Songulda language

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Songulda
Songulda
Spoken in:
Conworld:
Total speakers:
Genealogical classification:
Songulda
Basic word order:
Morphological type: agglutinative
Morphosyntactic alignment: ergative
Created by:
Qwynegold


Phonology and phonotactics


Consonants
Bilabial Labiod. Dental Alveolar Post-alv. Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasals m n ŋ
Plosives p b t d k g
Fricatives s ʃ ʒ x h
Affricates ts
Approximants ʋ j
Trill r
Lateral Approximant l


Vowels
Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
High i y ɨ u
Near-high
High-mid
Mid e ø o
Low-mid
Near-low
Low ɑ

All the vowels and the consonants /p t k m n s x h l/ can have phonemic length.

Vowel harmony

Songulda has progressive vowel harmony, with vowels belonging to one of the three groups front, back or neutral.

Front Back Neutral
y u i
ø̽
ɨ ɑ

If a word root has only neutral vowels in it, then affixes belonging to the front group will be used with it.

Syllable structure

The syllable structure for non-final syllables is (O)V(ː)((C)D(ː)), and for final syllables (O)V(ː)((C)D). For both syllable types, V can be any vowel. For non-final syllables O can be any consonant except /p/ or/ŋ/, and for final syllables any consonant except /ŋ/. The C and D have certain constraints. For non-final syllables, the coda can be any of the following consonants or clusters:

m
n nd ns nʒ nx nh nts ndʒ
p
b
t
d
k
g
s st sk
ʃ
ʒ
x
h
ʋ ʋd ʋs
j jt jd jk jm jn jr js jx jts jdʒ jl
r rt rd rk rm rs rx rts rj
l lt ld lk lm ls lʒ lx lts ldʒ lj

For final syllables, the coda can be any of the following consonants or clusters:

m mp mt mts mtʃ
n nt nd ns nʒ nts ndʒ
ŋk
b
t
d
g gt gd gs
s sp st sk
ʒ
x
h
ʋ ʋt ʋd ʋs
j jt jd jk jm jn jr js jx jts jdʒ jl
r rt rd rk rm rts rj rx
l lp lt ld lk lm ls lʃ lʒ lx lts ltʃ ldʒ lj

A list of phonemes that can actually appear next to each other in a word, regardless of whether they are in the same syllable or not is here (long consonants are counted here as sequences of two consonants):

1st phoneme 2nd ph. 2nd ph. 2nd ph. 2nd ph. 2nd ph. 2nd ph. 2nd ph. 2nd ph. 2nd ph. 2nd ph. 2nd ph. 2nd ph. 2nd ph. 2nd ph. 2nd ph. 2nd ph. 2nd ph. 2nd ph. 2nd ph. 2nd ph. 2nd ph.
p p t s j l
b d n x j
t t k m r h ts ʋ j l
d b g m n r s ʃ x h ʋ j l
k t k s j l
g d m s ʒ x ʋ j l
m p b t d m n r s ʃ ʒ x h ts j l
n t d n s ʃ ʒ x h ts ʋ j
ŋ k g m ŋ r l
r p b t d k g m r s ʃ x h ts ʋ j
s p b t d k g m n r s x ʋ j l
ʃ p t k m ʋ j l
ʒ b d g
x b d g m x ʋ j l
h p b t d k g m n r s x h ts ʋ j l
p k m ʃ j
b g n ʒ
ʋ d g r ʒ x l
j p b t d k g m n r s ʃ ʒ x h ts ʋ l
l p b t d k g m n s ʃ ʒ x h ts ʋ j l

Other phonotactic rules are:

  • Whenever a word has a voiced stop, no unvoiced stops can follow after it in the whole word, unless it is the last phoneme in a coda cluster, and there is no voiced version of the cluster.
  • A syllable with a cluster or affricate in coda position can not have a long vowel, unless the onset is missing.
  • There are no diphtongs.

