Acute Accent

From FrathWiki
Jump to: navigation, search

The acute accent comes from a Latin diacritic called apex.[1] There is a diacritic, called kreska in Polish, which looks similar to the acute accent, but which is more vertical and placed slightly to the right of the center of the base letter.[2] Unicode conflates these two diacritics though, so this article does not distinguish between them either.

Acute Accent in Unicode

Characters with Acute Accent
´ ˊ ◌́ ◌́ Á á Ǻ ǻ Ǽ
U+00B4 U+02CA U+0301 U+0341 U+00C1 U+00E1 U+01FA U+01FB U+1EA4 U+1EA5 U+1EAE U+1EAF U+01FC
Acute Accent Modifier Letter Acute Accent Combining Acute Accent Combining Acute Tone Mark Latin Capital Letter A With Acute Latin Small Letter A With Acute Latin Capital Letter A With Ring Above And Acute Latin Small Letter A With Ring Above And Acute Latin Capital Letter A With Circumflex And Acute Latin Small Letter A With Circumflex And Acute Latin Capital Letter A With Breve And Acute Latin Small Letter A With Breve And Acute Latin Capital Letter Ae With Acute
Note: May be confused with Apostrophe, ' (U+0027); Modifier Letter Prime, ʹ (U+02B9); Modifier Letter Turned Comma, ʻ (U+02BB); Modifier Letter Apostrophe, ʼ (U+02BC); Modifier Letter Vertical Line, ˈ (U+02C8); Right Single Quotation Mark, ’ (U+2019); or Prime, ′ (U+2032). Note: May be confused with Combining Turned Comma Above, ◌̒ (U+0312). The tone mark was created for Vietnamese, but its use is now discouraged.[3]
ǽ Ć ć É é ế Ǵ ǵ
U+01FD U+0106 U+0107 U+1E08 U+1E09 U+00C9 U+00E9 U+1E16 U+1E17 U+1EBE U+1EBF U+01F4 U+01F5
Latin Small Letter Ae With Acute Latin Capital Letter C With Acute Latin Small Letter C With Acute Latin Capital Letter C With Cedilla And Acute Latin Small Letter C With Cedilla And Acute Latin Capital Letter E With Acute Latin Small Letter E With Acute Latin Capital Letter E With Macron And Acute Latin Small Letter E With Macron And Acute Latin Capital Letter E With Circumflex And Acute Latin Small Letter E With Circumflex And Acute Latin Capital Letter G With Acute Latin Small Letter G With Acute
Í í Ĺ ĺ ḿ Ń ń Ó
U+00CD U+00ED U+1E2E U+1E2F U+1E30 U+1E31 U+0139 U+013A U+1E3E U+1E3F U+0143 U+0144 U+00D3
Latin Capital Letter I With Acute Latin Small Letter I With Acute Latin Capital Letter I With Diaeresis And Acute Latin Small Letter I With Diaeresis And Acute Latin Capital Letter K With Acute Latin Small Letter K With Acute Latin Capital Letter L With Acute Latin Small Letter L With Acute Latin Capital Letter M With Acute Latin Small Letter M With Acute Latin Capital Letter N With Acute Latin Small Letter N With Acute Latin Capital Letter O With Acute
ó Ǿ ǿ
U+00F3 U+1E52 U+1E53 U+1ED0 U+1ED1 U+1E4C U+1E4D U+1EDA U+1EDB U+01FE U+01FF U+1E54 U+1E55
Latin Small Letter O With Acute Latin Capital Letter O With Macron And Acute Latin Small Letter O With Macron And Acute Latin Capital Letter O With Circumflex And Acute Latin Small Letter O With Circumflex And Acute Latin Capital Letter O With Tilde And Acute Latin Small Letter O With Tilde And Acute Latin Capital Letter O With Horn And Acute Latin Small Letter O With Horn And Acute Latin Capital Letter O With Stroke And Acute Latin Small Letter O With Stroke And Acute Latin Capital Letter P With Acute Latin Small Letter P With Acute
Ŕ ŕ Ś ś Ú ú Ǘ ǘ
U+0154 U+0155 U+015A U+015B U+1E64 U+1E65 U+00DA U+00FA U+01D7 U+01D8 U+1E78 U+1E79 U+1EE8
Latin Capital Letter R With Acute Latin Small Letter R With Acute Latin Capital Letter S With Acute Latin Small Letter S With Acute Latin Capital Letter S With Acute And Dot Above Latin Small Letter S With Acute And Dot Above Latin Capital Letter U With Acute Latin Small Letter U With Acute Latin Capital Letter U With Diaeresis And Acute Latin Small Letter U With Diaeresis And Acute Latin Capital Letter U With Tilde And Acute Latin Small Letter U With Tilde And Acute Latin Capital Letter U With Horn And Acute
Ý ý Ź ź
U+1EE9 U+1E82 U+1E83 U+00DD U+00FD U+0179 U+017A
Latin Small Letter U With Horn And Acute Latin Capital Letter W With Acute Latin Small Letter W With Acute Latin Capital Letter Y With Acute Latin Small Letter Y With Acute Latin Capital Letter Z With Acute Latin Small Letter Z With Acute

