Classical Laefêvëši nouns

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NOTE: This is an obsolete form of the conlang. It has been renamed to Classical Laefêvëši to distinguish it from the new version, which is Ascended or Celestial Laefêvëši.

Nouns in Classical Laefêvëši are marked for both case and number. There are 25 cases divided into three groups and 3 numbers (singular, dual and plural). Nouns are also divided into two genders: masculine and feminine. Articles are not used any more, however, under some conditions they can be used but they do not mark definiteness in usual sense.


In Classical Laefêvëši, nouns belong to one of the two genders: masculine or feminine. There used to be a neutral gender but its usage slowly decreased and it's nowadays not used any more. The grammatical gender of nouns is generally indicated by the ending of the noun. Adjectives, pronouns and verbal forms expressing gender normally agree in gender with the noun they qualify.

Masculine nouns

Most nouns ending in a consonant are masculine. Of masculine gender are also nouns that naturally indicate male persons or male animals. However, some nouns (male names mainly) end in a vowel but are masculine gender.

Feminine nouns

Most nouns ending in a vowel are feminine. Nouns that naturally indicate female persons or female animals are feminine. Some nouns that end in a consonant (female names mainly) are also of feminine gender.


Both feminine and masculine nouns are divided into two subtypes:

  • animate nouns: they denote animate beings
  • inanimate nouns: they denote inanimate objects

This feature is also reflected in the first declensions; the animate nouns have a different suffix in accusative and genitive than the inanimate nouns.

Certain nouns have the animacy feature even though they represent inanimate objects.


Three numbers are distinguished in Laefeveshi: singular, dual and plural. Numbers are marked with suffixes.


Main article: Cases in Laefêvëši

Laefeveshi nouns have 25 cases in the singular, dual and plural. Cases are divided into three groups.

Groups are:

  1. Basic or main cases: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, locative, instrumental
  2. Sub-cases: terminative, egressive, elative, abessive, lative, illative, benefactive, sublative, superessive, inessive, temporal, antensive, instcomitative
  3. Additional cases: vocative, partitive, nepartitive, equative, amarative, miristive

The basic cases can replace any of the sub-cases and additional cases. The cases are arranged in the so-called case hierarchy which shows which case can replace another case.

  • 1. Nominative
  • 2. Genitive
    • 13. Terminative
    • 14. Egressive
    • 15. Elative
    • 16. Abessive
  • 3. Dative
      • 17. Lative
  • 4. Accusative
    • 18. Illative
    • 19. Benefactive
    • 20. Sublative
  • 5. Locative
    • 21. Superessive
    • 22. Inessive
    • 23. Temporal
  • 6. Instrumental
    • 24. Antensive
    • 25. Instcomitative
  • 7. Vocative
  • 8. Partitive
  • 9. Nepartitive
  • 10. Equative
  • 11. Amarative
  • 12. Miristive

The additional cases (marked in italics) are replaced by nominative, except partitve which is replaced by genitive in most examples.

The number before the cases is the number the particular case is generally referred to. The cases are normally presented by those numbers, i. e. nominative is the 1st case, genitive is the 2nd case, terminative is the 13th case, etc.

Locative and instrumental are prepositional cases and are always used with prepositions.

Case cohesiveness

Cases are also divided into two groups, called open cases and closed cases, this feature is called case cohesiveness. The difference between them is that open cases can be combined with other cases while closed cases cannot combine.

Open cases are:

  • vocative (7)
  • partitive (8)
  • nepartitive (9)
  • equative (10)
  • amarative (11)
  • miristive (12)
  • temporal (23)


