Senjecas copula list

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Pronunciation table

peműko
(labial)
riisűko
(dental)
muitűko
(alveolar)
vainűko
(palatal)
ṡ̨uuše̋nos
(vowels)
nı̋þo ṡ̨uuše̋nos
(weak vowels)
p
b f v m t d þ ð ɫ l ż s z r n k g x ƣ h ȝ š i e a ǫ o u ĭ ĕ ŭ
/p/ /b/ /ɸ/ /β/ /m̥/ /m/ /t/ /d/ /θ/ /ð/ /l̥/ /l/ /ʦ/ /ʣ/ /s/ /z/ /ɾ̥/ /n/ /k/ /g/ /ç/ /ʝ/ /j̊/ /j/ /sʷ/ /sʲ/ /i/ /e/ /ä/ /ɒ/ /o/ /u/ /ɪ/ /ɛ/ /ʊ/


Glossing abbreviations

1s/p = 1st person singular/plural ABL = ablative suffix COL = collective F = feminine INT = intensive prefix PRV = privative prefix SUP = supine
2s/p = 2nd person singular/plural ABS = absolutive (an unmarked modifying adjective) DES = desiderative FRQ = frequentative LAT = lative suffix PST = past TRZ = transitivizer
3 = 3rd person ADV = adverb DIM = diminutive FUT = future LOC = locative suffix REV = reversive VOC = vocative particle
A(.s/p) = accusative (singular/plural) AG = agent ELIS = elision IMP = imperative M = masculine Q = interrogative particle
G(.s/p) = genitive (singular/plural) AP = agent (active) participle ELT = elative INC = inchoative OCC = occupation suffix QUOT = direct quotation
N(.s/p) = nominative (singular/plural) AUG = augmentative EP = epenthesis IND = indicative PP = patient (past) participle RPR = recent perfective
V(.s/p) = vocative (singular/plural) CAUS = causative EQU = equative degree INS = instrument PRF = perfect SBJ = subjunctive
  • A copula is a word or phrase that links the subject of a sentence to a subject complement. In Senjecas they are verbs.


Copulas of existence

  • 1. ésa - be (permanent)
  • That man is my father.
  • a-m̃ı̋ı̋ru mu-tááta ésa:
a=m̃ı̋ı̋r-u mu=táát-a és-a
that=man-N.s my=father-N.s be-IND
  • 2. vűűa - be (transient)
  • That man is my friend.
  • a-m̃ı̋ı̋ru mu-vı̋lu vűűa:
a=m̃ı̋ı̋r-u mu=vı̋l-u vűű-a
that=man-N.s my=friend-N.s be-IND


Copulas of change

  • This concept can be expressed only by the verb ı̋la.
  • 3. ı̋la - become
  • He became sick while on the journey.
  • méti taƣős éna éȝu da̋mu e-ı̋la:
méti taƣ-ős éna éȝ-u da̋m-u e=ı̋l-a
while journey-G.s on 3-N.s sick-N.s PST=become-IND
  • 4. ı̋la - fall
  • She fell victim to his charms.
  • ii-éȝ' ur-eȝu-mooȝa̋s ha lı̋tu e-ı̋la:
ii=éȝ-' ur=eȝu=mooȝ-a̋s ha lı̋t-u e=ı̋l-a
F=3-EL M=his=charm-G.s because.of victim-N.s PST=become-IND
  • 5. ı̋la - grow
  • I grow weary listening to your complaints.
  • tu-ǫ̋bon a̋a̋m̃antu mu le̋e̋du ı̋la:
tu=ǫ̋b-on a̋a̋m̃-a-ntu-Ø m-u le̋e̋d-u ı̋l-a
your=complaint-A.p listen.to-IND-AP-ABS 1s-N weary-N.s become-IND
  • 6. ı̋la - prove
  • Eating the plant proved fatal to him.
  • műűlom e̋dantu eȝús o ne̋s̈u e-ı̋la:
műűl-om e̋d-a-nt-u eȝ-ús o ne̋s̈-u e=ı̋l-a
plant-A.s eat-IND-AP-SUP 3-G.s to fatal-N.s PST=become-IND
  • 7. ı̋la - turn
  • In the autumn the leaves turn red and brown.
  • va̋los ipa̋s re̋uðosk̬e ba̋dosk̬e ı̋la:
va̋l-os ip-a̋s re̋uð-os=k̬e ba̋d-os=k̬e ı̋l-a
leaf-N.p autumn-G.s red-N.p=and brown-N.p=and become-IND


