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Spoken in:
Total speakers:
Genealogical classification:
Basic word order:
Morphological type: isolating
Morphosyntactic alignment:
Created by:

Xǔngpìng is an isolating, monosyllabic, tonal language.



Bilabial Labiod. Dental Alveolar Post-alv. Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasals m n ŋ
Plosives p t k
Fricatives f s ʃ ʒ ɕ ʐ h
Affricates ts tsʰ tʃʰ tɕʰ
Approximants j
Lateral Approximant l


Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
High i u
Near-high ʏ
High-mid e
Mid ə˞ o
Low a ɑ˞


Xǔngpìng has five tones, which are the high tone (unmarked), rising tone (´), falling tone (`), falling-rising tone (ˇ), and the "broken tone" (˜). The broken tone starts with an extra-short vowel, then there is a glottal stop, and then the same vowel continues again with a rising tone. In IPA, using /a/ as an example, this "tone" would be written [ăʔ̆ǎ]. The broken tone can not appear in onset-less syllables, while the other tones have no such restrictions.

Syllable structure

The syllable structure of Xǔngpìng is (O)(G)V(C), where O can be any consonant except /j/ or /w/, G can be /j/ or /w/, V is any non-rhotacized vowel, and C can be /kʰ/, /l/, /m/, /n/, /ŋ/, /w/, /j/ or rhotacization of the previous vowel.


The romanization of Xǔngpìng is as follows:

Xǔngpìng romanization

A a, B b, C c, Ch ch, D d, E e, F f, G g, H h, I i, J j, Jh jh, K k, L l, M m, N n, Ng ng, O o, P p, Q q, R r, S s, Sh sh, T t, U u, V v, W w, X x, Xh xh, Y y, Z z, Zh zh

Letter Pronunciation
A a a, ɑ
Ar ar ɑ˞
B b p
C c tsʰ
Ch ch tʃʰ
D d t
E e e, ə
Er er ə˞
F f f, ɸ
G g k
H h h
I i i, ɪ, j
J j
Jh jh ʒ
K k kʰ, k
L l l
M m m
N n n
Ng ng ŋ
O o o
P p
Q q tɕʰ
R r ʐ
S s s
Sh sh ʃ
T t
U u u, w
V v (silent)
W w w, (silent)
X x ɕ
Xh xh
Y y j, (silent)
Z z ts
Zh zh

When a syllable begins with a vowel, a silent letter is inserted before it. If the syllable begins with /a/ or /e/, <v> is inserted; if it begins with /i/ or /ʏ/, <y> is inserted; and if it begins with /o/ or /u/, <w> is inserted.

When a consonant is followed by <i> or <u> and then a second vowel, the <i> or <u> is pronounced /j/ resp. /w/. If there is no other consonant before a /j/ or /w/, <y> resp. <w> is used for representing those sounds.