Acute Accent in Natlangs

Uses of Acute Accent
Usage Language Letters Notes
Diphthong Icelandic Áá /au/, Óó /ou/ The modern alphabet was established in the 19th century, but it is based on a standard from 12th century.[4]
Falling-rising (dipping) tone Min Dong (Fuzhou dialect, Foochow romanization) Áá /a˨˩˨, ɑ˨˩˨/, Á̤á̤ /ɛ˨˩˨, a˨˩˨/, Éé /ɛi˨˩˨/, É̤é̤ /œ˨˩˨/, Íí /i˨˩˨/, Óó /ou˨˩˨/, Ó̤ó̤ /o˨˩˨, ɔ˨˩˨/, Úú /u˨˩˨/, Ṳ́ṳ́ /y˨˩˨/ Note that the letters here that contain ◌̤ are not precomposed characters.
Following glottal stop Alekano Áá /ɑʔ/, Éé /eʔ/, Íí /iʔ/, Óó /ɤʔ/, Úú /ɯʔ/ The acute simply marks that the vowel is followed by a glottal stop. Unaccented vowels have the same vowel quality as the accented ones.[5]
Following /n/ Arabic (ISO 233 romanization) Áá /an/, Íí /in/, Úú /un/ The acute accent is used for transcribing doubled vowel diacritics in the Arabic script, indicating a following /n/.[6][7]
Front version of back vowel North Sami (eastern dialect,[8]1979 orthography) Áá /a/ Unaccented Aa stands for /ɑ/. See also North Sami (western dialect) in the section Long vowel below.
High tone Heiltsuk-Oowekyala (Heiltsuk dialect, official orthography and Rath's orthography) Áá /á/, Éé /ə́/, Íí /í/, Ḷ́ḷ́ /ĺ̩/, Ṃṃ /ḿ̩/, Ṇṇ /ń̩/, Úú /ú/ It is currently slightly unclear what quality the vowels have, and if Éé is really used in the official orthography. See Languagegeek and Bella Bella Community School.
Long vowel Croatian, Serbian Áá /ǎː/, Éé /ěː/, Íí /ǐː/, Óó /ǒː/, Ŕŕ /ř̩ː/, Úú /ǔː/ The acute accent marks that these vowels are long and have rising pitch. These letters are not used in the standard orthography of Croatian or Serbian, but in linguistic materials.[9]
Czech Áá /aː/, Éé /ɛː/, Íí /iː/, Óó /oː/, Úú /uː/, Ýý /iː/ Íí and Ýý both represent the same phoneme in Standard Czech, but Íí may mark that the previous consonant is palatal, which Ýý does not.[10]
Hungarian Áá /aː/, Éé /eː/, Íí /iː/, Óó /oː/, Úú /uː/ See also Double Acute Accent.
North Sami (western dialect,[8]1979 orthography) Áá /ɑː/ See also North Sami (eastern dialect), at the section Front version of back vowel above.
Slovak Áá /aː/, Éé /eː/, Íí /iː/, Ĺĺ /l̩ː/, Óó /oː/, Ŕŕ /r̩ː/, Úú /uː/, Ýý /iː/
Slovene (orthography with dynamic accentuation) Áá /ˈaː/, Éé /ˈeː/, Íí /ˈiː/, Óó /ˈoː/, Ŕŕ /ˈəɾ/, Úú /ˈuː/ The acute accent marks that the vowel is stressed and long, and that Éé and Óó are mid-close rather than mid-open. These letters are not used in the standard orthography of Slovene, but in language materials.[11]
