Folksprak word formation guidelines

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Proto-Germanic To Folksprak: Typical Consonant Changes

PG *b > b [b] at the beginning of a syllable. PG *baunō > boen [bøːn]. PG *brōþēr > broder [ˈbroːdər]

PG *ƀ > v [v] at the end of a syllable: PG *weƀaną > wéve [ʋeːvə]. Can be bb [b] if the PG consonant was geminated or *ƀj. PG *reƀja- > ribb [rɪb]

PG *w > w [ʋ] at the beginning of a syllable. PG *wīdaz > wid [ʋiːd]

PG *w > w [w] or [ʊ] at the end of a syllable. Inter-vocally is [w], at the end of a word makes a [ʊ] diphthong with the stem vowel. PG grǣwaz > graw [graʊ], PG *snaiwaz > snéw [sneːʊ]

PG *sk > sh [ʃ] in almost all cases. PG *skamō > sham [ʃaːm]. PG *fiskaz > fish [fɪʃ]

PG *h > h [h] at the beginning of a syllable. PG *handuz > hand [hand]

PG *h > h [x] at the end of syllable. This is the commonest evolution. PG *nahts > naht [naxt], PG *hauhaz > hoeh [høːx]

PG *h > j [j] or [ɪ] at the end of syllable, sometimes evolves to j. Inter-vocally is [j], at the end of a word becomes [ɪ] and combines as a diphthong with the stem vowel. PG *þleuhan > flyje [ˈflyːjə], PG *slahaną > slaje [ˈslaːjə], PG *tehun > tejn [teɪn]

PG *hw > w [ʋ] at the beginning of a syllable. *hwar > war [ʋaːr]

PG *hw > j [j] or [ɪ] at the end of a syllable. Inter-vocally is [j], at the end of a word becomes [ɪ] and combines as a diphthong with the stem vowel. PG *sehwaną > seje [ˈseːjə], PG *taihwō > tej [teɪ]

PG *hr > r [r] at the beginning of a syllable: PG *hringaz > ring [rɪŋ]. At the end of a syllable is -jr [-ɪr] and combines as a diphthong with the stem vowel: PG *tahrą > tajr [taɪr]

PG *hl > l [l]. PG *hlahjaną > lahe [ˈlaːxə]. At the end of a syllable is -jl [-ɪl] and combines as a diphthong with the stem vowel: PG *hanhilō > hejl [heɪl]

PG *g > g [g] at the beginning of a syllable. This is also the most common evolution in other positions of the syllable – but see below. PG *geƀaną > géve [ˈgeːve]. PG *dagaz > dag [daːg]

PG *g+*j > gg [g]. PG *brugjō > brygg [brʏg]

PG *g > j [j] or [ɪ] at the end of a syllable. This only happens when the majority of the source languages have lost the *g, but it’s still retained by a minority or retained in some cognate words. Inter-vocally is [j], at the end of a word makes a +[ɪ] diphthong with the stem vowel. PG *seglam > sejl [seɪl], PG *magaþiz > majd [maid]

PG *þ > t [t] at the beginning of a syllable. PG *þrǣduz > trad [traːd]. PG *þankōną > tanke [ˈtaŋkə]

PG *þ > d [d] at the end of a syllable. PG *baþą > bad [baːd]. PG *erþō > érd [ɛrd]

PG *þ > d [d] sometimes at the beginning of syllable. This is mostly in pronouns, articles, and some particles/adverbs. This is when *þ evolves to d [d] in Scandinavian languages and to voiced th [ð] in English. Whether the cognate is voiced in English and/or Scandinavian is the deciding factor here. PG *þauh > doh [doːh]. PG *þū > du [duː].

PG *f > f [f] at the start of syllables. PG *fadēr > fader [ˈfaːdər]

PG *f > v [v] at the end of syllables. PG *hōfaz > hov [hoːv]. If it is geminated or *f+*j, then becomes ff [f].

Proto-Germanic To Folksprak: Typical Vowel Changes

PG *ī > i [iː]. PG *rīdaną > ride [ˈriːdə], PG *hwītaz wit [ʋiːt]

PG *ō > o [oː]. PG *blōdam > blod [bloːd], PG *mōþar > moder [ˈmoːdər]

PG *ū > u [uː]. PG *hūsą > hus [huːs], PG *rūhaz > ruj [ruːɪ]

PG *ǣ > a [aː]. PG *dǣdiz > dad [daːd], PG *ǣlaz > al [aːl]

PG *ai > é [eː]. É in stressed syllables is optionally written with a acute accent. This is to disambiguate it from e used as a schwa [ə]. It should written with an acute accent in dictionaries and language learning materials. In normal writing, intended for fluent readers, it can be left off. PG *haimaz > hém [heːm]. *dailijan > déle [deːlə]

PG *au > oe [øː]. PG *baunō > boen [bøːn]. PG *hauƀudą > hoeved [ˈhøːvəd]

PG *eu > y [yː]. PG *deupaz > dyp [dyːp]. PG *freusaną > fryse [ˈfryːsə]

