Nother/Drake phonology

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Drake has a fairly standard set of vowel positions, /a e i o u/. The vowels /a i u/ may be short or long.

Front Near-front Central Back
High i iː u uː
High-mid e o
Low a aː

Any vowel may also have creaky voice applied: /a̰ a̰ː ḛ ḭ ḭː o̰ ṵ ṵː/.

/a/ TlV ṭalā /θàlaː/ "into"
/aː/ xVnz ḳāneze /xaːnèze/ "three"
/a̰ː/ ’VgV ʼā̰gā /ʔâ̰ːɡaː/ "bread"
/e/ DGl ḍeġele /ðeɣèle/ "sacrificial animal"
/ḛ/ cGTs cḛġeṭeso /cçḛɣeθèso/ "she mixes"
/i/ n ni /ní/ "and"
/iː/ Gyn ġīno /ɣîːno/ "wine"
/o/ hkr hokkere /(h)okkère/ "wisdom"
/u/ Ghs ġuhse /ɣù(h)se/ "he pours"
/uː/ svn sūne /sûːne/ "they"


Bilabial Dental Alveolar Post-alv. Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive t d k g
Fricative θ ð s z ʃ ʂ ʐ x ɣ (h)
Approximants j
Tap ɾ
Lateral Approximant l

It's unclear how /ʃ/ manages to survive on its own (or if it actually does exist as a phoneme), and whether the retroflex series is actually supposed to be retroflex; they might, perhaps, be palatal, but all I'm certain of is that my notes explicitly state them to be at a different POA than /ʃ/. Many (all?) consonants may be geminated.

Though /h/ was still represented in writing, it was not pronounced in the speech of most; it does not continue into the later ages of the language.

/m/ myn mīne /mîːne/ "house"
/n/ nGDr noġeḍor /noɣèðor/ "of a seed"
/ŋ/ N’V ŋe’ā̰ /ŋèʔa̰ː/ "dragon"


Drake has a pitch accent on the penultimate syllable (2R). When the penult is long, it is a circumflex or falling accent; when it is short, it is grave; in monosyllables with an accent the accent is acute.