Slovene (orthography with tonal accentuation) Áá /áː/, Éé /ɛ́ː/, Ẹ́ẹ́ /éː/, Íí /íː/, Óó /ɔ́ː/, Ọ́ọ́ /óː/, Úú /úː/ The acute accent marks that these vowels are long and have high pitch. These letters are not used in the standard orthography of Slovene, but in language materials.[11]
Palatal consonant Polish Ćć /tɕ/, Dź dź /d͡ʑ/, Ńń /ɲ/, Śś /ɕ/, Źź /ʑ/ Polish uses kreska instead of acute accent.
Raised vowel Icelandic Íí /i/, Ýý /i/ Unaccented Ii and Yy both stand for /ɪ/.[12]
Polish Óó /u/ Historically it comes from long /oː/.[13] Polish uses kreska instead of acute accent.
Rising tone Mandarin (Pinyin romanization) Áá /a˧˥/, Éé /ə˧˥/, Íí /i˧˥/, Óó /ə˧˥/, Úú /u˧˥/, Ǘǘ /y˧˥/ Pinyin was created in the 1950s, and its tone marks were based on the Bopomofo phonetic notation.[14] Note that these tone values are based on the Beijing dialect.[15]
Min Nan (Pe̍h-ōe-jī orthography) Áá /a˥˩/, Áⁿ áⁿ /ã˥˩/, Éé /e˥˩/, Éⁿ éⁿ /ẽ˥˩/, Íí /i˥˩/, Íⁿ íⁿ /ĩ˥˩/, Ḿḿ /m̩˥˩/, Ńg ńg /ŋ̍˥˩/, Óó /ə˥˩/, Óⁿ óⁿ /ɔ̃˥˩/, Ó͘ó͘ /ɔ˥˩/, Úú /u˥˩/, Úⁿ úⁿ /u˥˩/ There is much variation in the tones and vowel qualities between different dialects of Min Nan. The vowel qualities here seem to be an approximation between the dialects,[16] while the tones here are as they are pronounced in Taipei (which is why they are falling though traditionally this toneme is classified as rising).[17]
Vietnamese Áá /aː˧˥/, Ắắ /a˧˥/, Ấấ /ə˧˥/, Éé /ɛ˧˥/, Ếế /e˧˥/, Íí /i˧˥/, Óó /ɔ˧˥/, Ốố /o˧˥/, Ớớ /əː˧˥/, Úú /u˧˥/, Ứứ /ɨ˧˥/, Ýý /i˧˥/ There are many exceptions to the phonemic values of these letters.[18]
Stress Catalan Éé /ˈe/, Íí /ˈi/, Óó /ˈo/, Úú /ˈu/ The rules for when stress is to be marked in Catalan are quite complex. The acute accent also distinguishes stressed /e o/ from /ɛ ɔ/,[19] see Grave Accent, Catalan section on Grave Accent in Natlangs.
Swedish Éé /ˈeː/ Éé is not really a part of the Swedish alphabet, but it is used in many loanwords and surnames. It is used word-finally to indicate a stressed (and therefore long) /e/. These Éé occur where the vowel would usually be unstressed.[20]
Other Icelandic Éé /jɛ/, Úú /u/ Éé was introduced in the 20th century.[4] Unaccented Uu stands for /ʏ/.[12]
Malagasy Áá, Éé, Íí, Óó, Ýý There are three different usages of the acute accent in Malagasy. One is in old dictionaries, possibly for marking stress. Another is in the Bara dialect. A third use is in French names, or French-spelled Malagasy names.[21]

