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Spoken in: Scotland (Skotlanda)
Conworld: League of Lost Languages
Total speakers: ~2,000
Genealogical classification: Atlantic
NW Scotic
Basic word order: VSO
Morphological type: Polysynthetic
Morphosyntactic alignment: Active, Hierarchical
Writing system:
Created by:
Taylor Selseth 2010 C.E.

Plitnakya [pʰliʦ̺nakja] is a highly endangered language isolate spoken by about 2,000 people in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland. It has a complex, polysythetic morphology that is very unusual for Europe and is likely a relic of the first people to populate Britain after the Pleistocene Glaciation.


Plitnakya is unusual in that it contrasts between Laminal-Dental and Aplical-Alveolar points of articulation and has no rhotic. It has a root structure of (F)(C)(F|L)V(F|L)(C) where C is any consonant, F is a fricative, and L is a liquid or nasal.


Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar
Stops, plain p ʧ k
Stops, aspirated t̻ʰ t̺ʰ ʧʰ
Fricatives f θ s ʃ x
Nasals, voiced m n ɲ ŋ
Nasals, unvoiced ɲ̥ ŋ̥
Liquids, voiced w l j
Liquids unvoiced ʍ ɬ ç

Plain stops and fricatives are voiced when between two voiced phonemes. /l/ is velarized when it follows a back vowel and is [ɾ] between vowels. /t̻ʰ t̺ʰ/ are realized as [tθ ʦ] between vowels and before nasals.

Front Center Back
High i u
Mid e ɛw ɔj o
Low aj a aw


Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar
Stops, plain b dz d j g
Stops, aspirated p tz t c k
Fricatives f z s x h
Nasals, voiced m n ny ng
Nasals, unvoiced mh nh nyh ngh
Liquids, voiced w l y
Liquids unvoiced wh lh yh
Front Center Back
High i ii u uu
Mid e ee eu oi o oo
Low ai a aa au

Consonant Mutation

Many prefixes cause mutation to the following consonant, there are 3 types of mutation: Hard, Soft, and Nasal.

Consonant Hard Soft Nasal
Plain Stop Aspirated Stop Fricative Voiced Nasal
Aspirated Stop Aspirated Stop Plain Stop Unvoiced Nasal
Fricative Plain Stop Liquid Voiced Nasal
Voiced Nasal Unvoiced Nasal Voiced Nasal Voiced Nasal
Unvoiced Nasal Plain Stop Voiced Nasal Voiced Nasal
Voiced Liquid Unvoiced Liquid Voiced Liquid Voiced Nasal
Unvoiced Liquid Fricative Voiced Liquid Unvoiced Nasal

In morphological glosses the Hard Mutation is marked as H, the Soft as S, and the Nasal as N.


Nouns fall into an Animancy Hierarchy of 2nd Person > 1st Person > people and animate collectives > non-person animates > natural forces > other inanimates and collectives. There is a rich case system. Noun morphological structure is:

1. Number
2. Possessive Prefix
3. Noun Stem
4. Case-Definiteness suffix


Nominal number is marked by a prefix on the noun. There are 3 numbers: Singular, Dual, and Plural. Mass nouns do not inflect for number but are instead required to be compounded with a measure word. Singular is unmarked

C-Stem V-Stem
Dual thaa- th-
Plural heH- sh-

Possessive Affixes

1st Person In. 1st Person Ex. 2nd Person 3rd person 4th Person Indefinite
Singular ni- yaa- go- sai- lu-
Plural nin- zan- yan- gon- sen- lun-


Syntactic Cases

Nominative Accusative Ergative Genitive Dative Comitative Benifactive
Indefinite -(o)d -(f)o -(a)p -(e)z -(w)uu -lha
Definite -(e)l -lde -zo -lep -le -luu -lalh

Nominative: Marks the subject of accusative and unergative verbs and the patient of ergative verbs.

Accusative: Marks the patient of accusative verbs.

Ergative: Marks the subject of ergative and unaccusative verbs.

Gentive: Marks the possessor of the modified noun.

Dative: Marks the recipient of a ditransitive verb.

