CBB Conlang Relay/Feayran
This is the Feayran torch for the CBB Conlang Relay.
Náa sokujuxáda, ttunuxéiwlhtorukete hanusàojusóirùule. Háa úng suqqutoknkaéwlhto hulonrùukaéwlhtos.
Síi úk holujukúruùttorùoqkoùn, úk uá luxàuroqrùusástoste tií? Mosujàukáruùk tií? Háa hé hoskukóstojuke holujusúruùsùokoùn há?
Náa hulháruùmnaè, sú ué hulhákumnaè. Róu xezulháruùkumnaè, lhéi hí sukulhákorùukeniè. Hóo ùewukuxárukesk, róu jowusàoxákusn.
Déi tí sulháruù tí hé sulháku, uk ná hoskulhoqaìnxástokuke. Úk ué ttoruraéruùq.
náa sok<u-ju-x-á>da, ttun<u-x-éi-wlhto-r<u>ke>te han<u-s<ào>-ju-s-ói-rùu>le.
háa úng s<u-qqut<o>k-n-k-aé-wlhto> h<u-l<o>n-rùu-k-aé-wlhto>s.
síi úk hol<u-ju-k-ú-ruù-ttor<ùo>q>koùn, úk uá l<u-xàur<o>q-rùu-s-á-sto>ste tií?
háa hé hosk<u-k-ó-sto-j<u>>ke hol<u-ju-s-ú-ruù-s<ùo>>koùn há?
náa h<u-lh-á-ruù>mnaè, sú ué h<u-lh-á-ku>mnaè.
róu xez<u-lh-á-ruù-k<u>>mnaè, lhéi hí s<u-ku-lh-á-ko-r<ùu>ke>niè.
háa ùew<u-ku-x-á-r<u>ke>sk, róu jow<u-s<ào>-x-á-ku>sn.
déi tí s<u-lh-á-ruù> tí hé s<u-lh-á-ku>, hóo hosk<u-lh<o>qaì-n-x-á-sto-k<u>>ke.
úk ué ttor<u-r-aé-ruù>q.
déi – an explanatory interjection, marks a result or final conclusion
h*mnaè : in essential aspect (-lh-), “to be kin/family”
- PATIENT: the person who is family
h*s : in perfective aspect (-k-), “to find”
- VIALIS: the way or route by which the thing was found
- AGENT: the searcher
- PATIENT: the thing which was found
há : particle indicating the preceding predicate is a question (and the speaker expects the answer to be yes)
háa : interjection indicating privileged understanding of something
han*le : in imperfective aspect (-s-), “to become savvy/capable/experienced/mature, to become well-developed in both mind and body”
hé : particle indicating given information, or information the speaker expects the audience already knows/agrees with. (See grammar notes.)
hí : any, every. Indicates that some element of the following predicate refers to all objects across some domain. (The targeted element is typically a previously-unassigned classifier.)
hol*koùn : in imperfective aspect (-s-), “to be in the process of carrying something to a destination.” In perfective aspect (-k-), “to carry something all the way to a destination.”
- AGENT: the carrier
- PATIENT: the thing being carried
- LATIVE: the destination, or purpose of carrying the thing
hóo : an interjection indicating mischief or a potential source of trouble
hosk*ke : in stative aspect (-x-), “to know a piece of information.” In perfective aspect (-k-), “to learn a piece of information.”
- VIALIS: the time period during which the thing was known
- PATIENT: the piece of information
- LOCATIVE: the person who knows/learned the information
j* : as an incorporated root, first person pronoun.
jow*sn : in stative aspect (-x-), “to be content/happy”
- ABLATIVE: the reason or cause for being content
- PATIENT: the person who is content
k* : as an incorporated root, second person pronoun.
l*n : as an incorporated root, “a particular way/method/style of doing something.” Often an anaphoric reference to method described by another predicate. “In such a manner.”
l*ste : in imperfective aspect (-s-), “to be talking”
- VIALIS: the person's manner or mode of speaking
- AGENT: the speaker
- PATIENT: the thing being said
lh*qaì : as an incorporated root, “the past; the period of time leading up to now.”
lhéi : interjection indicating something that is done properly, in accordance with custom.
mos*k : in perfective aspect (-k-), “to have arrived at a distant location.”
