Siye Verbal Morphology
- 1 Verb and Participle Structure
- 1.1 Verb Structure
- 1.1.1 Prefixes
- 1.1.2 Verb Root (3.)
- 1.1.3 Suffixes
- 1.1 Verb Structure
- 2 Participle Structure
Verb and Participle Structure
The minimal Siye verb consists of two pronominal prefixes, one verb root, a pronominal number suffix, and a polarity-aspect-mood (PAM) suffix. The maximal Siye verb consists of two pronominal prefixes, a verb root, a pronominal number suffix, a causative or portative suffix, an "adverbial" suffix, a directional suffix, and a PAM suffix. Relational and coordinative suffixes are often classed as verbal suffixes due to the heavily verb-final nature of Siye, but are more accurately described as clause-final suffixes, The explicit negative suffix is originally a mobile secondary suffix, but has become lexicalized to create new suffixes.
Note that the following discussion solely and/or primarily refers to the Romanization scheme of Siye rather than the indigenous orthography, Keno Siye, which is substantially more complex.
The two prefixes are the pronominal prefixes: one for the object pronoun, and one for the subject pronoun. Pronominal prefixes work on a nominative-accusative basis.
There are two conjugations in Standard Siye: the yi-conjugation and the ya-conjugation. The yi-conjugation is the basic conjugation, while the ya-conjugation is used when the object of the clause is topicalized. The object prefix and the subject prefix can combine according to the rules of vowel dominance. If you are correcting a text using non-standard pronominal prefixes, this can be very confusing.
Object Prefix (1.)
The object prefix is used to indicate the person of the grammatical object of the clause. The object prefix can change depending on whether the verb is yi-conjugation or ya-conjugation. The last form in each list is the ya-conjugation form. The others are yi-conjugation forms.
|2nd||pe-||sa-||/sa/, unlike the other ya-conjugation prefixes, is not derived from a contraction with the Accusative Case /-a/|
|3rd animate||i-, y-||ya-||/i-/ is used before a subject prefix beginning in a consonant. /y-/ is used before a subject prefix or verb root beginning in a vowel. /ya-/ appears before a consonant. Keno Siye indicates /y-/ before a vowel-initial verb root as a separate character from the verb root.|
|3rd inanimate||e-||a-||/n/ is an epenthetic consonant before a vowel-initial verb root. Keno Siye indicates /-en-/ in this case as a nasal overline.|
|3rd definite||me-||/me-/ is the definite object prefix. It references a previously known argument, from noun to noun phrase to entire clause.|
|3rd indefinite||mu-||mu-||/mu-/ is the object prefix before all subject prefixes except /-(h)i-/ or /-(h)e-/ (for its replacement, see below), except vowel-initial verb roots. Many Siye-speakers despise this exception as a neologism. Such persons prefer to rely on nouns and pronouns to avoid ambiguity.|
|3rd indefinite||tum-||tum-||In Standard Siye, /tum-/ replaces /mu-/ before the 3rd person suffixes /-(h)i-/ or /-(h)e-/ before consonant-initial verb roots in order to eliminate ambiguity. There are many Scholars, however, including the "Mooneys", who despise this neologism.|
|reflexive||um-||um-||Although the reflexive prefix is structurally an object prefix, reflexivity is a valency-changing operation. A reflexive verb form, therefore, although it has the prefixes of a transitive verb, is syntactically intransitive.|
Subject Prefix (2.)
The subject prefix is used to indicate the person of the grammatical subject of the clause, for both transitive and intransitive verbs. The subject prefix is identical to the yi-conjugation form of the object prefix.
