Tolosian Grammar

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Tolosian grammar is based on the five types of words. It features 5 cases, one conjugation system common for all verbs, with tenses, moods and aspects.



Tolosian doesn't use separate articles. Instead, there is a prefix, o (for indefinite) and a suffix (for plural) added to the noun. With the noun ta, tree, as example :

  • Singular definite : ta (no mark).
  • Singular indefinite : ota.
  • Plural definite : tas.
  • Plural indefinite : otas.

Case endings

  • Nominative (subject) : -a
  • Accusative (direct object) : -e
  • Dative (indirect object) : -i
  • Genitive : -o
  • Ablative (time, place, manner...) : -u

With the same example, the word ta at the nominative plural indefinite form is : otaas.

Nouns, adjective and adverbs follow the case endings. Prepositions don’t.



  • 1PS : -a
  • 2PS : -as
  • 3PS : -e
  • 1PP : -o
  • 2PP : -os
  • 3PP : -on


  • Present : not indicated
  • Past : prefix u-
  • Future : prefix e-

To indicate a more precise tense, the prefix is doubled. Example : uu- indicate a distant past, as it can be used for creations myths.


These markers come after the verb but before the conjugation marker.

  • Perfect : suffix -y
  • Passive : suffix –ir instead of –r (bair, being spoken at, for bar, speak)

Example : utouirye taa chou (the tree has been broken by the wind)

  • Continued : suffix –an (comparable to the –ing ending)


These markers come before the tense marker or at the end of the whole verb (even after the conjugation marker).

  • Conditional : prefix o-
  • Imperative : suffix –y


ubarya : I have spoken.

barana : I'm speaking.

ebara : I will speak.

oebara : I may speak.

barasy : (you) speak !

okeon : you should (polite form using the third person plural), litt. they may have to.

keon : they must.

Ye : the relative word

The tolosian language use only one relative pronoun which is ye. Ye is placed between the two sentences it links, after the word it expands.

Example : ebara in jomoureadocu yeua eve tuke meaning 'the assembly at which I will speak is empty', litt. 'I will speak in a assembly, which (the assembly) is empty'.

The second sentence is treated as an independant sentence. Ye wears 1) the mark of its proper case, here ablative ; 2) the case’s mark of the word it remplaces in the second sentence, here nominative (since jômoureadoc is the subject of the second sentence).

Other example : ouktouire pava˅lloa yeaa eve ‘ark lou’ meaning 'the boat whose name is ‘Black Pearl’ is broken into pieces', litt. 'the boat is broken into pieces, it (the boat) is ‘Black Pearl’'.