- ABLATIVE: the landmark from which the distance is measured
- PATIENT: the thing which has arrived
náa : interjection used to transition between topics
qqut*k : as an incorporated root, “a chance occurrence, a coincidence.”
r*ke : as an incorporated root, the predicate form of the non-competitive predator scent class. (See Affixes.)
róu : interjection used to stress the veracity of the information that follows
s* : auxiliary/coverb (see grammar notes)
s*niè : in essential aspect (-lh-), “to be a giver of something to someone”
- AGENT: the giver
- PATIENT: the gift
- LATIVE: the recipient
síi : interjection marking concern or sadness
sok*da : in stative aspect (-s-), “to be flying somewhere”
- AGENT: the flyer
sú : particle marking surplus or addition, “also”
tí : restrictive particle (see grammar notes)
tií : particle indicating that the preceding predicate is a polar question
ttor*q : in conjectural aspect (-r-), “it seems from available evidence that something died”. As an incorporated argument, “death”
- PATIENT: the thing that died
ttun*te : in stative aspect (-x-), “to be in the possession of someone”
- PATIENT: the possession
- LOCATIVE: the possessor
uá : interjection marking surprise
ué : interjection marking a point of attention, a crucial piece of information
ùew*sk : in stative aspect (-x-), “to be thinking upon a memory, to be thinking back to something, to be remembering something”
- AGENT: the rememberer
- LOCATIVE: the thing being thought about
úk : contrastive particle, “but”
úng : negative particle, “not.” (See grammar notes)
xàur*q : as an incorporated root, “anger, belligerence.”
xez*mnaè : in essential aspect (-lh-), “to be known by someone”
- PATIENT: the person who is known
- LOCATIVE: the person who knows them
Feayran has one class of content words, called “predicates.” All predicates have the following structure (where items in parentheses are non-obligatory):
pre-stem + STANCE + (INC1) + (AGENT) + (NEGATION) + ASPECT + VOICE.MOOD + (PATIENT) + (INC2) + post-stem
Feayran roots are bipartite, consisting of a pre-stem and post-stem. Inflections are infixed between the stems. In the lexicon, the pre- and post-stems are separated by an asterisk. In some cases, one of the two stems may be empty.
- -u- : speaker is in leading stance toward audience. Stance is an important concept in Feayran but does not feature much in this translation. For purposes of this relay, think of leading stance as just indicating that the speaker has a relatively higher social standing.
- -ju- : first person singular, speaker in leading stance toward audience
- -ko- : second person scent trace, referent is singular inanimate. Typically indicates something which belongs to the listener.
- -ku- : second person singular, speaker in leading stance toward audience
- -rùu- : non-competitive predator scent trace, plural, speaker in leading stance toward referent. Often used to refer to other people. You can assume that all usages of this affix refer to the same group.
- -sto- : source scent trace, referent is inanimate singular. Used to refer to words, ideas, thoughts.
- -wlhto- : medicinal scent trace, referent is inanimate singular. You can assume all usages of this affix refer to the same object.
- -n- : negates the base meaning of the predicate. E.g., jow*sn, “happy/content”, when negated with -n- means “unhappy/discontented”.
- -k- : perfective aspect, indicates a change of state in atelic roots or a completion of a telic root.
- -lh- : essential aspect, indicates an inherent, inalienable property of something.
- -r- : conjectural aspect, indicates something which appears to be so based on available evidence.
- -s- : imperfective aspect, indicates a progressive change or progress toward a goal.
- -x- : stative aspect, indicates a non-inherent, alienable property of something.
- -á- : indicative mood.
- -aé- : potential mood, indicates possibilities/capacities/abilities.
- -éi- : optative mood, indicates something that the subject wishes were so or hopes will become so.
- -ó- : causative voice, subjunctive mood.
- -ói- : causative voice, optative mood.
- -ú- : causative voice, indicative mood.
INCORPORATED CASE affixes:
- -ào-: ablative case, inanimate referent
- -àu-: ablative case, leading-stance referent
- -o-: vialis case when in INC1 position, locative case when in INC2 position, inanimate referent
- -u-: vialis case when in INC1 position, locative case when in INC2 position, speaker in leading-stance toward referent
- -ùo-: lative case, inanimate referent
- -ùu-: lative case, speaker in leading stance toward referent
The auxiliary/converb root, s*, frequently serves as an anaphoric reference to another predicate. Often, this means it gets incorporated as an ablative or lative argument in order to show relationships between two predicates. When an auxiliary is incorporated as an ablative argument, that indicates the incorporating predicate arose or resulted from some other predicate. When an auxiliary is incorporated as a lative argument, that indicates the incorporating predicate led to or resulted in some other predicate.
When used as a full predicate, you can interpret s* as meaning something like to be.
Necessity via double negation
Necessity is shown by taking a predicate in the potential mood (-aé-), negating it with the -n- infix, and then negating it again with a preposed úng particle. E.g.:
People have to sleep.
Equation of identity
The following structure indicates that two things are in fact the same thing:
tí [predicate1], tí hé [predicate2]
Tí nanhulhálsiju tí hé mìinulhálsiku.
only she_is_my_mother only that_one she_is_your_sister
My mother is your sister.
Word order is determined by newsworthiness; predicates that are surprising, or more important, or new topics, etc., come earlier in the phrase.
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