|1st||le-, l-||/-l-/ appears before vowel-initial verb roots.|
|2nd||pe-, p-||/-p-/ appears before vowel-initial verb roots.|
|3rd animate||i-, y-, -hi-, 0-||/y-/ appears before vowel-initial verb roots. Keno Siye indicates /y-/ before a vowel-initial verb root as a separate character from the verb root. -hi- appears between /tum-/ or /um-/ and a consonant-initial vowel root. Vowel dominance often results in the deletion of the 3rd animate subject prefix /-i-/. The Guild of Scholars insists that this is a case of a deleted /i/ rather than a zero-marked morpheme /0-/, because intransitive verbs maintain the subject prefix /i-/. There is no zero-marked morpheme for intransitive verbs.|
|3rd inanimate||-e-, -en-||/-en-/ breaks the rules of vowel dominance by appearing as a separate syllable before vowel-initial verb roots. Vowel dominance often results in the deletion of the 3rd animate subject prefix /-e-/. The Guild of Scholars insists that this is a case of a deleted /e/ rather than a zero-marked morpheme /0-/, because intransitive verbs maintain the subject prefix /e-/. /-en-/ occurs before vowel-initial verb roots. There is no zero-marked morpheme for intransitive verbs. Keno Siye indicates /-n-/ in this case as a nasal overline.|
|3rd definite||me-||/me-/ is the definite subject prefix. It references a previously known argument, from noun to noun phrase to entire clause.|
|3rd indefinite||-mu-, -m-||/-m-/ appears before vowel-initial verb roots.|
|infinitive||ke-||/ke-/ is the infinitive suffix. Its pronominal number suffix is always -pe-.|
A note on zero-marking
Sometimes in the marketplace one will hear the use of forbidden forms. The zeal of the merchants is to be commended, but their habit of shortening forms is a moral weakness.
Furthermore, the elision of an initial /i/ or /e/ as the object or subject of a verb can lead to confusion. If the busty, lusty, and loud village girl asks /yetelo maputesumo/, how is one to know if she means seeds /yete/ (inanimate) or fruit /yete/ (animate)? She should say /emaputesumo/ for the former, and /imaputesumo/ for latter. Sadly, such grammatical integrity is seldom found in those who use poor grammar consciously.
Verb Root (3.)
Siye verb roots are the "heart" of the verb. with a maximum length of three syllables. The meaning of a roots is often broader than the equivalent English; both causative suffixes and the directional suffixes derive new stems from the root without structural change. The meaning of the stem may not be apparent from the meaning of the root. The primary stress of the verb and verbal derivatives is on the first syllable of the verb root.
Consonant-initial roots are the most common form of roots.
|leke kenolo elenesakamlona.||Le.ke Ke(in).no.lo(a) e.le.Ne.sa.kam.lo.ne(a)|| We few have written many books.
Vowel-initial roots are less common than consonant-initial roots. The rules of vowel dominance are suspended at the ligature between the subject pronoun prefixes and the vowel-initial roots. The consonant-initial prefixes are reduced to their consonant in speech. The third person animate becomes /y-/ and the third person inanimate is separated from the verb root by an epenthetic /-n-/. Keno Siye writes the subject and object prefixes as separate characters from the verb root regardless of pronunciation. A tendency toward the regularization of vowel-initial roots, especially suppletive ones maintains suppletion in deverbal nouns and participles.
|peliputuma.||pe.le.I.pu.tu,me(a)||I love you.|
|pelekemputuna||pe.le.Kem.pu.tu.ne(a)||I loved you.|
|kemtunakim||Kem.tu.ne(a).kim||place of loving, boudoir|
The number of suppletive roots in Siye are limited, but these include most of the most common verbs. Many of these are highly productive in their derivational interactions between the root, the causative suffixes, and the directional suffixes, so it may seem that the Siye verb consists of nothing but suppletive verbs. One former suppletive root, nu/mu 'give', spontaneously regularized in the period 2200-2210. The forms derived before this date, however, retain the suppletive form. Eventually, no doubt, new regular forms wil arise.
