| Lhueslue |
|Basic word order:||VOS|
- 1 Phonology
- 2 Writing
- 3 Grammar
- 3.1 Morphology
- 3.2 Syntax
- 4 See also
Lhueslue features vowel harmony. Each vowel belongs to one of two groups: tense (marked in red in the table above) or lax (marked with blue).
Lhueslue has three tones: low, mid and high. The mid tone is the most common one. The low tone may be realized as falling, and high can be realized as rising.
The high tone turns its vowel long, and the low tone turns it half-long. If a word has only mid tones, the final syllable will have a long vowel on two conditions.
- It must be a monophthong.
- The syllable must be open or end with one of the following consonants: /b, d, ɡ, ʒ, l, ɻ, s, v, w, x/.
The lax vowels are paired together with the tense vowels in the following way:
Some words, or combinations of words and affixes have so called broken vowel harmony. It means that the word contains both tense and lax vowels, but that the allophony treat the boundary between tense and lax as a word boundary (this boundary is marked with a dash in the romanization). One example of a word with broken vowel harmony is oe-i (old). This word is pronunced [øː.iː]. Note how the two vowels do not form a diphthong, and both are long as if both appeared at the end of a word.
The front high-mid vowels /e, ø/ become mid [e̞, ø̞] when followed by a uvular consonant that is in the same syllable. In that same environment the front high vowels /i, y/ become near-high [ɪ, ʏ].
The alveolar lateral approximant /l/ becomes velarized [ɫ] in the environment /ɻ(V(V))_/.
|Ch ch||tʃ||Part, divide|
|E e||e||Active, fast, moving|
|Ee ee||ɛ||Passive, slow, still|
|J j||ʒ||Middle, present|
|Lh lh||ɬ̪͆||Magic, religion|
|N n||n||Nose, mouth, smell, taste|
|Q q||q||Back, past|
|S s||s||Ear, sound|
|Th th||θ||Wood, plant|
|W w||w||Eye, vision|
|X x||χ||Hand, touch|
|Xh xh||x||Front, future|
High tone is marked with an acute accent, and low tone with a grave. In digraphs, the accent mark is placed on the first letter. Mid tone is unmarked. Diaeresis is used on e to mark that it is not part of a digraph.
Lhueslue has no noun case affixes; instead, postpositions are used. Lhueslue also lacks grammatical number. If there is some dire need to mark singularity or plurality however, the words oeue (one) and o (many) may be used.
There are eleven different noun classes in Lhueslue. Nouns are assigned into classes semantically, according to the following table.
|Masculine||Male humans, kinship terms and animals.|
|Feminine||Female humans, kinship terms and animals.|
|Earth||Minerals (except for metals), animals that don't belong to the other classes.|
|Water||Things related to water, snow and ice, water-living creatures.|
|Fire||Items related to fire-making.|
|Air||Things that appear in the sky, flying animals.|
|Metal||Things made out of metal.|
|Wood||Plants and things made out of plant material.|
|Aether||Things related to magic and religion.|
|Light||Light-emitting objects and good (benevolent) things.|
|Dark||Things related to darkness, death, non-existance and evil.|
Lhueslue has several pronouns, each agreeing in noun class with the person or thing it refers to.
|1st person||2nd person||3rd person/inanimate|
The aether first person pronoun is used by gods, or by god roles in written dialogue or in plays. Likewise the aether second person pronoun is only used when addressing gods. The neuter singular first and second person pronouns are seldomly used. When they are used, it is usually in formal situations. The neuter singular second person pronoun is best avoided in all situations except for the very formal, because otherwise it may be taken as an insult. The neuter third person pronoun is likewise used in formal situations, but also when referring to a hypothetical or unknown person. When referring to a mixed group of people, the plural third person pronouns are always used.