Copulas of perception

  • 8. műȝa - feel
  • This blanket feels so soft.
  • i-da̋ko kéþu n̨űmo műȝa:
i=da̋k-o kéþu n̨űm-o műȝ-a
this=blanket-N.s so soft-N.s feel-IND
  • 9. ka̋ȝa - seem
  • That lady's eyes seem blue.
  • a-anderűs t̬a̋los kőőxos ka̋ȝa:
a=ander-űs t̬a̋l-os kőőx-os ka̋ȝ-a
that=lady-G.s eye-N.p blue-N.p seem-IND
  • 10. še̋ga - smell
  • This egg didn't smell this bad yesterday.
  • hesaha̋s i-tőőlo toátu pűűo e-še̋ga ne:
hes.ah-a̋s i=tőől-o toátu pűű-o e=še̋g-a ne
yester.day-G.s this=egg-N.s so rotten-N.s PST=smell-IND not
  • 11. še̋na - sound
  • He didn't sound sick when last we spoke.
  • éȝu da̋mu še̋na ne—méti m̃us nĭnév̈i e-sa̋m̃a:
éȝ-u da̋m-u še̋n-a ne méti m̃-us nĭ~név=vi e=sa̋m̃-a
3-N.s sick-N.s sound-IND not when 1p-N EL~recent=ADV PST=speak-IND
  • 12. t̨a̋a̋ta - taste
  • This soup tastes delicious.
  • i-ȝőőno da̋lo t̨a̋a̋ta:
i=ȝőőn-o da̋l-o t̨a̋a̋t-a
this=soup-N.s delicious-N.s taste-IND


Copulas of description

  • 13. ka̋ȝa - appear
  • The poor dog appears frightened.
  • bűɫ̨e na̋ȝe tűge ka̋ȝa:
bűɫ̨e-Ø na̋ȝ-e tűg-e ka̋ȝ-a
poor-ABS dog-N.s frightened-N.s appear-IND
  • 14. ka̋ȝa - look
  • No, I think it looks sick.
  • ne̋. mu éȝem da̋me ka̋ȝu na̋ma:
ne̋ m-u éȝ-em da̋m-e ka̋ȝ-u na̋m-a
1s-N 3-A.s sick-N.s look-SUP think-IND
  • 15. gőþa - resemble
  • The water flowing off the roof resembles a waterfall.
  • kőrom áfa da̋a̋ante a̋a̋me ȝűko gőþa:
kőr-om áfa da̋a̋-a-nte-Ø a̋a̋m-e ȝűk-o gőþ-a
roof-A.s off flow-IND-AP-ABS water-N.s waterfall-N.s resemble-IND


Copulas of identity

  • 16. pa̋ra - equal
  • Two plus two equals four.
  • d̬ők̬e d̬ők̬e na̋a̋l pa̋ra:
d̬ő=k̬e d̬ő=k̬e na̋a̋l pa̋r-a
two=and two=and four equal-IND
  • 17. te̋va - prove
  • His statement proved incorrect.
  • eȝu-tőso alm̃e̋e̋ro e-te̋va:
eȝu=tős-o al=m̃e̋e̋r-o e=te̋v-a
his=statement-N.s PRV=correct-N.s PST=prove-IND


Copulas of continuance

  • This concept can be expressed only by the verb se̋e̋ra.
  • 18. se̋e̋ra - keep
  • Keep still or you'll open the wound.
  • k̬ı̋ı̋lu seere̋ȝa. m̃o tu m̃a̋a̋on u-lűra:
k̬ı̋ı̋l-u seer-e̋ȝa m̃o t-u m̃a̋a̋-on u=lűr-a
still-N.s keep-SBJ or 2s-N wound-A.s FUT=open-IND
  • 19. se̋e̋ra - remain
  • The hare remained still and the fox didn't see it.
  • ṡe̋ṡe k̬ı̋ı̋l' e-se̋e̋ra. da pűke éȝem e-na̋ka ne:
ṡe̋ṡ-e k̬ı̋ı̋l-' e=se̋e̋r-a da pűk-e éȝ-em e=na̋k-a ne
hare-N.s still-EL PST-remain-IND and fox-N.s 3-A.s PST=see-IND not
  • 20. se̋e̋ra - stay
  • We lit a fire and stayed warm.
  • m̃us e-a̋a̋þa. da te̋pus e-se̋e̋ra:
m̃-us e=a̋a̋þ-a da te̋p-us e=se̋e̋r-a
1p-N PST=light.a.fire-IND and warm-N.p PST=stay-IND