If a verb root is suppletive, the suppletion marks a division between the perfective and imperfective aspects. This is not necessarily true of adverbial suffixes.
|elekopuma.||e.le.Ko.pu.me(a)||I see it.|
|eleyempuna.||e.le.Yem.pu.ne(a)||I saw it.|
Auxiliary Verbal Roots
Adverbial suffixes often contain meanings rendered by an independent verb in English. Since the verb root position cannot be empty, the semantically empty verbs /-ne-/ (intransitive),/-mke-/ (transitive), and /-mmu-/(ditransitive) fill the verb root position. The nasal components of /-mke-/ and /-mmu-/ are phonetically part of the preceding subject or object prefix. Keno Siye, however, writes them as ligatured special characters derived from /-nuke-/ and /-numu-/.
|elemkeputema||e.le.Nu(ke).pu.te.me(a)||I want it.|
Extended Verbal Roots
The only verbal root extension documented so far is the augmentive suffix -po.
|im yimpuna.||Im i.Im.pu.ne(a)||The wind is blowing|
|impo kasa yimpopusuna.||Im.po Ka.sa i.Im.po.pu.su.ne(a)||The north wind blew mightily.|
Derivative Verbal Roots
Derivative Verbal Roots are formed when a participle composed of the root and at least one suffix is reinterpreted as a new root in the verb root position, thereby opening the position(s) vacated by the suffix(es). Although the derivational mechanics of this process is systematic, the complexities of the suppletive roots results in much lexical overruling of potential derivative verbal roots.
Grammatical Number (4.)
4. Grammatical Number
The grammatical number suffix in Standard Siye is nominative-accusative if the verb is imperfective, agreeing with the subject of a transitive clause. If the verb is perfective, the grammatical number suffix is ergative-absolutive, agreeing with the grammatical object of the transitive clause. If the noun with which the grammatical number suffix must agree is indefinite or unknown, the default number is singular.
|Null||NUL||-ku-||ku||The null grammatical number is a matter of fierce dispute. In any other position in the verb complex, negative /-ku-/ is a secondary suffix, following primary suffixes and unable to bear stress. Since the grammatical number prefix must bear stress after a trisyllabic verb root, a secondary suffix is often felt to be illegitimate in this position.|
|Singular||SG||-pu-||pu||Also indefinite. /-p-/ is only used before the continuative suffix /-u-/ or the tense marker /-ulu-/.|
|Dual||DU||-so-, -s-||so, so(u)||/-s-/ is only used before the continuative suffix /-u-/ or the tense marker /-ulu-/|
|Paucal||PAUC||-ke-||ke||Paucal number is generally 3-5 instances of the noun.|
|Plural||PL||-lo-, -l-||lo, lo(u)||Plural number is generally more than 5 instances of the noun.|
|Pantic||PAN||-ka-||ka||When -ka- is used as an ethnic suffix (either linguistically or genetically), do not combine this sense with the basic pantic sense.|
|Exclusive||EXCL||-pi-||pi||The exclusive marker -pi- may replace the dual, paucal, or plural number if and only if the dual, paucal, or plural number is marked on the noun with which the verb agrees in number, or with the ethnic sense of -ka- as a nominal grammatical number.|
|Infinitive||INF||-pe-||pe||-pe- is the pronominal number suffix which always accompanies the infinitive prefix ke-.|
|Colloquial||COL||-k-, -p-||ku(u), ke(u), ka(u), pu(u), pi(u), pe(u)||/-k-/ (null, paucal, pantic), /-p-/ (singular, exclusive, infinitive) are found before the continuative suffix /-u-/ or the tense marker /-ulu-/ in non-standard Siye. The Guild of Scholars, however, has ruled the ambiguity too confusing for Standard Siye. The primary use, therefore, is in folk songs, poetry, and writing, and especially puns.|
|Causative||CAUS||-sum-||This is a valence-increasing, often derivational, suffix which changes an intransitive verb to a transitive verb, and a transitive to a ditransitive.||le nesakam eletupusumsuna||Le.Ne.sa.kam.e.le.Tu.sum.su.ne(a)||I sent the letter (probably via messenger)|
|ilesupusumsuma.||i.le.Su.pu.sum.su.me(a)||I sent him.|
|aleyempusumtuna.||A(i).le.Yem.pu.sum.tu.ne(a)||I showed it to him.|
|le yaletupusumnana.||Le.ya(i).le.Tu.pu.sum.na.ne(a)||I lifted him. I promoted him.|
|Portative||PORT||-yosam-||Almost identical to the causative suffix; implies that the subject or causor performed the action herself in a direct physical way.||le nesakam eletupuyosamsuna||Le.Ne.sa.kam.e.le.Tu.pu.yo(sa)m.su.ne(a)||I sent the letter (it was in my pocket)|
|le yaletupuyosamnana.||Le.ya(i).le.Tu.pu.yo(sa)m.na.ne(a)||I lifted him.|
This is a rich category. If a particular converbal suffix triggers a particular aspect (perfective or imperfective), this does not mean that one will never find that suffix coupled with the other aspect. The use of the uncharacteristic aspect. however, does indicate markedness. There is only one converbal suffix per verb.