Stress

Songulda has primary stress on the first syllable. Words that are four syllables or longer also have secondary stress. The secondary stress is located on the penultimate syllable, with some exceptions regarding weight. If the ultimate or antepenultimate syllable is heavier than the penultimate, then the secondary stress will be located on that syllable instead. The secondary can not come directly after the primary stress though. If the penultimate syllable is light and of the surrounding two syllables one is heavy and the other super-heavy, then the secondary stress will go to the heaviest one. If both syllables have equal weigth, then the stress is added to the ultimate syllable if the word is only four syllables long, in other cases it is added to the antepenultimate.

Open syllables are considered to be light. Syllables with a coda cluster, a long vowel, or the "first half" of a long consonant are considered to be super-heavy. All other syllables are heavy.

Writing

The romanized version of Songulda, which will be used from here on, is as follows:

Romanization and pronunciation

A a, B b, C c, D d, E e, F f, G g, H h, I i, Ĭ ĭ, J j, K k, L l, M m, N n, O o, Ö ö, P p, R r, S s, T t, U u, Ü ü, V v, Y y

Letter Pronunciation
A a ɑ
B b b
CH ch
D d d
DZ dz
E e
F f f
G g g
H h h
I i i
Ĭ ĭ ɨ
J j ʒ
K k k
KH kh x
L l l
M m m
N n n
NG ng ŋ
O o
Ö ö ø̽
P p p
R r r
S s s
SH sh ʃ
T t t
TS ts ts
U u u
Ü ü y
V v ʋ
Y y j

Grammars

Songulda is an ergative, agglutinative language.


Nouns

Cases

There are several cases in Songulda, which are represented here, even though they are also used on pronouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs:

Case Affix Examples
Absolutive No marking
  • mele river
  • suttay tail
  • dengk forest
  • at egg
  • teg snow
Ergative -s (if word ends with vowel, g, n, v, y or l), -us/-üs (in other cases)
  • meles river (ERG)
  • suttays tail (ERG)
  • denggüs forest (ERG)
  • atus egg (ERG)
  • tegs snow (ERG)
Partitive -v (if the word ends with a vowel), -ov/-öv (if the word ends with a consonant)
  • melev river (PART)
  • suttayov tail (PART)
  • denggöv forest (PART)
  • atov egg (PART)
  • tegöv snow (PART)
Genitive -l (if word ends with vowel or y), -ul/-ül (in other cases)
  • melel river's
  • suttayl tail's
  • denggül forest's
  • atul egg's
  • tegül snow's
Inessive -ga/-gĭ (if word ends with vowel), -uga/-ügĭ (if word ends with consonant
  • melega in/at the river
  • suttayuga in/at the tail
  • denggügĭ in/at the forest
  • atuga in/at the egg
  • tegügĭ in/at the snow
Illative -ees (if the word ends with a vowel, it is deleted)
  • melees (in)to the river
  • suttayees (in)to the tail
  • denggees (in)to the forest
  • atees (in)to the egg
  • tegees (in)to the snow
Elative -ulm/-ülm (if word ends with a high or rounded vowel; that vowel is deleted), -olm/-ölm (in other cases; if the the word ends with a vowel, it is deleted)
  • melolm from/out of the river
  • suttayolm from/out of the tail
  • denggölm from/out of the forest
  • atolm from/out of the egg
  • tegolm from/out of the snow
Perlative -mas/-mĭs (if the word ends with vowel), -umas/-ümĭs (if the word ends with a consonant)
  • melemĭs through/across the river
  • suttayumas through/across the tail
  • denggümĭs through/across the forest
  • atumas through/across the egg
  • tegümĭs through/across the snow
Lative -mmeen (if the word ends with vowel; the vowel is lengthened), -ummeen/-ümmeen (if the word ends with a consonant; unless the word ends with a cluster, the last consonant is lengthened if possible)
  • meleemmeen closer to the river
  • suttayummeen closer to the tail
  • denggümmeen closer to the forest
  • attummeen closer to the egg
  • tegummeen closer to the snow
Comitative -haan/-hĭĭn (if the word ends with vowel), -aan/-ĭĭn (if the word ends with a consonant)
  • melehĭĭn together with the river
  • suttayaan together with a tail
  • denggĭĭn together with the forest
  • ataan together with an egg
  • tegĭĭn together with the snow
Translative -nnu/-nnü (if the word ends with vowel), -nu/-nü (if the word ends with a consonant)
  • melennü turn into a river
  • suttaynu turn into a tail
  • dennü turn into a forest
  • adnu turn into an egg
  • tengü turn into snow
Distributive -chintsu/-chintsü
  • melechintsü each river separately
  • suttaychintsu each tail separately
  • dendzintsü each forest separately
  • atchintsu each egg separately
Instrumental -mi
  • melemi with a river
  • suttaymi with the tail
  • degmi with a forest
  • atmi with the egg
  • tegmi with snow
Benefactive -eva/-evĭ (if the word ends with a consonant or short e), -veva/-vevĭ (in other cases)
  • meleevĭ for the river
  • suttayeva for the tail
  • denggevĭ for the forest
  • ateva for the egg
  • tegevĭ for the snow
Abessive -ngur/-ngür (if the word ends with vowel), -nongur/-nöngür (if the word ends with a consonant)
  • melengür without the river
  • suttaynongur without a tail
  • dengöngür without the forest
  • adnongur without an egg
  • tengöngür without snow
Desiderative -si
  • melesi a river that is good
  • suttaysi a tail that is good
  • degsi a forest that is good
  • adsi an egg that is healthy
  • tegsi snow that is good
Vocative ne-

