Grave Accent

From FrathWiki
Jump to: navigation, search

The grave accent originates from the Greek alphabet where it was used for marking low pitch.[1][2]

Grave Accent in Unicode

Characters with Grave Accent
` ˋ ˴ ◌̀ ◌̀ À à È è
U+0060 U+02CB U+02F4 U+0300 U+0340 U+00C0 U+00E0 U+1EA6 U+1EA7 U+1EB0 U+1EB1 U+00C8 U+00E8
Grave Accent Modifier Letter Grave Accent Modifier Letter Middle Grave Accent Combining Grave Accent Combining Grave Tone Mark Latin Capital Letter A With Grave Latin Small Letter A With Grave Latin Capital Letter A With Circumflex And Grave Latin Small Letter A With Circumflex And Grave Latin Capital Letter A With Breve And Grave Latin Small Letter A With Breve And Grave Latin Capital Letter E With Grave Latin Small Letter E With Grave
Note: The tone mark was created for Vietnamese, but its use is now discouraged.[3]
Ì ì Ǹ ǹ Ò ò
U+1E14 U+1E15 U+1EC0 U+1EC1 U+00CC U+00EC U+01F8 U+01F9 U+00D2 U+00F2 U+1E50 U+1E51 U+1ED2
Latin Capital Letter E With Macron And Grave Latin Small Letter E With Macron And Grave Latin Capital Letter E With Circumflex And Grave Latin Small Letter E With Circumflex And Grave Latin Capital Letter I With Grave Latin Small Letter I With Grave Latin Capital Letter N With Grave Latin Small Letter N With Grave Latin Capital Letter O With Grave Latin Small Letter O With Grave Latin Capital Letter O With Macron And Grave Latin Small Letter O With Macron And Grave Latin Capital Letter O With Circumflex And Grave
Ù ù Ǜ ǜ
U+1ED3 U+1EDC U+1EDD U+00D9 U+00F9 U+01DB U+01DC U+1EEA U+1EEB U+1E80 U+1E81 U+1EF2 U+1EF3
Latin Small Letter O With Circumflex And Grave Latin Capital Letter O With Horn And Grave Latin Small Letter O With Horn And Grave Latin Capital Letter U With Grave Latin Small Letter U With Grave Latin Capital Letter U With Diaeresis And Grave Latin Small Letter U With Diaeresis And Grave Latin Capital Letter U With Horn And Grave Latin Small Letter U With Horn And Grave Latin Capital Letter W With Grave Latin Small Letter W With Grave Latin Capital Letter Y With Grave Latin Small Letter Y With Grave

