Dutch

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Dutch is the official language of the Netherlands, Belgium (called Flemish), Netherlands Antilles, Indonesia, and parts of France and Germany. It did not go through the High German Consonant Shift so many of the vocabulary in it still resemble other related languages such as Low German and even English.

Dutch
Nederlands
Spoken in: Netherlands (Nederland)
Conworld: Real world
Total speakers: 23 million native.
Genealogical classification: Indo-European
Germanic
West Germanic
    
Dutch
Basic word order: SVO, OVS/V2
Morphological type: Inflecting
Morphosyntactic alignment: nominative-accusative
Created by:
unknown 16th century C.E,

History

Dutch Phonology and Orthography

Consonants

Consonants
Bilabial Labiod. Alveolar Post-alv. Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative f v s z ʃ ç x (ɣ) h
Approximants ʋ j
Trill r
Lateral Approximant l

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  • Most Dutch consonants are pronounced the same way as their IPA equivalents: b, p, j, f, k, z, m, n, h, s, t, d, l and r.
  • sj is pronounced /ʃ/.
  • g and ch is pronounced /x/. g can sometimes be realised as /ɣ/.
  • sch is pronouced /sx/ and not /ʃ/ as in German.
  • w is pronounced as /ʋ/.
  • v is sometimes pronounced /f/.
  • Dutch has final devoicing. This means that all voiced consonants with voiceless forms become those voiceless forms, at the end of the word.

Vowels

Monophthongs

Vowels
Front Central Back
Unround Rounded Unrounded Rounded
High i - ɪ yː - ʏ u
Mid eː - ɛ øː - ə oː - ɔ
Low aː - a
All entries save low are: Tense - Lax
  • Vowels are formed based on the ideas of Closed vs. Open syllables. In closed syllable, the vowel is lax and/or short. In an open syllable or a closed syllable written with a geminated vowel, the vowel is tense and/or long.

Diphthongs

Open vs. Closed Syllables

Grammar

Nouns

Gender

Dutch historically had three genders, much the way High German still does. However, most of the Masculine and Feminine nouns merged into a Common gender. This leaves Common and Neuter, which are the two genders of Dutch today.

Number

There are two numbers in Dutch Grammar: singular and plural. Because Dutch orthography follows the Open vs. Closed syllable structure very strictly, vowel spelling often changes to accommodate the vowel's pronunciation. For example the long vowel boom, meaning tree, is still pronounced the same, but spelt bomen in the plural trees. For short vowels, which

Articles

There are two types of articles in Dutch, Definite and Indefinite. The definite article has two forms, de and het. The definite article de is used for the common gender, and het is used for the neuter gender. The plural for both is de.

The indefinite article is een for all genders and is reduced to 'n in informal sense. The negative geen is used for both numbers and all genders to indicate "not" (comparative to High German Kein).

Adjectives and Adverbs

Adjectives

Adverbs

Pronouns

Case First Person Second Person Third Person
Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur. Sing. & Plur. Sing. Masc. Sing. Fem. Sing. Neut. Plur.
Subjective ik ('k) wij (we) jij (je) jullie (je) u hij (ie) zij (ze) het ('t) zij (ze)
Objective mij (me) ons jou (je) jullie (je) u hem ('m) haar ('r) het ('t) hen* (ze)
Possessive mijn (m'n) ons/onze jouw (je) jullie (je) uw zijn (z'n) haar (d'r) zijn (z'n) hun (d'r)
  • The indirect object or dative form is hun.

Prepositions

Conjunctions

Verbs

Present

Simple Past

Compound Past

Future

Passive

Modals and Auxiliaries

Word Order

Texts

Sources and external links

This article is one of quite a few pages about Natlangs.

Indo-european natlangs:

Balto-Slavic Natlangs: Czech * Russian
Celtic Natlangs: Revived Middle Cornish * Pictish
Germanic Natlangs:
North Germanic Natlangs: Norwegian
West Germanic Natlangs: Anglo-Saxon * Dutch * English (Old English * Middle English * Modern English * Scots) * German (High German * Low German)
Indo-Iranian Natlangs: Pahlavi
Italic Natlangs: French * Italian * Latin * Spanish
Debated: Cimmerian

Uralic Natlangs: Finnish * Khanty * Mansi * Mordvinic * Proto-Uralic
Altaic (controversial): Japanese
Sino-Tibetan Natlangs:
Uto-Aztecan Natlangs: Nahuatl

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Isolate Natlangs: Basque * *
Hypothetical/debated Natlangs and Natlang families: Danubian * Europic (obsolete)