Vertical Line Above

From FrathWiki
Jump to: navigation, search

The vertical line above originates from the use of typewriters. First the base character was typed, then backspace was struck and an apostrophe was typed over the base character. The vertical line was added to Unicode under the impression that this was how the Greek tonos (΄) was supposed to look like.[1] There are no precomposed letters with vertical line above.

Vertical Line Above in Unicode

Characters with Vertical Line Above
ˈ ◌̍
U+02C8 U+030D
Modifier Letter Vertical Line Combining Vertical Line Above
Note: Whether this can be said to be the non-combining version of vertical line above is open to debate. This character is used for marking primary stress in IPA, while combining vertical line above is used for marking syllabic consonants in IPA.

Vertical Line Above in Natlangs

Uses of Vertical Line Above
Usage Language Letters Notes
High tone Min Nan (Pe̍h-ōe-jī orthography) A̍a̍ /a˦/, A̍ⁿ a̍ⁿ /ã˦/, E̍e̍ /e˦/, E̍ⁿ e̍ⁿ /ẽ˦/, I̍i̍ /i˦/, I̍ⁿ i̍ⁿ /ĩ˦/, M̍m̍ /m̩˦/, N̍g n̍g /ŋ̍˦/, O̍o̍ /ə˦/, O̍ⁿ o̍ⁿ /ɔ̃˦/, U̍u̍ /u˦/, U̍ⁿ u̍ⁿ /u˦/ There is much variation in the tones and vowel qualities between different dialects of Min Nan. The vowel qualities here seem to be an approximation between the dialects,[2] while the tones here are as they are pronounced in Taipei.[3] This is a so called stopped tone; the vowel must be followed by one of Pp, Tt, Kk, Hh /p, t, k, ʔ/. In the same environment without this diacritic, the syllable would have another tone (˧˨ in Taipei).[3]

Vertical Line Above in Phonetic Transcriptions

Uses of Vertical Line Above
Use Transcription system Notes
Stress International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) The non-combining form is used for marking primary stress.
Syllabic consonant International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) The combining form of vertical line above, which is an allograph of vertical line below, is used on consonant letters to mark that they are syllabic. The vertical line is usually placed below the letter, but it can be placed above when there isn't enough space under the letter, as is the case with e.g. ŋ.[4]

See Also


  1. Greek Diacritics at Nick Nicholas' Home Page.
  2. Pe̍h-ōe-jī, Current system at Wikipedia.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Taiwanese Hokkien, Tones at Wikipedia.
  4. International Phonetic Alphabet, Diacritics at Wikipedia.