The inessive case is also used for expressing adessive meanings. Similarily, the illative case can function as an allative case, and the elative as ablative.

The lative case, when used without any locative case, is used for expressing that something is moving to the speaker. The lative may be used together with illative, elative and translative. When used with illative it means that something is moving closer towards something else. Together with elative it means that something is moving further away. With translative it means that something is becoming more like something else.

The perlative case can have the same meaning as prolative case; that is, that something moves through, across, along or by the way of something.

The abessive case has the meaning of "without <noun>". It can be also used for deriving a caritive adjective from a noun, like the English suffix -less.

The desirative case is used for indicating that an object or an action is desirable, or something that should be done for one's own benefit.

The order in which the cases and the plural number are affixed to the word stem is this (when several options are on the same line, it means that only one of them can be used in the same word):

  1. Vocative
  2. Ergative/Absolutive/Partitive
  3. Comitative
  4. Inessive/Illative/Elative/Perlative/Translative
  5. Distributive/Lative
  6. Instrumental
  7. Benefactive
  8. Abessive
  9. Desirative
  10. Plural
  11. Genitive

Number

Number Affix Examples
Singular No marking
  • ardaa a heart
  • yadals a flower
  • uday a woman
  • upad a mouth
  • ündü an evening
Plural -r (if word ends with vowel or y), -er (in other cases)
  • ardaar hearts
  • yadalser flowers
  • udayr women
  • upader mouths
  • ündür evenings

This plural suffix is used for nouns and adjectives without person. There are also suffixes which has number and person sort of fusioned (see below).

Fusioned person/number

Person/number Affix Examples
1st person singular -m (if word ends with vowel), -um/-üm (if word ends with consonant)
  • ardaam my heart
  • yadalsum my flower
  • udayum my woman
  • upadum my mouth
  • ündüm my evening
1st person plural -o/-ö (if word ends with s), -zo (if word ends with d (making the affricate <dz>), -so/-sö (in other cases)
  • ardaaso our heart
  • yadalso our flower
  • udayso our woman
  • upadzo our mouth
  • ündüsö our evening
2nd person singular -t (if word ends with l, s, d, y or vowel; long vowels in last syllable are shortened, last d is deleted; if the word ends with ls, the order is reversed to lts (see yadalts below)), -tĭ (if word ends with t)
  • ardad your heart
  • yadalts your flower
  • udayd your woman
  • upat your mouth
  • ündüt your evening
2nd person plural -to/-tö (final d is deleted)
  • ardaado your heart
  • yadalsto your flower
  • udayto your woman
  • upato your mouth
  • ündütö your evening
3rd person singular -ta (if word ends with back vowel), -t (if word ends with üü), -üt (if word ends with ü or üs), -üsüt (if word ends with üüs; the üüs is deleted), -ülüt (if word ends with ült; the ült is deleted), -ata (in other cases)
  • ardaada his/her heart
  • yadalsada his/her flower
  • udayada his/her woman
  • upadada his/her mouth
  • ündüüt his/her evening
3rd person plural -to (if word ends with back vowel), -tö (if word has ü in it), -ato (in other cases)
  • ardaado their heart
  • yadalsado their flower
  • udayado their woman
  • upadado their mouth
  • ündütö their evening

The above suffixes are used for marking to whom something belongs to. They are not used to get with the -r suffix which is only used for simple plural without person.