The demonstratives in Lhueslue can be used as both pronouns and determiners.
|1st person||2nd person||3rd person|
Some verbs are by default intransitive, while others are transitive. But intransitive verbs can be derived from transitive ones by adding a suffix that agrees with the subject's noun class.
|Noun class|| Suffix with tense vowel harmony,
following a consonant
| Suffix with tense vowel harmony,
following a vowel
| Suffix with lax vowel harmony,
following a consonant
| Suffix with lax vowel harmony,|
following a vowel
The verbs have three tenses: past, present and future. The present tense is unmarked while past and future are marked with suffixes.
|Tense or lax, ends with -e or -ee||-q||eze (move) > ezeq (moved); chyuelee (think) > chyueleeq (thought)|
|Tense, ends with anything else than -e||-eq||buzeyted (roll) > buzeytedeq (rolled)|
|Lax, ends with anything else than -ee||-eeq||eelùe (sleep) > eelùeeeq (sleeped)|
The future tense is formed similarly, except with -xh instead of -q as the final consonant.
|Tense or lax, ends with -e or -ee||-xh||eze (move) > ezexh (will move); chyuelee (think) > chyueleexh (will think)|
|Tense, ends with anything else than -e||-exh||buzeyted (roll) > buzeytedexh (will roll)|
|Lax, ends with anything else than -ee||-eexh||eelùe (sleep) > eelùeeexh (will sleep)|
Aspect in Lhueslue is not marked by affixes but with different adverbs. The progressive aspect is expressed with the adverb je (still), which is placed after the verb. The perfect aspect is marked witt xha (then) in the past and future tenses, and qae (already) in the present tense. Xha is placed at the beginning of the sentence while qae is placed after the verb. Habitual aspect is expressed by placing óvulh (usually) after the verb. There are also three kinds of frequentative adverbs. Óche (frequentative 1) is used about actions where it is possible to count the number of times is happens. Oche (frequentative 2) is similar to frequentative 1, except that it describes a random or aimless action. Olhe (frequentative 3) is used about actions that are uncountable, either because they are so many or quick, or because it is hard to say where one instance of an action ends and another begins. All frequentatives are placed after the verb. The following table displays examples of all aspects and all possible combinations of aspects.
|Progressive|| Nezeq je níthippub laj
I was eating apples
| Nez je níthippub laj
I am eating apples
| Nezexh je níthippub laj |
I will be eating apples
|Perfect|| Xha nezeq níthippub laj
I had eaten an apple
| Nez qae níthippub laj
I have eaten an apple
| Xha nezexh níthippub laj |
I will have eaten an apple
|Habitual|| Nezeq óvulh níthippub laj
I used to eat apples
| Nez óvulh níthippub laj
I usually eat apples
| Nezexh óvulh níthippub laj |
I intend to usually eat apples
|Frequentative 1|| Yae-eq óche laj
I jumped up and down
| Yae-e óche laj
I jump up and down
| Yae-exh óche laj |
I will jump up and down
|Frequentative 2|| Yae-eq oche laj
I jumped around
| Yae-e oche laj
I jump around
| Yae-exh oche laj |
I will jump around
|Frequentative 3|| Xengameq olhe mu
The ground was shaking
| Xengam olhe mu
The ground is shaking
| Xengamexh olhe mu |
The ground will be shaking
|Perfect-Habitual|| Xha nezeq óvulh níthippub laj
I used to have eaten an apple
| Nez óvulh qae níthippub laj
I usually have eaten an apple
| Xha nezexh óvulh níthippub laj |
I will usually have eaten an apple
|Perfect-Frequentative 1|| Xha yae-eq óche laj
I had jumped up and down
| Yae-e óche qae laj
I have jumped up and down
| Xha yae-exh óche laj |
I will have jumped up and down
|Perfect-Frequentative 2|| Xha yae-eq oche laj
I had jumped around
| Yae-e oche qae laj
I have jumped around
| Xha yae-exh oche laj |
I will have jumped around
|Perfect-Frequentative 3|| Xha xengameq olhe mu
The ground had been shaking
| Xengam olhe qae mu
The ground have been shaking
| Xha xengamexh olhe mu |
The ground will have been shaking
|Habitual-Frequentative 1|| Yae-eq óche óvulh laj
I used to jump up and down
| Yae-e óche óvulh laj
I usually jump up and down
| Yae-exh óche óvulh laj |
I intend to usually jump up and down
|Habitual-Frequentative 2|| Yae-eq oche óvulh laj
I used to jump around
| Yae-e oche óvulh laj
I usually jump around
| Yae-exh oche óvulh laj |
I intend to usually jump around
|Habitual-Frequentative 3|| Xengameq olhe óvulh mu
The ground used to be shaking
| Xengam olhe óvulh mu
The ground is usually shaking
| Xengamexh olhe óvulh mu |
The ground will be usually shaking
Lhueslue has passive and active voice. Active voice is unmarked while passive voice is marked by a circumfix on the verb. The first part (prefix) of the circumfix agrees with the object's noun class, and the last part (suffix) agrees with the subject. But if the verb is intransitive, the prefix is dropped.
