Tolosian grammar is based on the five types of words. It features 5 cases, one conjugation system common for all verbs, with tenses, moods and aspects.
Tolosian doesn't use separate articles. Instead, there is a prefix, o (for indefinite) and a suffix (for plural) added to the noun. With the noun ta, tree, as example :
- Singular definite : ta (no mark).
- Singular indefinite : ota.
- Plural definite : tas.
- Plural indefinite : otas.
- Nominative (subject) : -a
- Accusative (direct object) : -e
- Dative (indirect object) : -i
- Genitive : -o
- Ablative (time, place, manner...) : -u
With the same example, the word ta at the nominative plural indefinite form is : otaas.
Nouns, adjective and adverbs follow the case endings. Prepositions don’t.
- 1PS : -a
- 2PS : -as
- 3PS : -e
- 1PP : -o
- 2PP : -os
- 3PP : -on
- Present : not indicated
- Past : prefix u-
- Future : prefix e-
To indicate a more precise tense, the prefix is doubled. Example : uu- indicate a distant past, as it can be used for creations myths.
These markers come after the verb but before the conjugation marker.
- Perfect : suffix -y
- Passive : suffix –ir instead of –r (bair, being spoken at, for bar, speak)
Example : utouirye taa chou (the tree has been broken by the wind)
- Continued : suffix –an (comparable to the –ing ending)
These markers come before the tense marker or at the end of the whole verb (even after the conjugation marker).
- Conditional : prefix o-
- Imperative : suffix –y
ubarya : I have spoken.
barana : I'm speaking.
ebara : I will speak.
oebara : I may speak.
barasy : (you) speak !
okeon : you should (polite form using the third person plural), litt. they may have to.
keon : they must.
Ye : the relative word
The tolosian language use only one relative pronoun which is ye. Ye is placed between the two sentences it links, after the word it expands.
Example : ebara in jomoureadocu yeua eve tuke meaning 'the assembly at which I will speak is empty', litt. 'I will speak in a assembly, which (the assembly) is empty'.
The second sentence is treated as an independant sentence. Ye wears 1) the mark of its proper case, here ablative ; 2) the case’s mark of the word it remplaces in the second sentence, here nominative (since jômoureadoc is the subject of the second sentence).
Other example : ouktouire pava˅lloa yeaa eve ‘ark lou’ meaning 'the boat whose name is ‘Black Pearl’ is broken into pieces', litt. 'the boat is broken into pieces, it (the boat) is ‘Black Pearl’'.