Khangaþyagon Verbs

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Verbs

Khangaþyagon is an agglutinating language, and its grammatical affixes are suffixes - the native term is segunakar, "follow-parts".

Stem, Person, Infinitive and Participles

The stem of a verb always ends in a consonant, and need not be phonologically complete. This is obligatorily followed by either one of the person suffixes

a
1p
yaga ya
I speak
e
2p
yage ye
you speak
i
3p
yagi rik
the man speaks

which refer to the person of the subject of the verb, or the infinitive ending

o
infinitive
yago
to speak

or by a participle suffix

on/ont
present participle
yagon
speaking, speech, language
osht
past participle
yagosht
spoken

A participle may refer to a person characterised by the action, rather than the action itself. eg

bagiront
keeper.

Which sense a participle has is entirely lexical, as is whether the verb has the "on" or "ont" form of the present participle. These do not correlate.

These may then be followed by the following segunakar, in order of occurrence

Reflexiveness

d+reduplication of person ending
Reflexive. Indicates that the direct object of the verb is identical with the subject.
gwendidi khratap
The thief hides himself.

Continuous aspect

ha
Continuous. Indicates an ongoing or habitual, as in "be doing" or "keep doing".
yagaha ya
I am speaking

Perfect aspect

Perfect. Indicates a completed action. The English equivalent is "have done"
yagafœ ya
I have spoken
yagahafœ ya
I have been speaking

Tense

Khangaþyagon has a three-tense system, in which present in unmarked, and past and future are marked with the following segunakar.

ng
past tense
yagang ya
I spoke
yagahang ya
I was speaking
kh
future tense
yagakh ya
I will speak
yagafœkh ya
I will have spoken
yagahafœkh ya
I will have been speaking

Voice

Khangaþyagon has two voices, active, which is unmarked, and passive

uf
passive. May indicate either a stative passive "be done" or an eventive passive "get done"
eskringuf glaf
The horse was ridden

A reflexive passive indicates that the subject is the indirect cause of an action that affects himself.

gwenda ya
I hide (would normally require an object)
gwendada ya
I hide myself
gwenda'uf ya
I am hidden
gwendada'uf ya
I get myself hidden

Mood

Khangaþyagon has four moods, indicative, which is unmarked, and the following-

azh
Conditional. Indicates "if" or "would"
yagifœazh yi
if he had spoken/he would have spoken
lt
Imperative. Khangaþyagon's imperative also covers the semantic space of an optative or hortative
yagelt ye
Speak!
yagehalt ye
Keep speaking!
yagilt yi
May he speak!
dau
Interrogative. Forms polar questions
yagafœkhdau vlakhmark?
Will the king have spoken?

More on the usage of these moods may be found in the syntax section

Negation

she
not
yagangshe ya
I do not speak
bilbitehaltshe ye
Stop wittering on!

Number

This refers to the number of the subject of the verb.

(a)r
plural
yagar yar
we speak
yagingar yir
they spoke

The a appears epenthetically when this segunak follows a consonant.

Paradigm Summary

The form of the verb can thus be summarised as
{set of alternatives, separated by commas}
[optional segunak]
stem+{person,infinitive,participle}+[Reflexiveness]+[continuous]+[perfect]+[tense]+[voice]+[mood]+[negation]+[number]

The Existential Verb

The equivalent of "there is" is indicated by using the verb dah- (be) in the passive voice, eg

dahiuf rik
there is a man

Modal Verbs

There are four verbs

osf
must
ovl
can
orng
should
olw
might

which occur only in compounds with other verbs. As such, they occupy a morphological grey area between segunakar and roots. As a closed class of bound morphemes, they share properties with segunakar, and all begin with o, which is associated with non-finite verb forms. However, they take stress, which is a property of roots (segunakar never take stress). Also, when they occur, the form of the present participal is determined by the modal verb, and not by the verb they compound with.

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Phonology Morphology Nouns