Masculine declensions

First masculine declension

Masculine Inanimate First Declension
Case Singular Dual Plural
Nominative (1) láih láihie láihā
Genitive (2) láihau láihiau láihasa
Terminative (13) láihalu láihialu láihasla
Egressive (14) láihalo láihialo láihaslu
Elative (15) láihatu láihiatu láihasta
Abessive (16) láihazu láihiazu láihazza
Dative (3) láihiu láihiue láihasi
Lative (17) láihicu láihiacu láihači
Accusative (4) láiheu láihieu láihase
Illative (18) láihelu láihielu láihasle
Benefactive (19) láihelo láihielo láihasli
Sublative (20) láiheru láihieru láihasre
Locative (5) láihui láihiui láihasu
Superessive (21) láihuki láihiuki láihasku
Inessive (22) láihuli láihiuli láihaslu
Temporal (23) láihuko láihiuko láihasko
Instrumental (6) láihou láihiou láihaso
Antesive (24) láiholu láihiolu láihaslo
Instcomitative (25) láihodu láihiodu láihasto
Vocative (7) láiho láihoma láihova
Partitive (8) láihea láiheni láihevi
Nepartitive (9) láihena láihenni láihenvi
Equative (10) láihana láihiana láihasna
Amarative (11) láihy láihyne láihyve
Miristive (12) láihot láihote láihotte
Masculine Animate First Declension
Case Singular Dual Plural
Nominative (1) Lêmōš Lêmōšie Lêmōšā
Genitive (2) Lêmōšye Lêmōšiye Lêmōšysë
Terminative (13) Lêmōšalu Lêmōšialu Lêmōšasla
Egressive (14) Lêmōšalo Lêmōšialo Lêmōšaslu
Elative (15) Lêmōšatu Lêmōšiatu Lêmōšasta
Abessive (16) Lêmōšazu Lêmōšiazu Lêmōšazza
Dative (3) Lêmōšiu Lêmōšiue Lêmōšasi
Lative (17) Lêmōšicu Lêmōšiacu Lêmōšači
Accusative (4) Lêmōšēi Lêmōšiēi Lêmōšēsy
Illative (18) Lêmōšelu Lêmōšielu Lêmōšasle
Benefactive (19) Lêmōšelo Lêmōšielo Lêmōšasli
Sublative (20) Lêmōšeru Lêmōšieru Lêmōšasre
Locative (5) Lêmōšui Lêmōšiui Lêmōšasu
Superessive (21) Lêmōšuki Lêmōšiuki Lêmōšasku
Inessive (22) Lêmōšuli Lêmōšiuli Lêmōšaslu
Temporal (23) Lêmōšuko Lêmōšiuko Lêmōšasko
Instrumental (6) Lêmōšou Lêmōšiou Lêmōšaso
Antesive (24) Lêmōšolu Lêmōšiolu Lêmōšaslo
Instcomitative (25) Lêmōšodu Lêmōšiodu Lêmōšasto
Vocative (7) Lêmōšo Lêmōšoma Lêmōšova
Partitive (8) Lêmōšea Lêmōšeni Lêmōševi
Nepartitive (9) Lêmōšena Lêmōšenni Lêmōšenvi
Equative (10) Lêmōšana Lêmōšiana Lêmōšasna
Amarative (10) Lêmōšy Lêmōšyne Lêmōšyve
Miristive (12) Lêmōšot Lêmōšote Lêmōšotte


  • when the noun end in -w in nominative singular, the -w changes into geminate -vv and the stress is placed on the syllable before the geminate -vv: nómiw (nom. sg.) -> nomívvie (nom. dual). This change applies for all declined cases.
  • when the noun ends in -va in nominative singular, the -va changes into -tv, to which is then added the appropriate suffix.
  • when the noun ends in -j or -i in nominative singular, the -j changes into and the -i changes into -z when declined.
  • when a male personal name ends in -i in nominative singular, the stem is lengthened with -nt when declined: Ásti -> Ástintiu.

Second masculine declension

The second declension applies to those noun that end on a consonant which can be geminated. The consonant in the suffix changes accordingly to the last consonant of the stem.

Word-final geminate consonants are: -m, -p, -f, -n, -t, -r, -þ, -s, -l and -k (and -w).