Verbs

Stems of most verbs in Songulda end with either -ü, -ba, -da, -ga or -khu, though there are some irregular ones. Verbs agree with the subject of the sentence in number, person and case. The fusioned person/number is obligatory for all verbs except for those that have any of the following forms: passive voice, imperative mood, subjunctive mood. Together with the inifinitive it is never used. In some forms, person/number can be dropped, which makes the verb impersonal. This is especially common with the passive voice, producing impersonal passive voice.

The order according to which the affixes are tacked on to the verb is this:

  1. (Conditional mood)
  2. (Causative voice)
  3. stem
  4. (Past tense)
  5. (Stative tense)
  6. (Perfect aspect)
  7. (Continuous aspect)
  8. (Imperative mood)
  9. (Defective mood)
  10. (Intentional mood)
  11. Person/number
  12. (Passive voice)
  13. (Subjunctive mood)
  14. (Generic mood)
  15. (Infinitive)
  16. (Conditional mood)
  17. (Cases - see Cases for the order of the cases)
  18. (Reportative mood)

Songulda does not distinguish transitive and intransitive verbs. If there is one word in the sentence with ergative case and one with absolutive, then the verb is transitive. In other cases it is intransitive.

Voice

Voice Affix Examples
Active No marking
  • ikhebüm I split
  • tahaabam I fall
  • tadam I sit
  • kataygam I freeze
  • karaashakhum I burn
Passive -nu/-nü (if word ends with consonant), -nnu/-nnü (if word ends with vowel)
  • ikhebünnü become split
  • tahaabannu be dropped
  • kataygannu become frozen
  • karaashakhu become burned
Causative ban-/bĭn-
  • bĭn-ikhebüm I make s.o. split s.t.
  • bantahaabam I make s.o. fall
  • bantadam I make s.o. sit
  • bangkataygam I make s.t. freeze
  • bangkaraashakhum I make s.o. burn s.t.
Stative -ga (if the word ends with khu), -iga (if the word ends with a, l or khuld; the previous a is deleted), -yü (if the word ends with ü or ült)
  • ikhebüyüm I am split
  • tahaabigam I am fallen
  • tadigam I am seated
  • kataygigam I am frozen
  • karaashakhugam I am burned

The stative voice is used to indicate a change of state. The word for marry for example, would mean that someone is married if used with this voice. Without the stative, the word would mean that someone is at the wedding ceremony right now. The stative differs from the continuous aspect in that the continuous aspect has the meaning that someone is actively doing something for the action to go on, while the stative means that a certain state is true, without anyone actively doing anything right now to keep it that way. For example, "to be asleep" is something that would be expressed with stative voice. To be asleep is a state of being, that once it has been entered does not require any further action from the sleeper to be maintained.

Tense

Tense Affix Examples
Past -lt (if word ends with ü), -l (if word ends with a), -ld (if word ends with u)
  • ikhebüldüm I split
  • tahaabalum I fell
  • tadalum I sat
  • kataygalum I froze
  • karaashakhuldum I burned
Present No marking
  • ikhebüm I split
  • tahaabam I fall
  • tadam I sit
  • kataygam I freeze
  • karaashakhum I burn

Songulda has no future tense, instead the present tense is used. It is understood from context which tense is actually meant. For example, if someone says "I go to the store", but doesn't move at all from the spot, it is understood to have been meaning "in the future". Using words like "then", "later" and "after" in a sentence also indicate that something will take place in the future.

