Middle High Jermench (MGR)

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Middle High Jermench
Iërmenze
Spoken in: Holy Roman Empire
Conworld: Mundus Germaniae Romanae
Total speakers: unknown
Genealogical classification: Indo-European
Romance
Northern-Romance
Middle High Jermench
Basic word order: SVO
Morphological type: inflecting
Morphosyntactic alignment: nominative-accusative
Created by:
P Collier, BP Jonsson 2006+

Introduction

Modern Descendants

Phonology

Consonants


Consonants
Bilabial Labiodental Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p   b t   d k   g
Affricate p͡f     t͡s    
Fricative f   v s     z ʃ x     h
Approximant w j
Trill r
Lateral l

Vowels


Vowels
Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
High iː   yː
Near-high ɪ   y ʊ
High-mid e   øː
Mid ə
Low-mid ɛ   ø ɔ   ɔː
Low æ   æː a   aː

Phonological History

Morphology

Nouns

1st Declension

During the Middle High Jermench period, the reduction of unstressed vowels led to a reanalysis of the final /ə/, which was ultimately present in all forms, as being part of the noun stem.

Group I

Feminine.

A

Standard paradigm

1st Declension – Group Ia
Singular Plural
Nominative – s
Accusative – s
Genitive – r
Dative ̈– s
B

Nouns with loss/assimilation of final -s
after /s/, /z/, or /t͡s/.

1st Declension – Group Ic
Singular Plural
Nominative
Accusative
Genitive – r
Dative ̈–


2nd Declension

Group I

Masculine.

A

Standard paradigm

2nd Declension – Group Ia
Singular Plural
Nominative ̈– (e)¹
Accusative – s
Genitive – s – er
Dative ̈– (e)¹ ̈– (e)s¹
B

Nouns with loss/assimilation of final -s
after /s/, /z/, or /t͡s/.

3rd Declension – Group Ib
Singular Plural
Nominative ̈– (e)¹
Accusative
Genitive – er
Dative ̈– (e)¹ ̈– (es)¹


¹ Forms arising from primary I-mutation had generally lost their final vowel in OHJ. In nouns that underwent secondary I-mutation in MHJ, the final vowel was retained (and weakened to /ə/).

Group II

Masculine.

A

Standard paradigm

2nd Declension – Group IIa
Singular Plural
Nominative – s ̈– (e)¹
Accusative – s
Genitive – s – er
Dative ̈– (e)¹ ̈– (e)s¹
B

Nouns with loss/assimilation of final -s
after /s/, /z/, or /t͡s/.

3rd Declension – Group IIb
Singular Plural
Nominative ̈– (e)¹
Accusative
Genitive – er
Dative ̈– (e)¹ ̈– (es)¹


¹ Forms arising from primary I-mutation had generally lost their final vowel in OHJ. In nouns that underwent secondary I-mutation in MHJ, the final vowel was retained (and weakened to /ə/).

Group III

Masculine.

A

Standard paradigm

2nd Declension – Group IIIa
Singular Plural
Nominative – s ̈– (e)¹
Accusative – s
Genitive ̈– (e)¹ – er
Dative ̈– (e)s¹
B

Nouns with loss/assimilation of final -s
after /s/, /z/, or /t͡s/.

3rd Declension – Group IIIb
Singular Plural
Nominative ̈– (e)¹
Accusative
Genitive ̈– (e)¹ – er
Dative ̈– (es)¹


¹ Forms arising from primary I-mutation had generally lost their final vowel in OHJ. In nouns that underwent secondary I-mutation in MHJ, the final vowel was retained (and weakened to /ə/).

Group IV

Masculine.

A

Standard paradigm

2nd Declension – Group IVa
Singular Plural
Nominative ̈– (e)¹
Accusative – s
Genitive ̈– (e)¹ – er
Dative ̈– (e)s¹
B

Nouns with loss/assimilation of final -s
after /s/, /z/, or /t͡s/.

3rd Declension – Group IVb
Singular Plural
Nominative ̈– (e)¹
Accusative
Genitive ̈– (e)¹ – er
Dative ̈– (es)¹


¹ Forms arising from primary I-mutation had generally lost their final vowel in OHJ. In nouns that underwent secondary I-mutation in MHJ, the final vowel was retained (and weakened to /ə/).

3rd Declension

Group I

Feminine.

A

Standard paradigm

3rd Declension – Group Ia
Singular Plural
Nominative – s – s
Accusative – s
Genitive – s
Dative ̈– (e)¹ – es
B

Nouns with loss/assimilation of final -s
after /s/, /z/, or /t͡s/.

3rd Declension – Group Ib
Singular Plural
Nominative
Accusative
Genitive
Dative ̈– (e)¹ – es


¹ Forms arising from primary I-mutation had generally lost their final vowel in OHJ. In nouns that underwent secondary I-mutation in MHJ, the final vowel was retained (and weakened to /ə/).

Pronouns

Pronouns
Singular Plural
masculine feminine reflexive impersonal masculine feminine reflexive
1st person Nominative ju nus
Accusative mei nus
Genitive mi noster
Dative möue nous
2nd person Nominative zu wus
Accusative zei wus
Genitive twi wëster
Dative zöue wous
3rd person Nominative el elle hom illi ellas
Accusative sei hom sei
Genitive schwi homs schwi
Dative söue hœme sis
Interrogative
& relative
Nominative ki ki
Accusative kie kus quas
Genitive köus quæs kour quar
Dative ki quæ kius


Verbs

Indicative Mood

Present Tense
Present
Singular Plural
1st person – (e)ms
2nd person – (e)s – (e)ts
3rd Person – (e)z – (e)ntz


Preterite
Preterite (weak)
Singular Plural
1st person ̈– e ̈– esems
2nd person ̈– est ̈– ests
3rd Person ̈– e ̈– erntz
Preterite (strong)
Singular Plural
1st person – we – wems
2nd person – weste – wests
3rd Person – we – werntz


Subjunctive Mood

Present Tense
Present
Singular Plural
1st person – ems
2nd person – es – ets
3rd Person – ez – entz


Preterite
Preterite (weak)
Singular Plural
1st person ̈– wes ̈– esems
2nd person ̈– wes ̈– esets
3rd Person ̈– west ̈– wessentz
Preterite (strong)
Singular Plural
1st person – wes – wessems
2nd person – wes – wessets
3rd Person – west – wessentz


Auxilliary Verbs

Ëstzer (to be)
Present
Singular Plural
1st person sou soums
2nd person ës ësts
3rd Person ëst suntz
Preterite
Singular Plural
1st person düe doums
2nd person düste dusts
3rd Person dus dourntz

Ëstzer was used in conjunction with a passive participle to create the passive voice.

Haber (to have)
Present
Singular Plural
1st person hab habems
2nd person hos habets
3rd Person hous hontz
Preterite
Singular Plural
1st person houwe houwems
2nd person houweste houwests
3rd Person houwt houwerntz
Wiener (to come)
Present
Singular Plural
1st person wien wienems
2nd person wienes wieneszes
3rd Person wienes wienentz
Preterite
Singular Plural
1st person winwe winwems
2nd person winweste winwests
3rd Person wines winwerntz

Articles

Definite Article

Definite Article
Masculine Feminine
Nom. sing. lie li
Acc. sing. lou lus
Gen. sing. löus lour
Dat. sing. löu lis
Nom. plur. la las
Acc. plur. la las
Gen. plur. læs lour
Dat. plur. lis

Indefinite Article

Indefinite Article
Masculine Feminine
Nom. sing. uns une
Acc. sing. un une
Gen. sing. unöus unæs
Dat. sing. unöu unæ

Sample Texts