|-hi-, -nam- + Imperfective||INCEPTIVE (INCP)||to begin Xing||-hi- occurs after nasal vowels, -nam- elsewhere||Umloya sili nukepu enulonam' 'nama.||They began to build the tower.|
|-hi-, -nam- + Perfective||IMPERFECT (IPF)||to begin but not finish Xing||Umloya sili nukepu ekepunamnana.||They began but did not finish building the tower.|
|-hom-,-mnu-||LASCIVIOUS (LASC)||to do X lasciviously||-hom- occurs after nasal vowels, -mnu- elsewhere||itupumnukina.||She danced lasciviously.|
|-ka- + Perfective||INTENTIVE (INTNT), DECISIVE (DEC)||to have resolved to X||Perfective -ka- and imperfective -te- form a strong contrast in the derivative system.||Kumayam sili nukepu eyempu' 'ka' 'na.||The Lord had resolved to see the tower.|
|-kaku- +Imperfective Negative||INTERMITTENT (ITM)||to be unreliable at Xing||The negation is external /to/ preceding the verb.||eyuluwepukakutumu.||He is an unreliable tracker.|
|-kaku- + Perfective Negative||HESITANT (HES)||to waver on doing X||The negation is external /to/ preceding the verb.||lepetusokakusunu.||You hesitated to send the two of us.|
|-kom-||PROMISSIVE (PRO)||to promise to X||-kom- can govern the Causative Construction, especially with a ditransitive root||La letumpusum' 'kom' 'na.||He promised to marry me.|
|-like- + Positive||FALL (FALLIC)||to fail to X||The negative of -like- + Positive is -likeku- + Positive, not -like- + Negative||pe yeteka ipetomka' 'like' 'sunaya ...||Because you have failed to sell all the fruit …|
|-like- + Negative||SCS (SUCCESSFUL)||to succeed in Xing||The negative of -like- + Negative is -likeku- + Negative, not -like- + Positive||umloya lusili ekepu' 'like' 'sunu.||The men have succeeded in building the city.|
|-lo-, -te-||PRAC||to to practice doing X||-lo- occurs with the imperfective aspect, -te- with the perfective. The perfective association of -te- differentiates this from the imperfective desiderative suffix -te-. This suffix -lo- always appears after the pronominal number suffix, thus there is no potential for confusion.||Epesipulonamumo?||Have been you been practicing (your) singing?|
|-lo-, -te-||Epeyeputenanu.||I have not been practicing singing. (*I wanted to sing)|
|-lote- + Positive||DECEPTIVE (DCP)||to pretend to X||enesakampulotema.||She pretended to write.|
|-lote- + Negative||AUTHENTIC (AUTH)||to act authentically in doing X||Le sa pelipulotemu.||I really do love you. (I am not pretending to love you)|
|-mmu-/-num-||PERMISSIVE2 (PRM2), HINDER (HIN)||to allow, to hinder||-num- occurs after nasal vowels; -mmu- occurs elsewhere. -mmu-/-num- is used for the notions of allowance or hindering, without the official implication of the suffix -numu-. If it is contrasted with the suffix -numu-, -mmu-/-num- indicates an allownance or hindering without official sanction.||Layeke mena tupilotu um lumsa yinumupummusuna.||This girl allowed the foreigner to steal (lit. take/receive) the birds.|
|-mulu-||FRUSTRATIVE (FRS)||to do X in vain||ilo anepopumulununa.||They debased the currency in vain.|
|-muluka-, -muka-, -mluka- + Perfective||FRS + DEC||to fail to do what one has resolved to do||From -mulu- + -ka-. -muka- is a stress-shortened variant. -mluka- may be used in finite verbs but not participles.||lepekepisummulukanuna.||You have failed to kill us (said to the would-be assassins of the poet Kupi).|