Acute Accent in Conlangs

Uses of Acute Accent
Usage Language Creator Letters Notes
Half-long vowel Qwynegold (Qwadralónia dialect) Qwynegold Áá /aˑ, ʌˑ/, Éé /eˑ, e̞ˑ/, Íí /ɪˑ, iˑ/, Óó /o̜ˑ, oˑ/, Úú /u̜ˑ, uˑ/, Ýý /ʏˑ, yˑ/, Ä́ä́ /æˑ, ɛˑ/, Ö́ö́ /øˑ, œˑ/ There are no precomposed forms of Ä́ä́, Ö́ö́.
Qwynegold (Quadralónia dialect) Qwynegold Áá /aˑ, ʌˑ/, Éé /eˑ, e̞ˑ/, Íí /ɪˑ, iˑ/, Óó /o̜ˑ, oˑ/, Úú /u̜ˑ, uˑ/, Ýý /ʏˑ, yˑ/, Ǽǽ /æˑ, ɛˑ/, Ǿǿ /øˑ, œˑ/
High pitch Inng (external transcription) Qwynegold Áá /á/, Éé /ə́, í/, Íí /í/, Ĺĺ /ĺ̩/, Ḿḿ /ŋ̩́/, Ńń /ŋ̩́/, Óó /ú, ə́, á/, Úú /ú/ Some of these accented letters only appear as part of a digraph when representing a certain sound.[22]
High tone Lhueslue (external romanization) Qwynegold Áá /ɑ́/, Áe áe /ǽ/, Éé /é/. Ée ée /ɛ́/, Íí /í/, Íe íe /ɘ́/, Óó /ó/, Óe óe /ǿ/, Úú /ú/, Úe úe /ý/ This tone may be realized as either a high level tone, or a rising tone. Unaccented vowels have mid level tone.[23]
Long vowel Liu (external romanization) Qwynegold Áá /aː/, Éé /eː/, Íí /iː/, Óó /oː/, Úú /uː/ The acute accent marks that the vowel is long and unstressed.

See Also

References

  1. Acute accent, Apex at Wikipedia.
  2. Acute accent, Palatalization at Wikipedia.
  3. This was due to positioning issues in Vietnamese diacritic stacking, but this is now handled by the regular combining acute. Sources:
    Unicode, Inc. 2014. Combining Diacritical Marks.
    Vietnamese language and computers, Vietnamese Alphabet at Wikipedia.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Icelandic orthography, History at Wikipedia.
  5. Alekano at SIL.
  6. Pedersen, Thomas. 2008. Transliteration of Arabic.
  7. Nunation at Wikipedia.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Pohjoissaame, Aakkoset at Wikipedia (Finnish).
  9. Serbo-Croatian phonology, Pitch accent at Wikipedia.
  10. Czech orthography, "Soft" I and "Hard" Y at Wikipedia.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Slovene language, Prosody at Wikipedia.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Icelandic orthography, Function of symbols at Wikipedia.
  13. Polish phonology, Historical development at Wikipedia.
  14. Pinyin, History after 1949 at Wikipedia.
  15. Mandarin Chinese, Tones at Wikipedia.
  16. Pe̍h-ōe-jī, Current system at Wikipedia.
  17. Taiwanese Hokkien, Tones at Wikipedia.
  18. Vietnamese orthography, Pronunciation at Wikipedia.
  19. Catalan alphabet, Acute and grave accents at Wikipedia.
  20. Acute accent, Other uses at Wikipedia.
  21. Malagasy language, Diacritics at Wikipedia. For stress marking, see also Grave Accent on FrathWiki.
  22. Inng, Transcription at FrathWiki.
  23. Lhueslue, Tones at FrathWiki.