Amal/affixes

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These are productive affixes in Amal.


Case endings

  • bi- [biʔ] - dative case [DAT] "to; for; toward"
ib- - dative for pronouns
  • -da [daʔ] - locative case [LOC] "to; at; in; on"
  • -ha - [hak] comitative case [COM] "with; by; through"; also used to form adverbs
-ak - for some roots
  • -sha [ʃaʔ] - ablative case [ABL] "from; off of"; also used to form comparatives (sometimes used for negative mood [NEG])
  • -wa [waʔ] - accusative case [ACC]; object
-u - for some roots
  • -ya [ʔaj] - genitive; "of, from" [GEN]
-ai - for some roots
  • -ul [ʔul] - "without; lacking"; abessive case [ABE] (not one of the "official" case endings)


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Verbal modifiers

  • -ab [ʔab] - durative aspect [DUR]
  • -al [ʔal] - repetitive; habitual [HAB]
  • -ek [rek] - infinitive [INF]
  • -em [ʔem] - interrogative [Q]
  • -esh [ʔeʃ] - past tense [PST]
  • -eshb [ʔeʃ] + [ʔɛb] - passive participles [PPP]
  • -ra [rek] - infinitive [INF]
  • -ud [ʔud] - inceptive; inchoative [INC]
  • -un [ʔun] - reportative marker [REP]


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Modals

  • -ash [ʔaʃ] - desiderative mood [DES]
  • -em [ʔem] - interrogative [Q]
  • -la [laʔ] - negative mood [NEG]
not used with second or third person singular
  • -ur [ʔur] - tentative mood [TENT]


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Voice

  • -eb [ʔeb] - passive [PASS]
  • -ed [ʔed] - causative [CAUS]
  • -eg [ʔeg] - reflexive [REFL]


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Adjectival Modifiers

  • -el [ʔel] - (adjective) -est, most, -most
  • -iy(a) [ʔij] - adjectivization (dishiya ‘foreign’) [ADJ]
  • -ub [ʔub] - (comparative suffix) -er, more


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Nominal Modifiers

  • -ám [ʔám] - augmentative [AUG]
  • -at [ʔat] - produced by ~; item for ~
  • -en [ʃen] - feminine; female [FEM]
  • gi- [giʔ] - tool; device; instrument
  • -in [ʔin] - agent noun [AG]
  • -ish [ʔiʃ] - diminutive [DIM]
  • ka- [kaʔ] - animal
  • -ul [mul] - masculine; male [MASC]
  • yi- [gij] - item of clothing


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Plurals

  • -ik [ʔik] - dual plural [DU]
  • -im [ʔim] - plural [PL]
  • na- [naʔ] - collective plural [COL]


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Determiners

  • bu- [buʔ] - proximal "this (by me)" for (roots with u or a) [PROX]
be- - for roots with e or i
  • mu- [muʔ] - other; else
  • shu- [ʃuʔ] - proximal "that (by you / over there)" for (roots with u or a) [DIST]
she- - for roots with e or i
  • we- [weʔ] - some; any [INDEF]


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Numerical Modifiers

  • em- [ʔem] - ordinal number [ORD]
  • ga- [gaʔ] - multiple number [MULT]




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Medial Clusters

ba da ga ha ka la ma na pa ra sa sha ta wa ya
eb - ebda - ebha - ebla - - - ebra ebsa ebsha ebta ebwa ebya
ed - - - - - - - - - edra - - - - -
eg - - - - - egla - - - egra - - - egwa -
ek - - - ekha - ekla - - - ekra eksa eksha ekta ekwa -
el - - - elha - ella - - - - - - - elwa elya
em emba emda - emha - emla - emna empa emra emsa emsha emta emwa emya
en - enda enga
[ŋ]
- enka enla enma - - - ensa ensha enta enwa enya
[ɲ]
ep - - - - - epla - - - epra epsa - - - -
er - - - erha - - - - - - - - - erwa erya
es esba - - - eska esla esma esna espa esra - - esta eswa -
esh eshba - - - eshka eshla eshma eshna eshpa eshra - - eshta eshwa -
et - - - - - etla - - - etra etsa etsha - - -