|-muluyam-, -muyam-, -mluyam- + Imperfective||CONATIVE (CON)||to try||From -mulu- + -yam-. -muyam- is a stress-shortened variant. -mluyam- may be used in finite verbs but not participles||lekusomuluyamnuma.||We (two) are trying to sleep.|
|-mum-,-mnu-||NUMERICAL (NUM)||to do X number of times||-mum- occurs after nasal vowels, -mnu- after oral vowels||pewaku ilosupumnutuna.||I kissed her thrice.|
|-neme- + Perfective||CESSATIVE (CSS)||to stop Xing||-mme- is the form of -neme- in participles following an oral vowel. It is never used elsewhere.||Umloya sili nukepu ekepu' 'neme' 'nana.||The men stopped building the tower.|
|-neme- + Imperfective||ADDICTIVE (ADD)||can't stop Xing||-mme- is the form of -neme- in participles following an oral vowel. It is never used elsewhere.||le kenolo elapunemetuma. (ammetumayam)||I can't stop buying books. (bibliophile)|
|-ni-||COOPERATIVE (COOP), MUTUAL (MUT)||to do X together||-ni- can only occur with the paucal, plural, or pantic numbers. The number restriction applies to the subject of the clause; it does not vary depending on the aspect of the verb.||lelikaninuma.||We will all die together.|
|-nim- + Positive||BENEFACTIVE (BEN)||do X well||-he-, -ya- + Negative is dialectical||layekeya esipunimnama.||The girl sings well.|
|-nim- + Negative||MALEFACTIVE (MAL)||to do X badly||-he-, -ya- + Positive is dialectical||amakimna esipunimnamu.||The merchant sings badly.|
|-numu- + Positive||PERMISSIVE1 (PERM1, PRM1)||to permit/forbid||-numu- indicates permission or lack thereof. In a transitive clause, the translation is 'someone is allowed to perform the action of the verb'. In a ditransitive clause using the Causative Construction, the translation is 'someone allows someone to perform the action of the verb.' If it is contrasted with the suffix -mmu-/-num-, -numu- indicates official permission.||le a elekopu' 'numu' 'ma||I am allowed/permitted to see it.|
|-numu- + Negative||FORBID (FRB)||to permit/forbid||Le petu a elekop' 'numu' 'mu.||I forbid you from seeing it.|
|-so-||BIS||to do twice||ilosupusotuna.||I kissed her twice.|
|-te- + Imperfective||DESIDERATIVE (DES)||to want to X||Perfective -ka- and imperfective -te- form a strong contrast in the derivative system.||(Le) nesakam elesupusum' 'te' 'suma.||I want to send a letter.|
|-teka- + Realis||OBLIGATORY (OBL)||should X||(Le) nesakam elesupusum' 'teka' 'suma.||I should send a letter.|
|-teka- + Irrealis||DISPOSITIVE (DIS)||would like to X||(Le) nesakam elesupusum' 'teka' 'sume.||I would like to send a letter.|
|-teku- + Imperfective Negative||AVERSIVE (AVE)||to fear X happening||The negation is external /to/ preceding the verb.||lelikatekanumu.||We all fear death.|
|-to- + Imperfective Negative||NEGATIVE IMPERATIVE/NIMV||negative imperative||The verb requires an external object. Note that imperatives place the direct object after the verb. Imperatives do not take number suffixes but not pronominal prefixes and are second person.||Lilopusum' 'to' 'numu la!||Do not kill me!|
|-tum-||MOMENTANE (MOM)||to do once||ilosuputumtuna.||I kissed her once.|
|-u-, -hu, -tam- + Imperfective||CONTINUATIVE (CONT, CNT)||to continue to X||-u occurs after the shortened pronominal number suffixes -s- and -l-; -hu occurs after nasal vowels; -tam occurs everywhere else.||Tupikaya esika' 'tam' 'nama.||All the birds continued singing.|