Benifactive:Marks the benifactee of a ditransitive verb

Locative Cases

Locative Allative Ablative Illative Ellative Perlative Subessive Superessive
Indefinite -(h)e -(u)ksah -(a)yeh -(a)nghau -(a)dzot -(o)waah -(i)ke -(i)kla
Definite -(h)il -(u)kselh -(y)eelh -(a)nghol -(a)dzud -(w)oolh -(i)kel -(i)klal


Verbs are the most complex part of the language by far. As in many polysynthetic languages a single word can mean a whole English sentence. The morphological structure is thus:

Pronominal Prefixes
Direct-Inverse Prefix
Habitual Prefix
Inhcoative Prefix
Continuative Prefix
Cessative Prefix
Defective Prefix
Benifactive Prefix
Desirative (2st & 3rd person wanting)/Optative (1st person wanting) Prefix
Instrumental Prefix
Necessitative Prefix
Frequentative Prefix
Intensive Prefix
Perfect Prefix
Evidential Prefixes
Verb Stem
Incorporated Direct Object
Question Suffix

The verb stem can be made out of a single root or 2 or more compounded roots.

Pronominal Inflection

The person and number Subject and Direct Object are marked on the verb in the Direct-Inverse format, each person form has a set spot, starting with 2nd Person and going in order down the animacy hierarchy If the subject has a lower animacy than the direct object the inverse morpheme -maa- must be used.

Yanixpuz. "You know me."

Yanimaaxpuz. "I know you."

The inflections are thus:

1st Person In. 1st Person Ex. 2nd Person 3rd person 4th Person Indefinite
Singular ni- ya- go- sa- lu-
Plural nii- za- yaa- goo- sai- luu-

When there are two "3rd Persons" in the sentence the less topical one is marked as 4th person.

Goseglaufe. "she has helped him."

The Impersonal is used for processes that are perceived as agentless, as well as for general statements. The Impersonal when used without any other marking also functions as an infinitive. Infinitive stative verbs are used as adjectives.

Luzguu "It snows"

There are also a set of reflexive prefixes

1st Person In. 1st Person Ex. 2nd Person 3rd person 4th Person Indefinite
Singular nisp- yasp- gosp- sasp- lusp-
Plural niisp- zasp- yaasp- goosp- saisp- loosp-


There are 4 tenses, Present, Near Past (Past 1), Far Past (Past 2), and Future. Use of the near or far past is determined whether the verb occurs within the last day. The Near Past prefix is -k(a), Far Past is -f(e), Future is -wo.

Niyhokslyai "I ate ham (today)"

Niyhofslyai "I ate ham (before today)"

Niyhowoslyai "I will eat ham"


There are 7 prefixes that mark aspect:

The Perfect prefix -nc- is used to show completed action. Note that it is Perfect, NOT Perfective; Plitnakya does not have a true Perfective-Imperfective distinction

Niksaancyhoslyai "I have eaten ham before"

The Habitual prefix -nla- signifies actions that are habitual and usual.

Ninlayhoslyai Notligel "I (usually) eat ham on Christmas"
ni-nla-yho-slyai notlig-el
1SG-HAB-eat-ham Christmas-LOC.DEF

The Inchoative prefix -whaa- indicates the start of an action and can have a hortative meaning in the 1st person plural. There is no verb for "to start", the verbs for "to be" and "to do/make" in the Inchoative aspect are used, instead

Nigowhaayhok slyailii "I started eating the ham"
ni-go-whaa-yho-k slyai-lii

The Cessative prefix -jeul-indicates the end of an action. There is no verb for "to stop", the verbs for "to be" and "to do/make" in the Cessative aspect are used, instead.

Nijeulyho "I am done eating"

The Necessitative prefix -toi-indicates an obligation to do an action.

Yatoiyho "You must eat"

The Attenuative prefix -mho- weakens the intensity of the verb.

Nigoomhoyhok hepeskutai "I nibbled on some crackers"
ni-gooN-mho-yho-k heH-beskut-ai
1SG-3PL-ATTEN-eat-PST1 PL-cracker-ACC

The Intensive prefix -z- strengthens the intensity of the verb.

Nigozyhok slyailii "I gorged on the ham"
ni-go-z-yho-k slyai-lii


There are 6 mood suffixes:

The Imperative suffix -(y)i
The Subjunctive suffix -(h)ai-
The Optative suffix -(h)e-
The Desirative suffix -(w)eu-
The Conditional suffix -(l)au-
The Potential suffix -(ngh)ee-


There are 2 mood suffixes:

The Passive suffix -sek
The Antipassive suffix -gzai-


There are 3 evidential prefixes:

The 1st Hand prefix -s(i)-
The 2nd Hand prefix -yha(n)-
The Inference and Common Knowledge prefix -jwee(h)-

Question-Marking and Negation

The Negative suffix is -(a)zk-
The Question suffix -(y)ii