Square Kufic

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This is a presentation of the work I have done on the Kufic version of the Arabic alphabet.

I have tried to encompass all of the variations of Arabic, including those used to write a variety of languages from around the world.

Please see the Gallery for examples.


The 19 basic letter forms used in Kufic

Contents

alif

1alif.GIF

alif

1alif.GIF

  • The basic form of alif, historically vocalized as /a:/ or /?/.

alif hamza

  • Used for /a/:
  • The alif with hamza above:

1alif hamza above.GIF

  • The alif with hamza and fatHa:

1alif hamza fatha.GIF

  • Used for /u/:
  • The alif with hamza and Damma:

1alif hamza damma.GIF

  • Used for /i/:
  • The alif with hamza below:

1alif hamza below.GIF

  • The alif with hamza and kasra:

1alif hamza kasra.GIF

  • The alif with hamza above a fatHa:

1alif hamza kasra2.GIF

  • The alif hamza is used in cases when a short vowel begins a word.

alif madda

1alif madda.GIF

  • The alif madda, it is used to indicate /?a:/. When two hamza using the alif as a seat follow each other, or when a hamza is followed by a long vowel, then a madda is used instead.

alif waSla

1alif wasla.GIF

  • The alif waSla is used to indicate that the alif is not to be pronounced and that the preceding vowel is elidable.

baa, taa, thaa

1ba ta tha.GIF

variations

1ba ta tha variations.GIF

baa

1ba.GIF

  • The baa, used for /b/.

1pe.GIF

taa

1ta.GIF

  • The taa, used for /t/.

1te.GIF

  • The Te, used in Urdu for /t`/.

thaa

1tha.GIF

  • The thaa, used for /T/.

jiim, Haa, khaa

1ha .GIF

variations

1ha variations.GIF

jiim

1jim.GIF

Haa

1ha .GIF

  • The Haa, used for specifically for /X\/.

khaa

1kha.GIF

  • The khaa, used specifically for /x/.

daal, dhaal

1dal.GIF

variations

1dal variations.GIF

daal

1dal.GIF

  • The daal, used for /d/.

1dal dental.GIF

  • The Daal, used in Urdu to represent /d`/.

1dal retroflex.GIF

  • Used in Pashto to represent /d`/.

dhaal

1dhal.GIF

  • The dhaal, used for /D/.

raa, zaay

1ra.GIF

variations

1ra variations.GIF

raa

1ra.GIF

  • The raa, used for /r/.

1ra ar.GIF

  • The Urdu aar, used for /r`/.

1ra retroflex.GIF

  • Used in Pashto to represent /r`/.

zaay

1zay.GIF

  • The zaay or zaa, used for /z/.

siin, shiin

1sin.GIF

variations

1sin variations.GIF

siin

1sin.GIF

  • The siin, used for /s/.

1xin.GIF

  • The xiin, used for /x/ in Pashto.

shīn

1shin.GIF

  • The shiin, used for /S/.

Saad, Daad

1sad.GIF

variations

1sad variations.GIF

Saad

1sad.GIF

  • The Saad, used for /s?\/

Daad

1dad.GIF

  • The Daad, used for /d?\/

Taa, DHaa

1ta .GIF

variations

1ta variations.GIF

Taa

1ta .GIF

  • The Taa, used for /t?\/.

DHaa

1za.GIF

  • The DHaa, used for /D?\/ or /z?\/.

ʿayn, ghayn

1ayn.GIF

variations

1ayn variations.GIF

ʿayn

1ayn.GIF

  • The ʿayn, used for /?\/.

ghayn

1ghayn.GIF

  • The ghayn, used for /G/.

nga

1nga.GIF

  • The nga, used specifically by the Jawi alphabet for /N/.

faa

1fa .GIF

variations

1fa variations.GIF

faa

1fa.GIF

  • The faa, used for /f/.

paa

1pa.GIF

  • The paa, used specifically by the Jawi alphabet for /p/.

qaaf

1qaf .GIF
1qaf variations.GIF

1qaf.GIF

kaaf

1kaf.GIF

1kaf.GIF

  • The kaaf, used for /k/.

1kaf .GIF

  • A secondary version of kaaf used by many languages, most prominently those that use the Perso-Arabic alphabet.

1gaf.GIF

1gaf .GIF

  • Another version of the gaaf, not used as frequently as the former.

1gaf 1.GIF

  • This version is used unofficially in Moroccan Arabic for /g/ and in some languages as /N/. The use of the initial, medial and final forms vary widely.

1kaf retroflex.GIF

laam

1lam.GIF
1lam variations.GIF

1lam.GIF

  • The laam, used for /l/.

laam-alif

1lam alif.GIF

  • The laam-alif is a ligature used to represent /la:/.

1lam alif variations.GIF

  • Variations.

miim

1mim.GIF
1mim variations.GIF

1mim.GIF

  • The miim, used for /m/.

nuun

1nun .GIF
1nun variations.GIF

1nun.GIF

  • The nuun, used for /n/.

1nun retroflex.GIF

nya

1nya.GIF

haa

1ha.GIF
1haa variations.GIF

1ha.GIF

  • The haa, used for /h/.

taa marbuuTa

1ta marbuta.GIF

  • The taa marbuuTa, a variation of the taa, used grammatically to indicate the feminine gender. It can be vocalized as /h/, /t/ or it can be silent, depending on the semantic role of the morpheme.

waaw

1waw.GIF
1waw variations.GIF

1waw.GIF

  • The waaw, used as /w/ and /u:/.

yaa

1ya .GIF
1ya variations.GIF

1ya.GIF

  • The yaa, used as /j/ and /i:/.

alif maqSuura

1alif maqSuura.GIF

  • The alif maqSuura, used only in the final position to represent /a:/.

Harakaat

fatHa

1fatHa.GIF

  • Placed over consonants for /a/.

Damma

1Damma.GIF

  • Placed over consonants for /u/.

kasra

1kasra.GIF

  • Placed below consonants for /i/.

sukuun

1sukuun.GIF

  • Placed over consonants to indicate the absence of a vowel.

hamza

1hamza.GIF

  • Free standing hamza, used for /?/.

1hamza harakat.GIF

  • The hamza used as harakaat.

shadda

1shadda.GIF

dagger alif

1alif dagger.GIF

  • Used only in completely vocalized text.

tanwiin al-fatH

1fatHa tanwiin.GIF

  • Grammatical ending, used to indicate the accusative of indefinite nouns, pronounced /an/.

tanwiin aD-Damm

1Damma tanwiin.GIF

  • Grammatical ending, used to indicate the nominative of indefinite nouns, pronounced /un/.

tanwiin al-kasr

1kasra tanwiin.GIF

  • Grammatical ending, used to indicate the genitive of indefinite nouns, pronounced /in/.



More to come. -- Qang

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