|-ulu-, -hulu, -lu-||TNS||tense marker||This suffix plus perfective aspect creates a definite past tense, but with the imperfective aspect creates a strong future tense (the future cannot be definite). It replaces any other converbal suffix. -ulu- is the form after the pronominal number suffixes -s- and -l-, -lu- otherwise. After a nasal vowel, the form is -hulu-, but -lu- is a permissible alternative if it creates a better stress pattern.||Uku um nimupu ikimpulukina.||Uhu was a good man.|
|-ulu-, -hulu, -lu-||TNS||tense marker||Uku Pukani um nimusopu ikimsulukina.||Uhu and Fuka were good people.|
|-ulu-, -hulu, -lu-||TNS||tense marker||Uku Puka yikepusum(hu)lununa.||Uhu killed Fuka.|
|-wi- + Imperfective Positive||IMPERATIVE (IMV)||positive imperative||-wi- requires an external object. Note that imperatives place the direct object after the verb. Imperatives take number suffixes, but not pronominal prefixes and are 2nd person.||Lilosum' 'wi' 'numa yaso!||Kill those two!|
|-wi- + Imperfective Positive + Pronominal Prefixes||OBLIGATORY (OBL)||must X||When -wi- is suffixed to a verb root that possesses pronominal prefixes, it means 'must'.||Yaso ipekelosumwinuma.||You must kill these two.|
|-yam- + (usually) Imperfective||ABILITATIVE (ABIL)||able to X||The association with the imperfective is not as strong as it is with some of the other converbals. -yam- triggers the Causative Construction in transitive verbs.||Leyaloya Nesa ekolo' 'yam' 'ma.||The men are able to see Nesa.|
|-yem-||ITERATIVE (ITER, ITR)||to do again||-yem- does not have a characteristic aspect.||Leyaloya Nesasum itulo' 'yem' 'tuna.||The men have returned from Nesa.|
|-yosa- + Positive Irrealis||DUBITATIVE (DUB)||supposedly||The negative of -yosa- + Positive Irrealis is -yosaku- + Positive Irrealis||amayamna yetelo etomloyosasune.||The merchant supposedly sold the seeds.|
|-yosa- + Negative Irrealis||ENERGETIC (EN)||certainly||The negative of -yosa- + Negative Irrealis is -yosaku- + Negative Irrealis||um lumsaloya nimuku esiloyosameku.||The foreigners certainly speak badly.|
Directionals derive from suffixes indicating direction of motion; in many cases, however, the verb root and the directional suffix combine to create a discrete verb stem. The sense of motion or stationary position is encoded by the verb root and the valency of the verb complex.
|-ki-||DIR.STAT, D1||in place||eletompukina||I kept it in stock||ikimpukima||She is||lesupukima||I will wander|
|-na-||DIR.SUPER, D2||up||ikimpunama||She has grown up||lesupunama||I will go up|
|-nu-||DIR.SUB, D3||down'||lesupunuma||I will go down||sakipo ekimpunuma||The lake has shrunk|
|-su-||DIR.ABL, D4||away from||eletompusuna||I sold it||lesupusuma||I will go|
|-tu-||DIR.ALL, D5||towards||eletomputuna||I bought it||lesuputuma||I will come|
-ki- requires some clarification. It places emphasis on the stationary or heavily localized nature of the verb. This need not, however, be completely stationary. The basic directionals are egophoric, i.e., related to the position of the speaker, although in the case of transitive verbs the person upon whom the egophoric position is based may be conventionalized.