Masculine Second Declension
Case Singular Dual Plural
Nominative (1) šéntal šéntalie šéntalā
Genitive (2) šéntalau šéntaliau šéntalasa
Terminative (13) šéntally šéntalialu šéntalasla
Egressive (14) šéntallo šéntalialo šéntalaslu
Elative (15) šéntallu šéntaliatu šéntalasta
Abessive (16) šéntal šéntaliazu šéntalazza
Dative (3) šéntaliu šéntaliue šéntalasi
Lative (17) šéntal šéntaliacu šéntalači
Accusative (4) šéntaleu šéntalieu šéntalase
Illative (18) šéntal šéntalielu šéntalasle
Benefactive (19) šéntallaa šéntalielo šéntalasli
Sublative (20) šéntal šéntalieru šéntalasre
Locative (5) šéntalui šéntaliui šéntalasu
Superessive (21) šéntalli šéntaliuki šéntalasku
Inessive (22) šéntal šéntaliuli šéntalaslu
Temporal (23) šéntal šéntaliuko šéntalasko
Instrumental (6) šéntalou šéntaliou šéntalaso
Antesive (24) šéntal šéntaliolu šéntalaslo
Instcomitative (25) šéntal šéntaliodu šéntalasto
Vocative (7) šéntalo šéntaloma šéntalova
Partitive (8) šéntalea šéntaleni šéntalevi
Nepartitive (9) šéntalena šéntalenni šéntalenvi
Equative (10) šéntalana šéntaliana šéntalasna
Amarative (11) šéntaly šéntalyne šéntalyve
Miristive (12) šéntalot šéntalote šéntalotte
Masculine Second Declension - Complete
Case -F -K -L -M -N -P -R S -T -W
Nominative (1) Níf râk tħél eâm viên sôēp klýr éas ljöîþ Vát nómiw
Genitive (2) Nífau râkau tħélau eâmau viênau sôēpau klýrau éasau ljöîþau Vátau nomívvau
Terminative (13) Níffy râkky tħélly eâmmy viênny sôēppy klýrry éassy ljöîþþy Vátty nomívvy
Egressive (14) Níffo râkko tħéllo eâmmo viênno sôēppo klýrro éasso ljöîþþo Vátto nomívvo
Elative (15) Níffu râkku tħéllu eâmmu viênnu sôēppu klýrru éassu ljöîþþu Váttu nomívvu
Abessive (16) Níf râk tħél eâm viên sôēp klýr éas ljöîþþā Vát nomív
Dative (3) Nífiu râkiu tħéliu eâmiu viêniu sôēpiu klýriu éasiu ljöîþiu Vátiu nomívviu
Lative (17) Níf râk tħél eâm viên sôēp klýr éas ljöîþþī Vát nomív
Accusative (4) Nífeu râkeu tħéleu eâmeu viêneu sôēpeu klýreu éaseu ljöîþeu Váteu nomívveu
Illative (18) Níf râk tħél eâm viên sôēp klýr éas ljöîþþø Vát nomív
Benefactive (19) Níffaa râkkaa tħéllaa eâmmaa viênnaa sôēppaa klýrraa éassaa ljöîþþaa Váttaa nomívvaa
Sublative (20) Níf râk tħél eâm viên sôēp klýr éas ljöîþþū Vát nomív
Locative (5) Nífui râkui tħélui eâmui viênui sôēpui klýrui éasui ljöîþui Vátui nomívvui
Superessive (21) Níffi râkki tħélli eâmmi viênni sôēppi klýrri éassi ljöîþþi Vátti nomívvi
Inessive (22) Níf râk tħél eâm viên sôēp klýr éas ljöîþþē Vát nomív
Temporal (23) Níf râk tħél eâm viên sôēp klýr éas ljöîþþō Vát nomív
Instrumental (6) Nífou râkou tħélou eâmou viênou sôēpou klýrou éasou ljöîþou Vátou nomívvou
Antesive (24) Níf râk tħél eâm viên sôēp klýr éas ljöîþþö Vát nomív
Instcomitative (25) Níf râk tħél eâm viên sôēp klýr éas ljöîþþë Vát nomív
Vocative (7) Nífo râko tħélo eâmo viêno sôēpo klýro éaso ljöîþo Váto nomívvo
Partitive (8) Nífea râkea tħélea eâmea viênea sôēpea klýrea éasea ljöîþea Vátea nomívvea
Nepartitive (9) Nífena,
Equative (10) Nífana,
Amarative (11) Nífy râky tħély eâmy viêny sôēpy klýry éasy ljöîþy Váty nomívvy
Miristive (12) Níföt râköt tħélöt eâmöt viênöt sôēpöt klýröt éasöt ljöîþöt Vátöt nomívvöt

Third masculine declension

The third masculine declension is like the first, only that it has contracted suffixes. It is interchangeable with the first masculine declension.

