Proto-Hercynian

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Proto-Hercynian is the (intrafictionally) reconstructed common ancestor of the Hercynian languages, which form a branch of the Hesperic language family, a family of diachronic lostlangs designed by Jörg Rhiemeier.

Phonology

Consonants

  Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar
Voiceless stops *p *t     *k
Voiced stops *b *d     *g
Voiceless fricatives *ph *th *s   *kh
Voiced fricatives *bh *dh *z   *gh
Nasals *m *n     *ng
Liquids     *l *r    
Semivowels *w     *j  

Vowels

  Front Non-front
Unround Round Unround Round
Close *i *y   *u
Mid *e     *o
Open     *a  

All vowels can be long (written with a circumflex, e.g. â).

Sound changes from Proto-Hesperic

This section gives an overview of the sound changes that occured on the way from Proto-Hesperic to Proto-Hercynian.

Common West Hesperic developments

Continental West Hesperic developments

  • m > n /_#
  • ng > n /_#

Further changes shared with Proto-Alpianic

  • Laryngeal loss
  • V3 > V:
  • 3 > 0 /otherwise
  • Coda liquid chain shift
  • l > u /V_(C,#)
  • r > l /V_(C,#)

Begemann's Law

  • Aspirated stops become voiceless fricatives except after nasals and *s and in gemination. In the named positions, they merge with the neutral stops.
  • Voiced stops become voiced fricatives except after nasals and *s and in gemination. In the named positions, they remain voiced stops.
  • Neutral stops remain unchanged in all positions.

Origin of *z

  • s > z / after nasals and liquids
  • tj, kj > s
  • dj, gj > z

Emergence of non-apex vowels

  • wa > o /C_
  • wi > y /C_
  • ja > e /C_
  • ju > y /C_