|Noun class||Prefix preceding a consonant||Prefix preceding a vowel|
|Noun class||Suffix following a consonant||Suffix following a vowel|
If the affix has a tense vowel while the verb is lax, or vice versa, it results in broken vowel harmony. But in the case of the light and dark suffixes following a vowel, the vowel in the suffix is skipped if it's not in the same vowel harmony group as the verb. For example eze (move) becomes tezed if the object is light and subject dark, but eelùe (sleep) becomes teelùedie.
Order of affixes
The order of affixes on the verb is PASS-VERB-INTR-PASS-TENSE. An example of a fully inflected verb is:
|(Something) was made to begin.|
Adpositions and particles
|al||postp.||with (comitative, human)|| Nezeq neez-qaxhzif tcue al raj. |
eat-PAST dinner wife COM 1SG.M
I ate dinner with my wife.
|arh||postp.||with (comitative, animal)|
|av||postp.||from (a person)|
|aed||postp.||as opposed to smth else|| Nyeq aq rhiu-beeptoed Bil aed. |
smell-PAST first bacon Bill as.opposed.to.someone.else
It was Bill who smelled the bacon first.
|aelh||prep.||into (translative)|| Lhaeq uey aelh yùesh Maerie. |
become-PAST mood TRANSL sad Mary
Mary became sad.
|aeng||postp.||to (a place)|| Sheq gthesh aeng Djon. |
swim-PAST raft to John
John swam to the raft.
|eeg||postp.||with (instrumental)|| Peq núco-btheef kup eeg neezael. |
cut-PAST cake knife INS cook
The cook cut the cake with a knife.
|ív||postp.||for (benefactive)|| Kvaeeeq gbuzuyheth lí ív Djon. |
sell-PAST wagon friend BEN John
John sold the wagon for a friend.
|nga||postp.||from (a place)|
|vae||postp.||to (a person)|| Véq xhongéj au Maerie vae Djon. |
give-PAST book new Mary to John
John gave Mary a new book.
Al is used together with human nouns and arh together with animals. In case of groups, al is used. Aed functions as a topicalizing postposition, or like the word "however" in English. Ív is used for expressing who's or what sake something is done for. Lhueslue doesn't have distinction between illative and allative or elative and ablative, but there is a distinction between if something is going to our from a place (aeng and nga) or person (av and vae). Av and vae are used for expressing that something is delivered to or from someone, or that someone is visiting that person. To express that something enters or exits someone's body, aeng and nga are used however.
The normal word order in Lhueslue is VOS.
The genitive is expressed with the particle eev. The order is possessed noun - eev - possessor.
|Su eev rong.|
Imperative sentences have always a subject, which is the person who is requested to do something. The subject is moved to the beginning of the sentence while everything else follows the normal word order.
|Rixh zexh chuloung aeng!|
|Go to your room!|
The verb can be in either present or future tense. Using future tense is more polite, because it implies that the speaker understands that the action can't be carried out immediately.
The hortative mood is formed exactly the same way as the imperative, but the pronoun that is used must be a first person plural.
|Lajlaj sluesoexeexh thtoedsvue|
|Let's write a note, shall we?|
For indicating duration, a temporal adverb is placed after the verb. A temporal adverb anywhere else indicates when something happened.
|Zexhéheq raj qae-yif.|
| I ran yesterday.
When indicating when something happened, the temporal adverb can be placed after any object or subject. It is preferrably placed after whichever core argument that has the smallest amount of other words referring to it (adjectives, spatial particles, etc.) after it. If there are several word that qualify as "the core argument with least amount of referents following it", the temporal adverb is placed as close to the beginning of the sentence as possible if the time reference is seen as something important, and as close to the end as possible if it's seen as something unimportant. The temporal adverb can also be placed at the beginning of a sentence, in which case it indicates topicality.
The particle sùej is placed at the beginning of a sentence, no matter what type of question it is.