Masculine Inanimate First Declension
Case Singular Dual Plural
Nominative (1) láih láihie láihā
Genitive (2) láihau láihiau láihas
Terminative (13) láihal láihial láihisk
Egressive (14) láihol láihiol láihist
Elative (15) láihat láihiat láihast
Abessive (16) láih láihiaþ láihāþ
Dative (3) láihiu láihiue láihis
Lative (17) láihik láihiak láihask
Accusative (4) láiheu láihieu láihes
Illative (18) láihel láihiel láihest
Benefactive (19) láihøl láihiøl láihøst
Sublative (20) láiher láihier láihers
Locative (5) láihui láihiui láihus
Superessive (21) láihuk láihiuk láihusk
Inessive (22) láihil láihiil láihust
Temporal (23) láihok láihiok láihosk
Instrumental (6) láihou láihiou láihos
Antesive (24) láihul láihiul láihost
Instcomitative (25) láihot láihiot láihust
Vocative (7) láiho láihom láihof
Partitive (8) láihea láihen láihef
Nepartitive (9) láihøn láihiøn láihøf
Equative (10) láihan láihian láihans
Amarative (11) láihy láihyn láihyf
Miristive (12) láihot láihiøt láihøt

Feminine declensions

First feminine declension

Feminine Inanimate First Declension
Case Singular Dual Plural
Nominative (1) lâne lânesk lâneš
Genitive (2) lânede lâneske lâneše
Terminative (13) lânele lânesle lânešle
Egressive (14) lânene lânesne lânešne
Elative (15) lânete lâneste lânešte
Abessive (16) lâneze lânezze lâneže
Dative (3) lânedo lânesko lânešo
Lative (17) lâneco lânecħo lânedžo
Accusative (4) lâneda lâneska lâneša
Illative (18) lânela lânesla lânešla
Benefactive (19) lânelja lânesja lânešja
Sublative (20) lânera lânesŗa lânešŗa
Locative (5) lânedi lâneskø lâneši
Superessive (21) lâneki lâneski lâneške
Inessive (22) lâneli lânesli lâneški
Temporal (23) lâneko lânesto lâneško
Instrumental (6) lânedu lânesku lânešu
Antesive (24) lânelu lâneslu lânešlu
Instcomitative (25) lâneku lânesnø lânešnø
Vocative (7) lânexo lâne lâneȝø
Partitive (8) lânedei lâneskei lâneȝei
Nepartitive (9) lânetnei lânestnei lânežnei
Equative (10) lânezo lâneʒo lâneco
Amarative (11) lâne lâne lâneźē
Miristive (12) lâne lânege lânekše
Feminine Animate First Declension
Case Singular Dual Plural
Nominative (1) kínoo kínoosk kínooš
Genitive (2) kínoo kínooskē kínoošē
Terminative (13) kínoole kínoosle kínoošle
Egressive (14) kínoone kínooske kínoošne
Elative (15) kínoote kínooste kínoošte
Abessive (16) kínooze kínoozze kínoože
Dative (3) kínoodo kínoosko kínoošo
Lative (17) kínooco kínoocħo kínoodžo
Accusative (4) kínoo kínooskø kínoošø
Illative (18) kínoola kínoosla kínoošla
Benefactive (19) kínoolja kínoosja kínoošja
Sublative (20) kínoora kínoosŗa kínoošŗa
Locative (5) kínoodi kínooske kínooši
Superessive (21) kínooki kínooski kínooške
Inessive (22) kínooli kínoosli kínooški
Temporal (23) kínooko kínoosto kínooško
Instrumental (6) kínoodu kínoosku kínoošu
Antesive (24) kínoolu kínooslu kínoošlu
Instcomitative (25) kínooku kínoosnø kínoošnø
Vocative (7) kínooxo kínooxø kínooȝø
Partitive (8) kínoodei kínooskei kínooȝei
Nepartitive (9) kínootnei kínoostnei kínoožnei
Equative (10) kínoozo kínooʒo kínooco
Amarative (11) kínooxī kínooxē kínooźē
Miristive (12) kínoogë kínooge kínookše

Second feminine declension

This declension includes feminine nouns that end on a voiced consonant which is in nominative singular always pronounced as devoiced. When declining the suffixes may change and sometimes also the final voiced stem consonant. An additional -i is inserted between the stem and the suffix in dual and plural (which use the regular suffixes). Where possible, the final stem consonant and the suffix consonant form a geminate consonant.

Consonants: -b, -d, -g, -x, -v, -z and -ð (pronounced as /p/, /t/, /k/, /x/, /f/, /s/ and /θ/).

