NOUNS of ABCL
“Basic/root nouns” consist principally of five letters (CVCCV). There are however nouns derived from verbs, adjectives and other nouns having six-seven letters. They all end on a vowel same as the basic nouns. Adding the sixth and seventh letter was necessary to avoid ambiguities with the root nouns and the double vowels. The root nouns are classified in 15 noun groups, each of them heading a special area of use, such as “body”, “human”, “animals”, plants, “mental”, psychology-spirit”, social”, “daily home”, “health”, “pastime”, ”nature and environment”, “science”, “construction-technic-transport”, “time” and “others”. Each of them has its own special initial consonant. Considering “S” is being the mostly utilized initial consonant in many languages, we preferred it for the “heading” BODY and HUMAN, which are mostly mentioned in daily speaking.
This partly philosophical approach of word creation are not favoured by some critics, saying words differing by an end vowel (or consonant) only, could be mixed up easily. This may seem at first sight true but many world languages have many similar words which is not considered as a problem for them. Even so, the grouping and classification of words as done in ABCL have the big advantage of connotation for memorizing or remembering a word.
Nouns are created by the use of an Excel matrix; an example for the main topic “BODY” is shown below. For this heading, CVCCV is selected as S#N##, whereas S and N being basic consonants for the heading “BODY”. The subtopics are constructed by varying first vocal in lateral line of the matrix from “A” to “Ü” (also 8 vocals=8 columns) (here, for example, for subtitle “Head”, first varying vowel being “E”, first syllable is SEN and for the following subtitle “Upper Body”, it is SİN ). Now for each subheading having a fixed CVC (e.g. SEN), the fourth letter (consonant) will be kept, the fifth letter (a vowel) will be varied from “A” to “Ü” (“SEN”C#), building a block with 8 columns. ((In the matrix below, for the sake of vowel harmony (applied for the “Level 1” only) some columns (e.g. “sanbe, sınbi, sünbo..) haven’t been utilized.)) Vertically, at the each column of the matrix the fourth letter (a consonant) will be varied from “B” to “Z” (“SEN”C*”a”… 20 in total). This way for each subtopic 8×20=160 nouns could be created theoretically. For one heading (e.g. “BODY” with the corresponding fixed consonants “SAN”##, “SEN”## etc. as here) we could have 8×160=1280 nouns. Varying “N” in this scheme from “B” to “Z”, we will have 20×1280=25 600 nouns beginning with “S”. And for 20 initial consonants, we could have created 20×25 600=512 000 nouns with this matrix scheme.
We aim to utilize for the Level 1 about 5000 nouns only, so we can effort dropping combination with difficult pronunciations (for example with the letters “J” or “I” and for the sake of vowel harmony etc. Fully utilization of the matrix might be required for the medical and technical terms only, if any. The matrix scheme would also allow using of the computer programs for word creation and translation. The matrix allows further sub-subheading such as of the “Head”, the first column (S-ENe) indicating sense organs like eye, nose, ear (denoted as Sene: primary) and further columns right of them, the subparts of first noun at the beginning (denoted as “seconders”). For example: eye (senge) (first column), then in the same row; eyelid (sengi), eyelash (sengo), iris (sengö). Being Excel table, the matrix allows right click explanation for each cell, where we can put the meaning of a word in any language.
ABCL nouns of group S#N##* (BODY) (selected partially as example) SEN: HEAD
|Sen#e: Primary||Sen#i: Secondary||Sen#o: Secondary.....|
|senge||eye||sengi||eye lid||sengo||eye lash||sengö||iris||sengü||pupil|
|senhe||ear||senhi||earlobe||...||senho||...||senhö||middle ear||senhü||inner ear|
Prosodics are generally not required. However to avoid the misunderstanding due to close sounds of some vocals the (especially second) syllables must be accentuated.
Nouns will be derived from nouns, verbs and adjectives by adding suffixes according to a fixed scheme. They will typically end also on a vowel as the root nouns.
|ABCL Suffix||ABCL Suffix||Example: ABCL noun||English Suffix||Some English Nouns (Examples)|
|(Level 1)||(Level 2)||(incl. Level 2)||(only nouns in italic translated into ABCL)|
|_şe||_şe||yin.şe, dek.şe||to (infinitive)||to run, to eat|
|_aya||_aya||kas.aya||_, _age, _ure||cut, bore, leakage, creature|
|_aya||_aya||çol.aya||_/t)ion||protrusion, indication, motion, division, organization, evaporation|
|_aya||_aya||her.aya||_ing||building, being, writing, dead, smell, piping|
|_aya||_aha||mes.aha||_ence||joy, fun, thought, excellence|
|_aya||_aha||hün.aha, tad.aha||_ment||employment, enjoyment, amazement, imprisonment, replacement|
|_aya||_ada||tüm.ada||_(t-,s-)ion||relaxation, attention, selection, evaporation, introduction|
|_ana||_ama||hün.ama||_er,_ent,_ory,_ak,_ier||employer, student, servant, baker, liar, governor, waitress, signatory, cashier, cleaner|
|_ana||_ana||vük.ana||_er||counter, cleaner, recorder, opener, obstacle, scale, viewer (for _scope: as microscope)|
|_asa||_asa||hün.asa||_ee||employee, refugee, trainee|
|_aça||_aça||vös.aça||_(e)ry||refinery, bakery, laundry, laboratory, dormitory|
|_aça||_aca||dir.aca||_ing, _tion||bedding, station (bus stop), aim/target, passage|
|_aka||_aka||yin.aka||_ing (gerund)||running, beginning, rejoicing|
According to the meaning they add to the derived nouns, English suffixes can be grouped in to e.g.: nomina acti, nomina actionis, nomina agentis (acting), nomina patientis (affected), noun loci (place); result/product of act for real and abstract objects, result as process etc. These groups are shown in the second column (Level 2) of the above table.
