Lambdacism has been a frequent sound change especially in the Indo-Iranian languages, where earlier *l had merged with *r.
- *d > *ð > *l, unconditionally (in parts of Eastern Iranian incuding Pashto; in Tavastian Finnish)
- *ɖ⁽ʱ⁾ > *ɭ⁽ʱ⁾, between vowels (in Middle Indo-Aryan)
- *rθ or *rð > *l (in parts of Western Iranian)
- *ɬ > *l (in northern and eastern dialects of Khanty)
Among the Uralic languages, lambdacism frequently affects Proto-Uralic *d₁ and *d₂, although some scholars reconstruct these as lateral consonants to begin with (e.g. /ɬ/, /ɬʲ/).
- d₁ > /l/: in Permic, Mansi, Khanty, Hungarian.
- d₂ > /lʲ/: in Permic, Mansi, ; word-initially Mordvinic, Mari; probably also Hungarian (but later > /ɟ/ gy) and Samoyedic (but later > *j).
Among the Turkic languages, a similar debate concerns the consonant reflected as *l in Bolgar Turkic, yet *š in Common Turkic. Some scholars reconstruct original *š and a lambdacism in Bolgar; others reconstruct an original palatalized lateral *ľ and sigmacism in Common Turkic.