Feminine Second Declension
Case Singular Dual Plural
Nominative (1) Xolléad Xolléadisk Xolléadiš
Genitive (2) Xolléadde Xolléadiske Xolléadiše
Terminative (13) Xolléadle Xolléadisle Xolléadišle
Egressive (14) Xolléadne Xolléadisne Xolléadišne
Elative (15) Xolléaddie Xolléadiste Xolléadište
Abessive (16) Xolléadze Xolléadizze Xolléadiže
Dative (3) Xolléaddo Xolléadisko Xolléadišo
Lative (17) Xolléaddyo Xolléadicħo Xolléadiǯo
Accusative (4) Xolléadda Xolléadiska Xolléadiša
Illative (18) Xolléadla Xolléadisla Xolléadišla
Benefactive (19) Xolléadlja Xolléadisja Xolléadišja
Sublative (20) Xolléadra Xolléadisŗa Xolléadišŗa
Locative (5) Xolléaddi Xolléadiskø Xolléadiši
Superessive (21) Xolléaddui Xolléadiski Xolléadiške
Inessive (22) Xolléadli Xolléadisli Xolléadiški
Temporal (23) Xolléadduo Xolléadiso Xolléadiško
Instrumental (6) Xolléaddu Xolléadisku Xolléadišu
Antesive (24) Xolléadlu Xolléadislu Xolléadišlu
Instcomitative (25) Xolléadduu Xolléadisnø Xolléadišnø
Vocative (7) Xolléadxo Xolléadi Xolléadiȝø
Partitive (8) Xolléaddei Xolléadiskei Xolléadiȝei
Nepartitive (9) Xolléašniei Xolléadistnei Xolléadižnei
Equative (10) Xolléadzo Xolléadiʒo Xolléadico
Amarative (11) Xolléadxī Xolléadi Xolléadiźē
Miristive (12) Xolléadgë Xolléadige Xolléadikše
Feminine Second Declension - Complete
Case -B -D -G -X -V -Z
Nominative (1) süáb Xolléad érkyg lúix ōntôv ýźuz sølíð
Genitive (2) süábde Xolléadde érkygde lúixde ōntôvde ýźuzde sølíðde
Terminative (13) süáble Xolléadle érkygle lúixle ōntôvle ýźuzle sølíðle
Egressive (14) süábne Xolléadne érkygne lúixne ōntôvne ýźuzne sølíðne
Elative (15) süábbie Xolléaddie érkyggie lúihtie ōntôvvie ýźuzzie sølíððie
Abessive (16) süábze Xolléadze érkygze lúixze ōntôvze ýźuzze sølíððe
Dative (3) süábdo Xolléaddo érkygdo lúixdo ōntôvdo ýźuzdo sølíðdo
Lative (17) süábbyo Xolléaddyo érkyggyo lúihcyo ōntôvvyo ýźuzzyo sølíððyo
Accusative (4) süábda Xolléadda érkygda lúixda ōntôvda ýźuzda sølíðda
Illative (18) süábla Xolléadla érkygla lúixla ōntôvla ýźuzla sølíðla
Benefactive (19) süáblja Xolléadlja érkyglja lúixlja ōntôvlja ýźuzlja sølíðlja
Sublative (20) süábra Xolléadra érkygra lúixra ōntôvra ýźuzra sølíðra
Locative (5) süábdi Xolléaddi érkygdi lúixdi ōntôvdi ýźuzdi sølíðdi
Superessive (21) süábbui Xolléaddui érkyggui lúihkui ōntôvvui ýźuzzui sølíððui
Inessive (22) süábli Xolléadli érkygli lúixli ōntôvli ýźuzli sølíðli
Temporal (23) süábbuo Xolléadduo érkygguo lúihkuo ōntôvvuo ýźuzzuo sølíððuo
Instrumental (6) süábdu Xolléaddu érkygdu lúixdu ōntôvdu ýźuzdu sølíðdu
Antesive (24) süáblu Xolléadlu érkyglu lúixlu ōntôvlu ýźuzlu sølíðlu
Instcomitative (25) süábbuu Xolléadduu érkygguu lúihkuu ōntôvvuu ýźuzzuu sølíððuu
Vocative (7) süábxo Xolléadxo érkyggo lúihko ōntôvxo ýźuzxo sølíðxo
Partitive (8) süábdei Xolléaddei érkygdei lúixdei ōntôvdei ýźuzdei sølíðdei
Nepartitive (9) süáptnei Xolléašniei érkyktnei lúihtnei ōntôftnei ýźustnei sølíþtnei
Equative (10) süábzo Xolléadzo érkygzo lúixzo ōntôvzo ýźuvzo sølíððo
Amarative (11) süábxī Xolléadxī érkyggī lúihkī ōntôvxī ýźuzxī sølíðxī
Miristive (12) süábgë Xolléadgë érkyggë lúihkë ōntôvgë ýźuzgë sølíðgë

