I have tried to encompass all of the variations of Arabic, including those used to write a variety of languages from around the world.
Please see the Gallery for examples.
- The basic form of alif, historically vocalized as /a:/ or /?/.
- Used for /a/:
- The alif with hamza above:
- The alif with hamza and fatHa:
- Used for /u/:
- The alif with hamza and Damma:
- Used for /i/:
- The alif with hamza below:
- The alif with hamza and kasra:
- The alif with hamza above a fatHa:
- The alif hamza is used in cases when a short vowel begins a word.
- The alif madda, it is used to indicate /?a:/. When two hamza using the alif as a seat follow each other, or when a hamza is followed by a long vowel, then a madda is used instead.
- The alif waSla is used to indicate that the alif is not to be pronounced and that the preceding vowel is elidable.
baa, taa, thaa
- The baa, used for /b/.
- The pe used in Perso-Arabic for /p/.
- The taa, used for /t/.
- The Te, used in Urdu for /t`/.
- The thaa, used for /T/.
jiim, Haa, khaa
- The Haa, used for specifically for /X\/.
- The khaa, used specifically for /x/.
- The daal, used for /d/.
- The Daal, used in Urdu to represent /d`/.
- Used in Pashto to represent /d`/.
- The dhaal, used for /D/.
- The raa, used for /r/.
- The Urdu aar, used for /r`/.
- Used in Pashto to represent /r`/.
- The zaay or zaa, used for /z/.
- The siin, used for /s/.
- The xiin, used for /x/ in Pashto.
- The shiin, used for /S/.
- The Saad, used for /s?\/
- The Daad, used for /d?\/
- The Taa, used for /t?\/.
- The DHaa, used for /D?\/ or /z?\/.
- The ʿayn, used for /?\/.
- The ghayn, used for /G/.
- The nga, used specifically by the Jawi alphabet for /N/.
- The faa, used for /f/.
- The paa, used specifically by the Jawi alphabet for /p/.
- The qaaf, used for /q/ or /g/ in Gulf Arabic.
- The kaaf, used for /k/.
- A secondary version of kaaf used by many languages, most prominently those that use the Perso-Arabic alphabet.
- Another version of the gaaf, not used as frequently as the former.
- This version is used unofficially in Moroccan Arabic for /g/ and in some languages as /N/. The use of the initial, medial and final forms vary widely.
- Used specifically in the Pashto Alphabet for /g/.
- The laam, used for /l/.
- The laam-alif is a ligature used to represent /la:/.
- The miim, used for /m/.
- The nuun, used for /n/.
- Used specifically in the Pashto Alphabet for /n`/.
- The haa, used for /h/.
- The taa marbuuTa, a variation of the taa, used grammatically to indicate the feminine gender. It can be vocalized as /h/, /t/ or it can be silent, depending on the semantic role of the morpheme.
- The waaw, used as /w/ and /u:/.
- The yaa, used as /j/ and /i:/.
- The alif maqSuura, used only in the final position to represent /a:/.
- Placed over consonants for /a/.
- Placed over consonants for /u/.
- Placed below consonants for /i/.
- Placed over consonants to indicate the absence of a vowel.
- Free standing hamza, used for /?/.
- The hamza used as harakaat.
- Used to indicate gemination.
- Used only in completely vocalized text.
- Grammatical ending, used to indicate the accusative of indefinite nouns, pronounced /an/.
- Grammatical ending, used to indicate the nominative of indefinite nouns, pronounced /un/.
- Grammatical ending, used to indicate the genitive of indefinite nouns, pronounced /in/.
More to come. -- Qang