Aspect

Aspect Affix Examples
Continuous -üs (if word ends with ü or ült), -as (if word ends with a), -us (if word ends with u or khuld), lengthening of the last vowel (if the word ends with al)
  • ikhebüüsüm I am splitting
  • tahaabaasum I am falling
  • tadaasum I am sitting
  • kataygaasum I am freezing
  • karaashakhuus I am burning
Perfect -ü (if word ends with ü or ült), -ga (if word ends with ba or dal), -ba (if word ends with da or bal), -da (if word ends with ga or gal), -hukhu (if the word ends with khu; the first khu is deleted), -a (if the word ends with khuld)
  • ikhebüüm I have split
  • tahaabagam I have fallen
  • tadabam I have sat
  • kataygadam I have frozen
  • karaashahukhu I have burned

Mood

Aspect Affix Examples
Conditional Circumfixing i- (if word begins with a consonant) or in- (if word begins with a vowel) and -ki.
  • inikhebügim if I split
  • itahaabagim if I fall
  • itadagim if I sit
  • ikataygagim if I freeze
  • ikaraashakhukim if I burn
Imperative -nnuy/-nnüy (if word ends with vowel), -innuy/-innüy (if word end with consonant)
  • ikhebünnüyt split!
  • tahaabannuyt fall!
  • tadannuyt sit!
  • kataygannuyt freeze!
  • karaashakhunnuyt burn!
Subjunctive -ogo/-ögö (if word ends with vowel, it is deleted)
  • ikhebögö may it be split
  • tahaabogo may it fall
  • tadogo may it sit
  • kataygogo may it freeze
  • karaashakhogo may it burn
Defective -eba/-ebü (if word ends with a vowel, it is deleted)
  • ikhebebüm I almost split
  • tahaabebam I almost fall
  • tadebam I almost sit
  • kataygebam I almost freeze
  • karaashakhebam I almost burn
Intentional -eru/-erü (if word ends with vowel, it is deleted)
  • ikheberüm I intentionally split
  • tahaaberum I intentionally fall
  • taderum I intentionally sit
  • kataygerum I intentionally freeze
  • karaashakheru I intentionally burn
Generic -ngeen (if word ends with vowel), -een (if word ends with a consonant; that consonant is lengthened if possible)
  • ikhebüngeenüm I generally split
  • tahaabangeenum I generally fall
  • tadangeenum I generally sit
  • kataygangeenum I generally freeze
  • karaashakhungeenum I generally burn
Reportative -haka/-hĭkĭ
  • ikhebüdhĭgĭ s.o. heard/said you split
  • tahaabadhaga s.o. heard/said you fall
  • tadadhaga s.o. heard/said you sit
  • kataygadhaga s.o. heard/said you freeze
  • karaashakhuthaka s.o. heard/said you burn

The imperative mood is normally used with either the 2nd person singular or plural. If used with 1st person plural, it produces the volitional mood (let's do X). The imperative form can also be used without person/number when talking to a non-living object, for example, out of frustration one can shout "get open already!" to a jar that is hard to open.

The defective mood is always used with the present tense form of the verb, even though it actually carries the meaning of past tense.

Adjectives

Stems of all adjectives end with either -a, -gd, -nt, -rk, -ro, -s or -yC (C stands for any consonant).

Comparison Affix Examples
Positive No marking
  • malaa smooth
  • khiyagd narrow
  • gint round
  • töhös sick
  • vayt thick
Comparative -yd (if word ends with a or ro), -el (if word ends with gd or yC), -d (if word ends with nt or rk; the last t or k is deleted), -t (if word ends with s)
  • malayd smoother
  • khiyagdel narrower
  • gind rounder
  • töhöst sicker
  • vaytel thicker
Superlative -ydz (if word ends with a or ro), -dzi (if word ends with gd or rk; the last d or k is deleted), -dz (if word ends with nt; the last t is deleted), -j (if word ends with s or yC, where C is a consonant that cannot be followed by neither sh or j; the s or C is deleted), -je (if word ends with yC and C is a consonant that can be followed by j), -she (if word ends with yC and C is a consonant that can be followed by sh but not j)
  • malaydz smoothest
  • khiyagdzi narrowest
  • gindz roundest
  • töhöj sickest
  • vayj thickest

Adverbs

Stems of all adverbs end with either -la, -ma, -chi, -dzi, -vur, -sde, -sbe, -ser or -der.

