|Spoken in:||various countries|
|Timeline/Universe:||international auxiliary language|
|Total speakers:||ca. 1000|
|Genealogical classification:||a posteriori
|Basic word order:||SVO|
|Morphological type:||agglutinating > isolating|
Novial is an international auxiliary language designed by the Danish linguist Otto Jespersen, published in 1928. Novial is thus the only major auxlang designed by an academic linguist. It is a moderately naturalistic a posteriori language based on the major languages of Europe, mainly the Romance languages.
Novial never had a large speaker base, but a small international community exists.
|Stops||p b||t d||tʃ~ʃ dʒ~ʒ||k g|
|Liquids and Semivowel||l r||j|
The grammar of Novial largely follows Standard Average European patterns. Nouns are inflected only for plural (suffix -s, -es after consonant) and genitive (–(e)n). Nouns denoting males end in -o, nouns denoting females end in -a, nouns denoting beings of either sex end in -e.
Adjectives end in –i, adverbs in –im.
The definite article is an indeclinable li. The personal pronouns are:
|3rd person, masculine||lo||los|
|3rd person, feminine||la||las|
|3rd person, common||le||les|
|3rd person, neuter||lu||lus|
Like nouns, pronouns take genitive –(e)n.
Verbs form tenses with auxiliary verbs:
The past tense can also be expressed by a suffix -(e)d.
There are two passives. The "become" passive is formed by the auxiliary bli and the uninflected verb. The "be" passive is formed by the auxiliary es and the past participle (suffix -(e)t.
Pronouns, demonstratives, correlatives
The morphology of pronouns, demonstratives and correlatives is consistent with that of nouns, adjectives and adverbs, and therefore is extensible. For example:
|demonstrative||te ‘that one’ (animate)||ta ‘that female’||to ‘that male’||tanti ‘so much’||tali ‘that kind’||talim ‘in that way’|
|interrogative||que ‘who’||qua ‘what female’||quo ‘what male’||quanti ‘how much’||quali ‘what kind of’||qualim ‘how’|
|relative||ke ‘[the one] who’||ka ‘[the female] who’||ko ‘[the male] who’||kanti ‘[the amount] which’||kali ‘[the kind] which’||kalim ‘as’|
|indefinite||irge ‘anyone’||irga ‘any female’||irgo ‘any male’||irganti ‘any amount’||irgali ‘any kind’||irgalim ‘in any way’|
|other …||altre ‘someone else’||altra ‘another female’||altro ‘another male’||altranti ‘a different amount’||altrali ‘a different kind’||altralim ‘otherwise’|
- Novial-Informatione by James Chandler, in Novial and English.