Drummond's Law

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Drummond's Law (named after the fictional linguist Colin Drummond) is a sound change in the western group of Hesperic. In West Hesperic, consonants followed by Proto-Hesperic *x were velarized, with the *x itself disappearing. Stops became velar stops, preserving their laryngeal features (e.g., *t'x > *k'); *sx became *h, and *nx became the velar nasal *ng. The reflexes of liquids under Drummond's Law vary by branch:

  • In Albic, they became and later *g.
  • In Alpianic, they became sounds transcribed (probably [ɫ]) and (probably [ʀ]).
  • Other West Hesperic languages: to be determined.

The semivowels apparently did not change.

In Viddan, a similar change occured, but there the affected consonants were uvularized rather than velarized, leading to the rise of a uvular series in that language. The East Hesperic languages (Valdiska and Duniscian) instead show gemination of consonants followed by *x except in initial position where the consonant does not change.

See also