Italian is a Romance language, spoken primarily in Italy, San Marino, Switzerland, Vatican City, and Malta. There is also a large amount of speakers of Italian in France, Croatia, Ethiopia and Slovenia.
- 1 History
- 2 Phonology
- 3 Grammar
- 3.1 Nouns
- 3.2 Pronouns
- 3.3 Adjectives
- 3.4 Prepositions
- 3.5 Conjunctions
- 3.6 Verbs
- 4 Sources
|Approximants & glides||(w)||(j)|
- Most of the orthographic Italian symbols are the same as their IPA equivalents. These include: b, p, m, n, f, v, t, d, and l.
- c is normally /k/, except when i or e immediately succeed it. ch is pronounced /k/ and is used when i or e do immediately succeed it.
- c is /ʧ/ when i or e immediately succeed it. Unless the i is stressed, it's usually silent.
- g is normally /g/, except when i or e immediately succeed it. gh is pronounced /g/ and is used when i or e do immediately succeed it.
- g is /ʤ/ when i or e immediately succeed it. Unless the i is stressed, it's silent.
- sc is normally /sk/, except when i or e immediately succeed it. sch is pronounced /sk/ and is used when i or e do immediately succeed it.
- sc is /ʃ/ when i or e immediately succeed it. If the i isn't stressed it's usually silent.
- gn is pronounced /ɲ/.
- ng and nc are pronounced /ŋg/ and /ŋk/ respectively, unless directly followed by i or e. In those cases, ng and nc are pronounced /nʤ/ and /nʧ/ respectively. When spelt ngh or nch they are pronounced /ŋg/ and /ŋk/ respectively.
- r is pronounced /r/ or /ɾ/ depending on individual or dialect.
- gli is pronounced /ʎi/.
- The glides /w/ and /j/ are actually mutations of the vowels u and i and are represented by those orthographically. It can occurs with other vowel diphthongs as well.
- z is pronounced /ʦ/ or /ʣ/ depending on the dialect and the word.
- s is pronounced /s/ or /z/ depending on the dialect and the word. It's usually pronounced [z] when intervocalic and [s] otherwise.
- Most of the vowels are spelt the way they are in the IPA, so i /i/, e /e/, a /a/, o /o/, and u /u/.
- Stressed è and ò (with or without accents) are pronounced /ɛ/ and /ɔ/ respectively.
- When diphthongised, u and i become similar to /w/ and /j/.