Specific Directional Suffixes
The specific directionals are directional converbal suffixes in Position 7 which refer to absolute rather han egophoric position, as the basic directionals do. The specific directionals, therefore, can only be literal directions. A sentence in which the specific directional suffix has usurped the place of a basic directional suffix must express the egophoric directional information using the Siye case system.
|-kuna-, -huna- (< kemhu-na)||DNV||from north to the Valley||-kuna- follows oral vowels, -huna- nasal vowels|
|-kana- (< kasa-na), -hana- (2269)||DVN||from the Valley to the north||-kana follows oral vowels (all vowels to 2269), -hana- nasal vowels (2269)|
|–kunu-, -hunu- (< kemhu-nu)||DSV||from the south to the Valley||-kunu- follows oral vowels, -hunu- nasal vowels|
|-kanu- (< -kasa-nu), -hanu- (2269)||DVS||from the Valley to the south||-kanu- follows oral vowels (all vowels to 2269), -hanu- nasal vowels (2269)|
|-posum- (< sakipo-sum)||DEC||from the east to the west/center|
|-pomsu- (< pomi-su)||DCE||from the east to the west/center|
|-sakinu- (< saki-nu)||DWE||from the west to the east (via the River, or general)|
|-sakina- (<saki-na)||DEW||from the east to the west (via the River, or general)|
|-lutesu- ( < lupate-su)||DCW||from the east/center to the west|
|-posu- (< sakipo-su)||DCE||from the west/center to the east|
|Umloya itulosakinanam Sinaluke umhikimlosumkina.||Men came from the east and settled at Shinar.|
|Le Nesasu Lusilisum sususuyamke iletukesumpomsuna.||I summoned the (few) messengers to Nesa from the City.|
|Lusilisum ya ipetupusumtuna.||You have summoned him from the city.|
|Lusilisum ya petu ipetupusumposumna.||You have summoned him from east westward unto you from the city.|
Aspect (8.) and Polarity (9.): PAM Suffixes
Siye verbs have two aspects, perfective and imperfective, totally detached from time considerations. The perfective is used if the event is viewed as complete action or state, the imperfective if it is viewed as a continuing action or state.
Siye has two polarities, positive and negative.
Siye has two moods, realis and irrealis.
In Early (pre-Vowel Dominance) Siye, Position 8 contained aspect and mood, while Position 9 contained polarity, but vowel dominance collapsed the Positions into the PAM Suffix and triggered the analogical creation of the negative irrealis suffixes.
Various converbal suffixes control the choice of aspect, polarity, mood, or any combination thereof.
|PAM Suffixes||Transliteration||Abbreviation||Aspect||Polarity||Mood||Notes||Early Siye|
|-ma-||me(a)||IPFV.POS.REAL (PAM1, P1)||Imperfective||Positive||Realis||-mea-|
|-na-||ne(a)||PFV.POS.REAL (PAM2, P2)||Perfective||Positive||Realis||-nea-|
|-me-||me||IPFV.POS.IRLS (PAM3, P3)||Imperfective||Positive||Irrealis||-me-|
|-ne-||ne||PFV.POS.IRL (PAM4, P4)||Perfective||Positive||Irrealis||-ne-|
|-mu-, -mew-||me(u)||IPFV.NEG.REAL (PAM5, P5)||Imperfective||Negative||Realis||-mew- occurs before the coordinative suffix -am||-meau-|
|-nu-, -new-||ne(u)||PFV.NEG.REAL (PAM6, P6)||Perfective||Negative||Realis||-new- occurs before the coordinative suffix -am||-neau-|
|-meku-||me(e)||IPFV.NEG.IRL (PAM7, P7)||Imperfective||Negative||Irrealis||Subjunctive||-meu-|
|-neku-||ne(e)||PFV.NEG.IRL (PAM8, P8)||Perfective||Negative||Irrealis||Contrafactual||-neu-|
Relational (10.), Coordinative (11.), and Negative (12.)