Comparison Affix Examples
Positive No marking
  • humula slowly
  • edzigdzi sharply
  • jinginder peacefully
  • vasde thickly
Comparative -yd (if word ends with la or ma), -yel (if the word ends with chi or dzi), -d (if the word ends with vur, ser or der), -st (if the word ends with sde or sbe)
  • humulayd more slowly
  • edzigdziyel more sharply
  • jinginderd more peacefully
  • vasdest more thickly
Superlative -ydz (if word ends with la or ma), -che (if the word ends with chi), -dze (if the word ends with dzi), -dzi (if the word ends with vur, ser or der), -j (if the word ends with sde or sbe)
  • humulaydz most slowly
  • edzigdzidze most sharply
  • jinginderdzi most peacefully
  • vasdej most thickly

Derivational morphology

From noun, resulting in noun

Derivation Affix Examples
-hood -saa/-sĭĭ (the same as infinitive form of verbs)
  • birigdzin parent > birigdzinsĭĭ parenthood
Co- sündü-
  • birigdzin parent > sündübirigdzin co-parent
  • havt word > sündühavt compound word
Place with lots of NOUN -dava/-döö
  • kavaga dog > kavagadava kennel
  • kedöh fish > kedöhdöö fish pond
Thing NOUN is used on -ok/-ök (if word ends with consonant), -lok/-lök (if word ends with vowel)
  • möke hammer > mökelök nail
  • chaa key > chaalok lock

From noun, resulting in adjective

Derivation Affix Examples
Place with lots of NOUN -doo/-döö
  • tevabe cloud > tevabedoo cloudy
Made out of NOUN (-al, -en) -gd (if word ends with vowel), -ogd/-ögd (if word ends with consonant)
  • arkka rock > arkkagd stone
  • chuu tree > chugd wooden
Supplied with NOUN -rnent (if word ends with vowel), -ernent (if word ends with consonant)
  • suvukhaa feather > suvukhaarnent feathered
  • yadals flower > yadalsernent adorned with flowers
Lacking NOUN See abessive case
  • tim tooth > timnöngür toothless
  • avagi speech > avagingur speechless

From verb, resulting in noun

Derivation Affix Examples
Infinitive (-ing) -saa/-sĭĭ
  • avaga speak > avagasaa speaking
  • igüsü leave > igüsüsĭĭ leaving
Does VERB right now (-er) -dzin (if word ends with ü), -edzin (if word ends with ba, da or ga; the last a is deleted), -idzin (if word ends with khu, nu or nü; the last u or ü is deleted)
  • simbĭhü hold > simbĭhüdzin holder
  • assamba help > assambedzin helper
  • umukhu sleep > umukhidzin sleeper
Does VERB professionally (-er, -or, -ist) -ula/-ülĭ (the last vowel from the verb is deleted)
  • omaba sew > omabula sewstress
  • sündü hunt > sündülĭ hunter
Place where VERB is typically done -iyo/-iyö (the last vowel from the verb is deleted)
  • avatsiiga sing > avatsiigiyo stage
Time when VERB is typically done -uu/-üü (the last vowel from the verb is deleted)
  • igüsü leave > igüsüü goodbye (N.)
  • jinginda be at peace > jinginduu peace
  • lümü eat > lümüü dinner
Tool used for doing VERB -neva/-nevĭ
  • vuukhu suck > vuukhuneva straw
  • tada sit > tadaneva chair
  • suukhada wipe > suukhadaneva rag
Result from MOVEMENT VERB -ema/-emĭ (the last vowel from the verb is deleted)
  • paga hit (V.) > pagema hit (N.)
  • mütü fall (V.) > mütemĭ fall (N.)
  • avuda fly > avudema flight

From verb, resulting in verb

Derivation Affix Examples
Out- tüü-
  • savkhu drink > tüüsavkhu outdrink
  • akhu live > tüüakhu outlive
  • aksaga kill > tüüaksaga overkill

