Ndok Aisô text
Taxaha dixêheu, roits a kêdasteu êxaspulog nte ristêd, wôskêhadeu lestôspok.
Eu nodadeu at'eu dixêkloixa tsi mege hoi reu od ngi mot'oi wôspeu, tsuts wôldos taxeutêneu.
Eu dôlbitadeu êb tsi kupozoi dêp'ahêdog ke sêlatra laixêg.
Tsêskadeu eu tsi lêg od êhêkoi uhaidos k'eulag widilboi wôdôxag, od sudeu t'a tsi nêp'eu gêmog.
English translation of Ndok Aisô text
The king's daughter, having been trapped by fate, approached the throne room.
She had gone to her father's palace a dozen times already, this tireless warrior.
She brought along a young lynx on her secret mission.
She was hiding her innocent face and body under a dark coat, and also her evil intentions.
English translation of previous text
- (High Speech, by Justin Biggi)
The king's daughter, trapped by fate, went to the king's hall.
She went to her father's house twelve times, this wicked female warrior.
She brought along a small tiger on her secret mission.
She was hiding her face in the dark, her pure body too, and also her evil quest.
Orthography / Phonology
- p' t' k' are aspirated plosives /pʰ tʰ kʰ/
- x is a glottal stop /ʔ/, which sometimes appears epenthetically between two vowels
- ê ô are lax mid vowels, approximately /ɛ~ɜ/ and /ɔ~ɞ/ respectively
- ng is /ŋ/, ngg is /ŋɡ/
Taxaha dixêheu, roits a kêdasteu êxaspulog nte ristêd, wôskêhadeu lestôspok. taxag =a dixêheu, roits a kêd -steu êxaspul-g nte ristêd, wôskêg -deu lestôspok daughter=POSS king, SUB.ADV 3SG.ACC DYN.MID-PST.SG trapped-ACC.SG by bad_luck[INF], approach-LEG.SG throne_room The king's daughter, having been trapped by fate, approached the throne room.
Eu nodadeu at'eu dixêkloixa tsi mege hoi reu od ngi mot'oi wôspeu, tsuts wôldos taxeutêneu. eu nod-deu at'eu dixêkloi=a tsi mege hoi reu od ngi mot'oi wôspeu, tsuts wôldos taxôt -êneu 3SG.NOM go -LEG.SG towards palace =POSS 3SG.GEN father during ten and two instance already, this warrior tireless-SUP.NOM.SG She had gone to her father's palace a dozen times already, this tireless warrior.
Eu dôlbitadeu êb tsi kupozoi dêp'ahêdog ke sêlatra laixêg. eu dôlbit-deu êb tsi kupozoi dêp'ahêd-g ke sêlatra laixi-g 3SG.NOM bring -LEG.SG for 3SG.GEN quest secret -ACC.SG one lynx young-ACC.SG She brought along a young lynx on her secret mission.
Tsêskadeu eu tsi lêg od êhêkoi uhaidos k'eulag widilboi wôdôxag, od sudeu t'a tsi nêp'eu gêmog. tsêska -deu eu tsi lêg od êhêkoi uhaid -s k'eulag widilboi ódôxa-g, od su-deu t'a tsi nêp'eu gib -g conceal-LEG.SG 3SG.NOM 3SG.GEN face and body innocent-ACC.PL under coat dark -ACC.SG, and do-LEG.SG also 3SG.GEN thought evil-ACC.SG She was hiding her innocent face and body under a dark coat, and also her evil intentions.
a pron. (3rd person singular, accusative) at'eu pp. towards, into, onto dêp'ahêd- adj. hidden, invisible, secret dixêheu n. king, emperor dixêkloi n. palace, castle dôlbit- v. bring êb pp. to, for (dative/benefactive) êhêkoi n. body; flesh and blood eu pron. (3rd person singular, nominative) êxaspul- adj. trapped, captured, forced gib, gêm- adj. cruel, evil, malicious hoi pp. while, during ke num. one kêd- v. become, do to oneself k'eulag pp. under, below kupozoi n. task, campaign, quest, mission, endeavour laixê- adj. young lêg n. face, forehead, front, surface lestôspok n. king's hall, throne room mege n. father mot'oi n. event, instance, iteration nêp'eu n. thought, idea, intention, purpose ngi num. two nod- v. go nte pp. with, by, using (instrumental) od cj. and reu num. ten ristêd- v. have bad luck, have circumstances conspire against you, be thwarted roits cj. (adverbial subordinator) sêlatra n. lynx su v. do (pro-verb) taxag n. girl, daughter taxeut- adj. hard-working, diligent, determined, persistent, steady, tireless, stubborn, unforgiving, vengeful t'a adv. also, as well, moreover tsêska- v. hide, conceal, disguise tsi pron. (3rd person singular, genitive) tsuts dem. this (nominative singular) uhaid- adj. polite, modest, humble, obedient, innocent widilboi n. coat, robe wôdôxa- adj. black, dark wôldos n. warrior, soldier wôskêh- v. aim for, approach, get closer to wôspeu adv. lately, recently, already
RELEVANT NOMINAL MORPHOLOGY: =a (antigenitive/possessive enclitic; may cause lenition of a word-final plosive)
RELEVANT ADJECTIVAL MORPHOLOGY: -(o)g (adjectival suffix: accusative singular) -(ê)neu (adjectival suffix: superlative, nominative singular) -(o)s (adjectival suffix: accusative plural)
RELEVANT VERBAL MORPHOLOGY: -Ø (infinitive) -(a)deu (legendary past singular) -(a)steu (imperfective singular)
The default word order in Ndok Aisô is SVO, but the parent language was verb-initial, and VSO order is preserved in several types of subclauses and as a stylistic variant in main clauses, especially if the subject is a pronoun. Intransitive main clauses also often have VS order. Some types of adverbial clauses may exhibit SOV word order.
Nominal morphology is fairly minimal, marking only number and possession (the latter with an "antigenitive" enclitic on the possessed noun). Personal pronouns are fusionally marked for number and case; a peculiarity of the possessive pronouns is that they agree in number only with the possessed, not with the possessor. Possessive pronouns typically precede the noun in free-standing noun phrases, but may also follow it, especially when the NP is part of a possessive or prepositional phrase. Prepositions, as the label indicates, precede their object.
Adjectives inflect for case and number of their referent by means of fusional suffixes. They normally follow their head noun; however, deictic adjectives usually precede it. Adjectival predicates use a zero copula for static situations and the verb kêd- 'become' for change-of-state situations, and they follow (Cop)-Adj-N word order. Adjectives can also be used adverbially; this is done by subordinating them to an appropriate preposition.
The main verbal distinctions of Ndok Aisô are tense/aspect, mood, and voice (not all of which are relevant in this text). Verbs also agree with the subject in number, but not in person. The morphosyntactic alignment is technically a variant of split-S; however, the vast majority of verbs follow a NOM-ACC pattern. Certain verbs may take another verb as their object, which appears in the infinitive form. The infinitive can also be used for event nominalisation.
Coordinating conjunctions have special "object-gapping" forms, which indicate that the coordinated clauses have the same direct object (the latter can therefore be dropped from one of the two clauses). Identical subjects can be dropped from either clause even when normal conjunctions are used; clauses without an overt subject are assumed to have the same subject as the main clause of the previous sentence. Verbs cannot be gapped; the pro-verb su 'do' must be used instead.
A grammatical sketch of Ndok Aisô can be found at http://akana.conlang.org/wiki/Ndok_Aisô