|-ame, -me||RELATIVE (REL)||who/what/which/that|
|-eki, -ki||PURPOSE (PURP), RESULT (RES)||so that, with the result that||See Siye Syntax for differentiation|
|-ekem, -kem||TEMPORAL (TEMP)||when|
|-(e)su, -su, -esunam, -sunam||APODOTIC (APO)||then|
|-esum, -sum||CONDITIONAL (COND), PROTASIS (PROT)||if|
|-eya, -ya||EXPLANATORY (EXPLAN)||because|
|-umo||POSITIVE INTERROGATIVE (PINT)||-amo, -mo, Eastern Provinces, Lake, Tiye|
|-ukumo||NEGATIVE INTERROGATIVE (NINT)||-amo, -mo, Eastern Provinces, Lake, Tiye|
|-ham, -am, -m||COORDINATIVE (COORD, CO)||Connects two verb clauses||-ham after a nasal consonant; -am after -e- or -i-; -m after -o- or -u-|
|-sunam||APODOTIC + COORDINATIVE (APOCO)||from -su-ni-am to avoid homophony with Conditional -sum|
|-ku-||NEGATIVE (NEG)||Negation||Originally a general floating negative suffix, it has evolved into a method of restoring negation in converbal constructions (-yosa-/-yosaku-), relational suffixes (-umo/-ukumo), and PAM suffixes (-me-/-meku-).|
These suffixes except the Negative Suffix are clause final, not verb-final. A sentence with OVS word order will attach these suffixes to the inflected S.
|-ki||Passive||Perfective||passive, mostly inanimate nouns||kenanaki||Ke.na.ne(a).ki||that which is done, deed|
|-ki||Instrumental||Imperfective||instrumental inanimate nouns||nunamaki||Nu.na.me(a).ki||by which it is done, instrument, force|
|-kim||Locative||Perfective||place in which characteristic activity occurs OR place in which the characteristic activity no longer occurs||kenanakim||Ke.na.ne(a).kim||place of deed|
|-kim||Locative||Imperfective||time of engagement in characteristic activity OR place in which the characteristic activity occurs||nunamakim||Nu.na.me(a).kim||time of deed|
|-yam||Agent||Imperfective||active, agentive animate nouns||nunamayam||Nu.na.me(a).yam||doer, actor|
|-yam||Agent||Imperfective||active, agentive animate nouns||susumsumayam||Su.sum.su.me(a).yam||messenger, missionary|
Siye participles are derived from Siye verbs. The verb is stripped of its pronominal prefixes and therefore the person suffixes - except the reflexive suffix, the absence of which would change the semantics of the participles. Roots which supplete according to aspect still do so. There are more suppletive roots for participles than finite verbs, since the initial stress and the lack of any pronominal prefixes preserved weak verb-initial roots. There are three nominalizing suffixes: -yam, -ki, and -kim, creating a nominal stem which governs number and case suffixes. Instrumental Siye -ki is from Tide -gi, while Passive Siye -ki is from Tide -kë.
A converbal suffix can overrule these aspectual rules. In the sentence "I have resolved to sell it" "eletompukasuna", the converbal suffix -ka- governs the perfective aspect. The perfective form of the suppletive root, a-su rather than tom-su, must occur. When this verb is turned into a participle, the participial forms which normally use imperfective aspect (instrumental, locative, and agentive) must use the perfective aspect, even if this creates homophones.
|-ki||Passive||Perfective||passive, mostly inanimate nouns||tomkasunaki||Tom.ka.su.ne(a).ki||resolution to sell|
|-ki||Instrumental||Imperfective||instrumental inanimate nouns||tomkasunaki (*akasumaki)||Tom.ka.su.ne(a).ki||resolution to sell, by which one resolves to sell (e.g. profit-loss analysis)|
|-kim||Locative||Perfective||place in which characteristic activity occurs OR place in which the characteristic activity no longer occurs||tomkasunakim||Tom.ka.su.ne(a).kim||place of resolution to sell OR place of resolution to sell (if past, or once only)|
|-kim||Locative||Imperfective||time of engagement in characteristic activity OR place in which the characteristic activity occurs||tomkasunakim (*akasumakim)||Tom.ka.su.ne(a).kim||time of resolution to sell OR place of resolution to sell (business office, for example)|
|-yam||Agent||Imperfective||active, agentive animate nouns||tomkasunayam (*akasumayam)||Tom.ka.su.ne(a).yam||resolute seller|