PG *a > a, [a] or [aː] short or long depending on following geminated consonants. PG *strandaz > strand [strand], *PG *hwalaz > wal [ʋaːl]

PG *e > é, [ɛ] or é [eː] short or long depending on following geminated consonants. PG *wegaz > wég [ʋeːg]. PG *sternan, *sterran > stérr [stɛr]

PG *e > i [ɪ] if the majority of source languages show i-mutation and if the following consonants are geminated. PG *lepjōn > lipp [lɪp]. PG *senn, *senþ- > sinn [sɪn]

PG *u > u, [ʊ] or o [ɔ] or o [oː] short or long depending on following geminated consonants. Short versions change to o if the majority of source languages do. PG *under > under [ˈʊndər], PG *hurnaz > horn [hɔrn], PG *uƀer > over [ˈoːvər]

PG *a > é [ɛ] or é [eː] if the majority of source languages show i-mutation. PG *wadjōną > wédde [ˈʋɛdə], PG *bazjan > bére [ˈbeːrə]

PG *u > y [ʏ] or y [yː] if the majority of source languages show i-mutation, long or short depending if the following consonants are geminated. PG *hrugjaz > rygg [rʏg], PG *uƀilaz > yvel [ˈyːvəl]

PG *ō > oe [øː] if the majority of the source languages show i-mutation. WG *grōnja- > groen [grøːn], WG *fōljan > foele [ˈføːlə]

PG *ū > y [yː] if the majority of the source languages show i-mutation. PG *kūhska, *kūhski > kysh [kʏʃ], WG *fūir > fyr [fyːr]

PG *ǣ > ae [ɛː] if the majority of the source languages show i-mutation. Latin caseus > WG *kǣsjus > kaes [kɛːs], PG *fǣgjan > faege [ˈfɛːgə]

PG *a, *e, *i, *o, *u etc in unstressed syllables generalize to e [ə] or are lost altogether. Whether to drop an unstressed vowel or retain it is generally determined by what has occurred in the majority of the source languages. PG ga-nōga > genog [gəˈnoːg]. PG *augōn > oege [ˈøːgə]. PG *haƀukaz > havek [ˈhaːvək], PG *hōraz > hor [hoːr]

Latin, Græco-Latin, Romance And French To Folksprak: Typical Consonant Changes

Guidelines for bringing Romance internationalisms into Folksprak.

Generally based on the Interlingua or French form. The form of most of the consonants are retained and are pronounced as they are spelled, but with the following changes applied:

*c not before e, i, y > k [k]: IL cablo > kabel [ˈkaːbəl], IL directe > dirékt [dɪˈrɛkt]

*c before æ, e, i, y > c [ʦ] IL cemento > cemént [ʦɛˈmɛnt], IL decembre > decémber [dɛˈʦɛmbər]. A word final *c is not possible, so the normal solution is that if any of the source languages pronounce an extra vowel after the *c in their cognates, then a final e [ə] should be added: ekscellénce [ɛksʦɛˈlɛnʦə] not *ekscellénc If none of the source languages have an extra vowel, then *c should be changed to s [s]: dans [dans] not *danc.

*-ti-, before another vowel > -ci- [-ʦj-] IL station > stacion [staˈʦjoːn], IL absentia > abséncie [abˈsɛnʦjə], IL patiente > paciént [paˈʦjɛnt]

*ch (Græco-Latin chi) > k [k]. IL character > karakter [kaˈraktər], IL technica > teknik [tɛkˈniːk]

*ch (French/Spanish ch) > sh [ʃ]. French revanche > revansh [rɛˈvanʃ], IL chance > shance [ˈʃanʦə], IL broche > brosh [brɔʃ]

*g (French soft g before e, i, y) > gj [ʒ]. This only happens when the majority of the source languages have changed the pronunciation from the default for g. So normally the English cognate will have [ʤ] and the German cognate with have [ʒ]. IL gesto > gjéste [ˈʒɛstə], IL bagage > bagagje [baˈgaʒə]

*ph (Græco-Latin phi) > f [f]. IL photographo > fotograf [fɔtɔˈgraːf]

*th (Græco-Latin theta) > t [t] IL theatro > teater [tɛˈaːtər]. IL apotheca > apoték [apɔˈteːk]

*x > ks [ks]. IL luxo > lukse [ˈlʊksə], IL extreme > ekstrém [ɛksˈtreːm]

*qu > kw [kʋ] IL quadrato > kwadrat [kʋaˈdraːt], IL adequate > adekwat [adɛˈkʋaːt]

*que (French que) > k [k]. When French *que is used to designate a [k] sound before a *e or *i, then is changed to k [k]. French banquet > bankétt [baŋˈkɛt], French liqueur > likoer [lɪˈkøːr]

Latin, Græco-Latin, Romance And French To Folksprak: Typical Vowel Changes

Generally based on the Interlingua or French form. The form of most of the vowels are retained and are pronounced as they are spelled – the vowel length is long or short depending on whether the following consonant is singular or a cluster, but with the following changes applied:

*u (French u) > y [ʏː] or [yː], long or short depending on following consonants (single or clusters). This only happens when the majority of the source languages have adopted the French pronunciation and assimilated it to their native orthography. In more cases *u > u [ʊ] or [uː]. Fr brusque > brysk [brʏsk], Fr brochure > broshyre [brɔˈʃyːrə]

*é (French é) > éé [eː] only in a word final position. Fr cliché > klishéé [klɪˈʃeː]. Fr allée > alléé [aˈleː]

*ai (French ai) > ae [ɛː] generally when changed to ä and æ in German and Scandinavian, the cognate in Folksprak will have ae. Note that the English cognate may have ea or ai, and the Dutch ei, e or ai: Fr détail > detael [dɛˈtɛːl], Fr portrait > portraet [pɔrˈtrɛːt], Fr saison > saeson [sɛːˈzoːn]. Fr fontaine > fontaen [fɔnˈtɛːn]

*eu (French eu) > oe [øː]. This applies only to French eu. Græco-Latin eu remains as eu. Fr régisseur > regjissoer [rɛʒɪˈsøːr]. Fr sérieux > serioes [sɛrɪˈøːs]. Fr adieu > adioe [adˈjøː]

*ou (French ou) > u [uː] or [ʊ] depending on following consonants (single or clusters). Fr douche > dush [dʊʃ]. Fr tour > tur [tuːr]. Fr limousine > limusin [lɪmʊˈsiːn].

*eu (Græco-Latin eu) > eu [ɛʊ]. Unlike French *eu, Græco-Latin *eu remains unchanged: IL neurologo > neurolog [nɛʊrɔˈloːg]. IL Europa > Europa [ɛʊˈroːpa]

*æ (Græco-Latin æ) > é [eː] or [ɛ] depending on following consonants (single or clusters). Unlike German and Danish, but like American English, Dutch and Swedish, Græco-Latin *æ merges with é. L præcisus > IL precise > precis [prɛˈʦiːs]. Latin æra > IL era > éra [ˈeːra]

*a (from Latin *-tas, *-tatem) > ae [ɛː]. Latin universitas/universitatem > IL universitate > universitaet [ʊnɪvɛrsɪˈtɛːt]. L qualitas/qualitatem > IL qualitate > kwalitaet [kʋalɪˈtɛːt]

*a (from Latin *-alis) > a [aː]. Latin actualis > IL actual > aktual [aktʊˈaːl], Latin realis > IL real > real [rɛˈaːl]

*-ar, -*er, -*-ir (from Latin -are and other Romance verb infinitive suffixes) > -aer- [-ˈɛːr-]: IL diriger > dirigaere [dɪrɪˈgɛːrə], IL nivellar > nivellaere [nɪvɛˈlɛːrə]


Mini-dictionary of example words

abséncie n. absence

adioe int. goodbye

adekwat a. adequate

al n. eel

alléé n. alley

apoték n. pharmacy

bad n. bath

bagagje n. baggage

bankétt n. banquet

bére n. berry

blod n. blood

boen n. bean

boen n. bean

broder n. brother

brosh n. brooch

broshyre n. brochure

brygg n. bridge

brysk v. brusque

cemént n. cement

dag n. day

dans n. dance

decémber n. December

déle v. share

detael n. detail

dirékt a. direct

dirigaere v. direct

doh adv. but, though

du prn. you

dus n. shower

dyp a. deep

ekscellénce n. excellence

ekstrém a. extreme

éra n. era

érd n. earth

Europa n. Europe

fader n. father

faege v. sweep

fish n. fish

flyje v. flee

foele v. feel

fontaen n. fountain

fotograf n. photographer

fryse v. freeze

fyr n. fire

geve v. give

genog adv. enough

gjéste n. gesture

graw a. gray

groen a. green

havek n. hawk

hejl n. heel

hém adv. home

hoeh a. high

hoeved n. head

hor n. whore

horn n. horn

hov n. hoof

kabel n. cable

kaes n. cheese

karakter n. character

klishee n. stereotype

kwadrat n. square

kwalitaet n. quality

kysh a. chaste

lahe v. laugh

likoer n. liqueur

lipp n. lip

limusin n. limousine

lukse n. luxury

moder n. mother

naht n. night

neurolog n. neurologist

nivellaere v. level

oege n. eye

over prep. over

paciént n. patient

precis a. precise

revansh n. revenge

portraet n. portrait

regjissoer n. stage manager

ribb n. rib

ring n. ring

ruj a. rough

rygg n. back

saeson n. season

seje v. see

serioes a. serious

sham n. shame, dishonor

shance n. chance

sinn n. mind, sense

slaje v. hit

snew n. snow

stacion n. station

stérr n. star

strand n. beach

tajr n. tear(drop)

tanke v. thank

teater n. theater

tej n. toe

tejn n. ten

teknik n. technique

trad n. thread

tur n. tour

under prep. under

universitaet n. university

wal n. whale

war adv. where

wédde v. bet, wager

wég n. weg

wéve v. weave

wid a. wide

wit a. white

yvel a. bad