Grave Accent in Natlangs

Uses of Grave Accent
Use Language Letters Notes
Disambiguation of homographs Malagasy Àà /ˈa/, Èè /ˈe/, Ìì /ˈi/, Òò /ˈu/, Ỳỳ /ˈi/ The grave accent marks stress, but it usually only used for distinguishing between homographs. With pairs of these words, it is the one with exceptional stress placement that is marked with the grave, while the other word is unmarked. Dictionaries however may mark the stress of all words.[4]
Falling tone Mandarin (Pinyin romanization) Àà /a˥˩/, Èè /ə˥˩/, Ìì /i˥˩/, Òò /ə˥˩/, Ùù /u˥˩/, Ǜǜ /y˥˩/ Pinyin was created in the 1950s, and its tone marks were based on the Bopomofo phonetic notation.[5] Note that these tone values are based on the Beijing dialect.[6]
Min Dong (Fuzhou dialect, Foochow romanization) Àà /a˥˧, ɑ˥˧/, À̤à̤ /ɛ˥˧, a˥˧/, Èè /ɛi˥˧/, È̤è̤ /œ˥˧/, Ìì /i˥˧/, Òò /ou˥˧/, Ò̤ò̤ /o˥˧, ɔ˥˧/, Ùù /u˥˧/, Ṳ̀ṳ̀ /y˥˧/ Note that the letters here that contain ◌̤ are not precomposed characters.
Min Nan (Pe̍h-ōe-jī orthography) Àà /a˨˩/, Àⁿ àⁿ /ã˨˩/, Èè /e˨˩/, Èⁿ èⁿ /ẽ˨˩/, Ìì /i˨˩/, Ìⁿ ìⁿ /ĩ˨˩/, M̀m̀ /m̩˨˩/, Ǹg ǹg /ŋ̍˨˩/, Òò /ə˨˩/, Òⁿ òⁿ /ɔ̃˨˩/, Ò͘ò͘ /ɔ˨˩/, Ùù /u˨˩/, Ùⁿ ùⁿ /u˨˩/ There is much variation in the tones and vowel qualities between different dialects of Min Nan. The vowel qualities here seem to be an approximation between the dialects,[7] while the tones here are as they are pronounced in Taipei.[8]
Vietnamese Àà /a̤ː˨˩/, Ằằ /a̤˨˩/, Ầầ /ə̤˨˩/, Èè /ɛ̤˨˩/, Ềề /e̤˨˩/, Ìì /i̤˨˩/, Òò /ɔ̤˨˩/, Ồồ /o̤˨˩/, Ờờ /ə̤ː˨˩/, Ùù /ṳ˨˩/, Ừừ /ɨ̤˨˩/, Ỳỳ /i̤˨˩/ The grave accent stands for low falling tone with breathy voice. There are many exceptions to the phonemic values of these letters though.[9]
Short vowel Croatian, Serbian Àà /ǎ/, Èè /ě/, Ìì /ǐ/, Òò /ǒ/, R̀r̀ /ř̩/, Ùù /ǔ/ The grave accent marks that these vowels are short and have rising pitch. These letters are not used in the standard orthography of Croatian or Serbian, but in linguistic materials.[10]
Slovene (orthography with dynamic accentuation) Àà /ˈa/, Èè /ˈɛ/, Ìì /ˈi/, Òò /ˈɔ/, R̀r̀ /ˈəɾ/, Ùù /ˈu/ The grave accent marks that these vowels are stressed and short, and that Èè and Òò are mid-open vowels rather than mid-close. These letters are not used in the standard orthography of Slovene, but in language materials.[11]
Slovene (orthography with tonal accentuation) Àà /á/, Èè /ɛ́/, Ẹ̀ẹ̀ /é/, Ìì /í/, Òò /ɔ́/, Ọ̀ọ̀ /ó/, R̀r̀ /ə́ɾ/, Ùù /ú/ The grave accent marks that these vowels are short and have high pitch. These letters are not used in the standard orthography of Slovene, but in language materials.[11]
Stress Catalan Àà /ˈa/, Èè /ˈɛ/, Òò /ˈɔ/ The rules for when stress is to be marked in Catalan are quite complex. The grave accent also distinguishes stressed /ɛ ɔ/ from /e o/,[12] see Acute Accent, Acute Accent in Natlangs.
Varying length Arabic (ISO 233 romanization) Ỳỳ [a(ː)] Ỳỳ is used for transcribing the Arabic letter ى‎, which is phonemically long but is often realized short.[13] Yy is probably used as base letter because ى is a dotless version of ي which stands for /j/ (and other sounds), transcribed Yy.
Arabic (ISO/R 233 romanization) Àà [a(ː)] Àà is used for transcribing the Arabic letter ى‎, which is phonemically long but is often realized short.[13]

Grave Accent in Conlangs

Uses of Grave Accent
Usage Language Creator Letters Notes
Low pitch Inng (external transcription) Qwynegold Àà /à/, Èè /ə̀, ì/, Ìì /ì/, L̀l̀ /l̩̀/, M̀m̀ /ŋ̩̀/, Ǹǹ /ŋ̩̀/, Òò /ò, ə̀, à/, Ùù /ù/ Some of these accented letters only appear as part of a digraph when representing a certain sound.[14]
Low tone Lhueslue (external romanization) Qwynegold Àà /ɑ̀/, Àe àe /æ̀/, Èè /è/. Èe èe /ɛ̀/, Ìì /ì/, Ìe ìe /ɘ̀/, Òò /ò/, Òe òe /ø̀/, Ùù /ù/, Ùe ùe /ỳ/ This tone may be realized as either a low level tone, or a falling tone. Unaccented vowels have mid level tone.[15]
Stress Liu (external romanization) Qwynegold Àà /ˈa/, Èè /ˈe/, Ìì /ˈi/, Òò /ˈo/, Ùù /ˈu/ The grave accent marks that the vowel is stressed and short. In the native script, the corresponding diacritic would be placed on the first letter of the syllable, whether it's a vowel or a consonant, but in the romanization it is only used on vowel letters for simplicity's sake.

See Also

References

  1. grave at Everything2.
  2. Grave accent, Greek at Wikipedia.
  3. This was due to positioning issues in Vietnamese diacritic stacking, but this is now handled by the regular combining grave. Sources:
    Unicode, Inc. 2014. Combining Diacritical Marks.
    Vietnamese language and computers, Vietnamese Alphabet at Wikipedia.
  4. Malagasy language, Diacritics at Wikipedia.
  5. Pinyin, History after 1949 at Wikipedia.
  6. Mandarin Chinese, Tones at Wikipedia.
  7. Pe̍h-ōe-jī, Current system at Wikipedia.
  8. Taiwanese Hokkien, Tones at Wikipedia.
  9. Vietnamese orthography, Pronunciation at Wikipedia.
  10. Serbo-Croatian phonology, Pitch accent at Wikipedia.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Slovene language, Prosody at Wikipedia.
  12. Catalan alphabet, Acute and grave accents at Wikipedia.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Aleph, Arabic variants at Wikipedia.
  14. Inng, Transcription at FrathWiki.
  15. Lhueslue, Tones at FrathWiki.