From verb, resulting in adjective

Derivation Affix Examples
Derivation from VERB -neyn (the ü, ba, da, ga or khu ending of the verb is deleted)
  • tsüyü stab > tsuneyn stabby
  • avaga talk > avaneyn talkative

From adjective, resulting in verb

Derivation Affix Examples
Derivation from ADJECTIVE -khu (if word ends with a; if the word is a front vowel word, all the front vowels are changed to their back counterparts), -ga/-gü (if the word ends with gd or rk; the last gd or k is deleted), -da/-dü (if the word ends with nt; the last t is deleted), -ü (if the word ends with ro; the last o is deleted and all the back vowels are changed to their front counterparts), -khu/-khü (if the word ends with s; the last s is deleted), -a (if the word ends with yb, yd or yg), -u (if the word ends with ykh), -yü (if word ends with yC (but not yb, yd, yg or ykh); the last consonant is deleted)
  • töhös sick > töhökhü get sick
  • duyos correct (Adj.) > duyokhu correct (V.)
  • vemla wet > vemlakhu get wet
  • dzanga cold > dzangakhu cool down

From adjective, resulting in adjective

Derivation Affix Examples
Opposite (un-) ma-/mĭ-
Intensifier (very, mega-, super-) suur-

From adjective, resulting in adverb

Derivation Affix Examples
Derivation from ADJECTIVE (-ly) -m-/-l- (if word ends with a; the consonant before a is replaced with m if possible, otherwise with l), -zi (if word ends with gd (making it -gdzi)), -der (if the word ends with nt; the last t is deleted), -la (if the word ends with rk, ro or yl; the last rk, ro or yl is deleted, rro becomes lla), -sbe (if the word ends with yp or yb; the last yp or yb is deleted), -sde (if the word ends with yt or yd; the last yt or yd is deleted), -chi (if the word ends with yk, ykh, yh, yts or ych; the last yk, ykh, yh, yts or ych is deleted), -dzi (if the word ends with yg or ydz; the last yg or ydz is deleted), -ma (if the word ends with ym or yn; the last ym or yn is deleted), -vur (if word ends with yr or yv; the last yr or yv is deleted), -ser (if the word ends with s, ys, ysh or yj; the last s, ys, ysh or yj is deleted)

Vocabulary

Survival phrases

Here are some common words and phrases:

Songulda English
Chimi Hello
Dongka hat? How are you?
Tayeem Good/fine
Chimi sumumas Good morning
Chimi hikorsimimas Good afternoon
Chimi ündümĭs Good evening
Altya umukhusaa Good night
Sargaa Good bye
Tay Yes
Yöö No
Timi (endes) Thank you (very much)
Kantogo Don't mention it/You're welcome
Eteg Excuse me/Sorry
Ramt Inglish? Do you speak English?
Umus ya samaaldam endes Songulda. I don't speak much Songulda.
Humulayd avagannuyt doyoska? Could you speak more slowly?
On sundannuyt doyoska? Could you repeat that?
Gindmülsüyüm. I understand.
Ya gindmülsüyüm. I don't understand.
Chi? What?
Assambi! Help!
Happigam. I'm lost.
Ham töhös. I'm ill.
Um assambannuyt doyoska? Can you help me?

Pronouns

1st person 2nd person 3rd person Interrogative No one Everyone
Singular um ata kabu ya kim
Plural uso to ato kabu kim

Numerals

1. yom
2. mul
3. den
4. sam
5. loovi
6. sok
7. shingk
8. langk
9. vihil
10. sham
100. chen
1000. tsun

Larger numbers are formed in the same way as in English, i.e. 27 for example is mul (two) × sham (ten) + shingk (seven) = mulshamshingk (twenty seven). All the numerals have been borrowed from Xǔngpìng so there are quite a few irregular ones.

11. mil
13. shek
17. chun
19. gog
23. mulshek
29. mulgog
31. demmil
37. denchun
41. sammil
43. samshek
47. samchun
53. vilooshek
59. viloogog
61. sokmil
67. sokchun
71. shingkmil
73. shingkshek
79. shinggog
83. langkshek
97. vihilchun