One can see in the table that there is not a different noun created from the same verbal root by different suffix groups "aya, aha, ada" and "aşa". Even it seems sometimes so as for "expectance via expectancy", the meaning remains almost the same. It means, we can use one suffix only instead of those three. (Seemingly different meanings by different suffixes arises by the root verb, not by the suffix, accordingly no need for such suffix diversity.)
So, in ABCL for the Level 1 we will lessen the suffixes of mentioned group to one suffix "aya" only. Suffixes "ama" and "ana" will be merged to "ana" indicating the subject of the act (independently person or thing) only. Passive subject suffix "asa" remains as it is. Third merged suffix is "aça" including also "aca" which denotes the place. Fourth is "aka", stand for "-ing" and some "-tion" suffixes naming the action itself by the name.
Thus ABCL has finally five derivational suffixes for deverbal nouns as shown in first column. The suffixes of the second column at the table above may be used however for the Level 2 if needed.(Shortened in the lists above and below; complete lists of this group can be seen at my URL: http://aydinbaykara.com)
With the help of those five suffixes and assumed two thousand suitable verbs, it would be possible to create 10 000 new nouns for Level 1 only.
|ABCL Suffix L1||ABCL Suffix L2||Examp.: ABCL noun L2||English Suffix||Some English Nouns (Examples)|
|_da(abstr.nouns)||_da||salya.da||_hood,_ness,_ity||motherhood, friendship, military, kingdom|
|_da||_ha||senge.ha||spectacles, woodshed, cucumber, Spielzeug(German)|
|_da||_ya||salya.ya||-y/-n/-en/-on,-ling,-ette||mummy, doggy, chicken, kitten, maiden, darling, diskette|
|_na(people-group)||_ma||pesçe.ma||-ian/-er/-man/-ist||politician, librarian, musician, porter, fireman, artist, dentist, racist, Buddhist, atheist|
|_na||_sa||Türkiye.sa||-ish/-ian/-an/-er/-se||Turkish, Algerian, Roman, Chinese (citizen of that country)|
|_na||_na||paskö.na||_ish,_ien,_an,(e)r||citizen, villager, republican, English, German (folk)|
|_ta(branch-area)||_ta||banya.ta||_logy,_nomy,_graphy||biology, psychology, astronomy, stenography, geography, photography|
|-||country name||as in the original language, not in English|
|-meter||thermometer (Suffix replaced by compound words such as "heat gauge")|
For the similar consideration as the deverbal noun derivation above, ABCL will have the suffix "da" for the suffixes of the Level 2 (L2)"da, ha, ya"; the suffix "na" for "na, ma, sa, ra"(all human related) and "ta" for scientific nouns.
Even if rarely, it is possible that one Level 1 suffix covers two nouns with differing meaning (In the table above "motherhood" and "mummy" are both derived from "mother". With one Level 1 (L1) suffix "da" only, we would have an ambiguity. Therefore we need here to go back to Level 2, where we have two different suffixes ("da" and "ya").
If a noun very frequently used, we defined beside derived one also a root noun for it directly in ABCL as e.g. above pesçe.ma (=pesce). Derivation rules, once memorized, can be applied for new cases also but the word will be longer, other way we have to learn the new noun additionally to derived one, which we consider adequate for the Level 2 only.
Noun Derived from Adjective
|ABCL Suffix||Examp.: ABCL noun||English Suffix||Some English Nouns (Examples)|
|_ka;(x)_ka||ebi.ka, ebix.ka||-||beauty, ugliness|
|_ka||açü.ka, abax.ka||_dom,_hood||freedom, boredom, falsehood|
|_ka||ehi.ka, atü.ka||_th, _(en)ce||depth, strength, prominence, absence|
|(x)_ka||avax.ka||_ness||sadness, kindness, darkness, business|
|_ka||silbi.to.ka||_(al)ity,_ty,_y||sexuality, normality, formality, loyalty, jealousy, victory|
|(x)_ka||göd.amox.ka(*)||_cy||vacancy, fluency, frequency|
|(x)_ka||avax.ka||_ness||sadness, kindness, darkness, business|
|_vunye||şı.vunye, ki.vunye||_gon||polygon, pentagon|
(*)Nouns will not be derived from deverbal adjectives but directly from verbs, so it will be “göd.ayax”
Derived Noun from Adverb
Compound/Combined Noun Derivations
|verb.noun||ene.n. vondi||magnifying glass|