Partitive suffixes

Number Masculine Feminine
three -eli -ȝia
four -emi -ȝai
five -elvi -ȝøi
six -eni -ȝie
seven -avi -ȝeli
eight -evji -ȝeji
nine -eri -ȝeri
ten -eśi -ȝeśi
eleven -eviśa -ȝesi
twelve -eviva -ȝeva
thirteen -evila -ȝela
fourteen -evima -ȝema
fifteen -evela -ȝila
sixteen -evina -ȝena
seventeen -evena -ȝina
eighteen -evele -ȝele
nineteen -evere -ȝere

Escalation of nouns

The escalation of nouns has two types: diminutives and augmentatives.


There are two basic diminutive degrees (besides the basic or zeroth degree), however, it is possible to create even smaller degrees by combining the suffixes.

Degree Masculine Feminine
singular dual plural singular dual plural
long short long short long short long short long short long short
Zeroth -/
First -ifi -fi -ife -fe -ifa -fa -iki -kħi -ike -kħe -ika -kħa
Second -iwi -wi -iwe -we -iwa -wa -ihi -hi -ihe -he -iha -ha
Third -iwfi -ufi -iwfe -ufe -iwfa -ufa -ihki -hki -ihke -hke -ihka -hka


Degree Masculine Feminine
singular dual plural singular dual plural
long short long short long short long short long short long short
Zeroth Êlir vásna
First Êlirifi Êlirfi Êlirife Êlirfe Êlirifa Êlirfa vásnaiki vásnakħi vásnaike vásnakħe vásnaika vásnakħa
Second Êliriwi Êlirwi Êliriwe Êlirwe Êliriwa Êlirwa vásnaihi vásnahi vásnaihe vásnahe vásnaiha vásnaha
Third Êliriwfi Êlirufi Êliriwfe Êlirufe Êliriwfa Êlirufa vásnaihki vásnahki vásnaihke vásnahke vásnaihka vásnahka


There are two basic augmentative degrees (besides the basic or zeroth degree), however, it is possible to create even greater degrees by combining the suffixes.

Degree Masculine Feminine
singular dual plural singular dual plural
long short long short long short long short long short long short
Zeroth -/
First -iþi -þi -iþe -þe -iþa -þa -ipi -pħi -ipe -pħe -ipa -pħa
Second -iti -ti -ite -te -ita -ta -iši -ši -iše -še -iša -ša
Third -iþti -iþte -iþta -išpi -špi -išpe -špe -išpa -špa


Degree Masculine Feminine
singular dual plural singular dual plural
long short long short long short long short long short long short
Zeroth Êlir vásna
First Êliriþi Êlirþi Êliriþe Êlirþe Êliriþa Êlirþa vásnaipi vásnapħi vásnaipe vásnapħe vásnaipa vásnapħa
Second Êliriti Êlirti Êlirite Êlirte Êlirita Êlirta vásnaiši vásnaši vásnaiše vásnaše vásnaiša vásnaša
Third Êliriþti Êliriþte Êliriþta vásnaišpi vásnašpi vásnaišpe vásnašpe vásnaišpa vásnašpa


Masculine Feminine
singular dual plural singular dual plural
Nom. -/ -/
Gen. -no -ne -ni -ru -ŗa -ŗa
Dat. -ŗo -ŗe -ŗi -tu -ta -ta
Acc. -mo -me -mi -nu -na -na
Loc. -zo -te -ti -lu -la -la
Inst. -šo -še -ši -dźu -dźa -dźa

Classical Laefêvëši pages (obsolete)
Classical Laefêvëši · Nouns · Cases · Adjectives · Pronouns · Numerals · Verbs · Conjugations · Mantjálaj · Adverbs · Prepositions · Vocabulary · Swadesh list