sevťnə- "sormeilla"
  • Mk ťiçťəďə- (Čembar) ~ ťifťəďə- (Sel.) "ochutitjsja"
  • ńäfťə- "näyttää", vifťə- "johdattaa" (*vêx-ta-), ĺifťə- "paeta" ← ĺijə- "lentää" (eikä ← *läkti-?)
This article is one of quite a few pages about Natlangs.

Indo-european natlangs:

Balto-Slavic Natlangs: Czech * Russian
Celtic Natlangs: Revived Middle Cornish * Pictish
Germanic Natlangs:
North Germanic Natlangs: Norwegian
West Germanic Natlangs: Anglo-Saxon * Dutch * English (Old English * Middle English * Modern English * Scots) * German (High German * Low German)
Indo-Iranian Natlangs: Pahlavi
Italic Natlangs: French * Italian * Latin * Spanish
Debated: Cimmerian

Uralic Natlangs: Finnish * Khanty * Mansi * Mordvinic * Proto-Uralic
Altaic (controversial): Japanese
Sino-Tibetan Natlangs:
Uto-Aztecan Natlangs: Nahuatl

-

Isolate Natlangs: Basque * *
Hypothetical/debated Natlangs and Natlang families: Danubian * Europic (obsolete)