Lakankimo Luge

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Lakankimo Luge is an engelang by Yuriy B. translated by Rgj40q. Originally published there.

Phonetics and morphology

Each morpheme may take from zero to two actants: (), (A), (A, B). The return value of the morpheme may be either a meaning of morpheme itself: M(), M(A), M(A, B), or a participle: 'A so that M is done over it', let us define it as A(A), A(B), A(A, B), B(A), (A, B).

A morpheme has the structure (C)vC(v), where vowels are responsible for coordination.

M() = CaC
M(A) = CeC A(A) = CuCe B(A) = CiCe
M(B) = CiCa A(B) = CuCa
M(A, B) = CoC A(A, B) = CuCo B(A, B) = CiCo

Schemes of morpheme vocalizations: notice the absence of scheme B(B), the vocalization CiCa performs the function of M(B)!

Spaces have no phonological meaning, the speech is unequivocally divided into morphemes without the aid of spaces. The speaker may pause anywhere, either by speaking each morpheme as a separate word, or by combining whole expressions into one phonetic word.

In the case of combining several morphemes into one phonetic word, if any of the morphemes has vowels E/O, the stress falls on these vowels. That facilitates the pronunciation for the speakers of those languages in which there are no unstressed E/O.

The vowel E can be pronounced both as [e] and [ɛ]. If you are not able to pronounce the unstressed E/O without a reduction, you may not use two such vowels in one phonetic word, you should divide such a word into several and pronounce each with a separate stress. If there are no E/O vowels, the stress falls on the morpheme carrying the logical stress.

The vowels E, O, A are in the ending if the previous vowel is I or U (schemes C(u/i)C(a/e/o)). Vowels E, O, A are in root otherwise (schemes CaC, CeC, CiC).

The beginning of the morpheme can be zero, single consonant, or a group of consonants. The end of a morpheme always consists of a single consonant.

The last consonant does not distinguish phonological voicing, which facilitates the pronunciation for speakers of languages in which the end of a syllable is assimilated by voicing to the next consonant or space.

If a cluster of consonants follows the E, O, A in root, then its first consonant refers to the previous morpheme. This consonant can be assimilated by voicing to the next.

At the beginning of the morpheme, the absence of consonants is permissible. At the beginning of the morpheme, a cluster of consonants is permissible. Voiced fricative consonants in this cluster may not be near unvoiced consonants. The cluster obeys the law of ascending sonority: fricative -> plosive -> approximant.


Standard word order is SOV.

mam ram mol - mother(1) washes(3) the window(2)
mam mel - mother washes
ram mila - the window is washed
mal - to wash

Depending on the presence of actants, the verb takes the vocalizations CoC = M(A, B), CeC = M(A), CiCa = M(B), CaC = M(). Nouns with a vocalization of CaC = M() do not accept actants.

The auxiliary morpheme (v)S(v) takes a verb without a subject as the first parameter, and a noun as the second parameter; it returns an action equipped with a subject. Vocalization is oS = M(A, B). Using this morpheme, the subject can be put after the verb:

ram mila mamOS - the window is washed by mother
mal mamOS - to be washed by mother

The morpheme (v)M(v) does the same with the object:

mam mel ramOM -  mother washes the window
mal ramOM - to wash the window
mal mamOS ramOM - mother(2) washes(1) the window(3)
mal ramOM mamOS - mother(3) washes(1) the window(2)

The morpheme (v)L(v) takes a subject as the first parameter, and a verb as the second parameter, and it return the verb with the subject. The morpheme (v)T(v) takes an object as the first parameter, and a verb as the second parameter, and it return the verb with the object.

ram mam melOT - mother(2) washed(3) the window(1).

With the help of these morphemes one may use analytical coordination of the verb with the actants in front of him, without changing its vocalization.

mam ram malOTOL - mother(1) washes(3) the window(2)
mam malOL - mother washes
ram malOT - to wash(2) the window(1)

The morpheme (v)N(v) denotes the zero actant.

AN AN mol - to wash
ANmel - to wash
ANmila - to wash
mam ANmol - mother washes
AN ram mol - the window is washed

Participles can be synthetically expressed using the schemes A(A), A(B), A(A,B), B(A), B(A,B):

mam ram mulo - mother(1) washing(3) the window(2)
mam mule - mother who washes
mam ram milo - the window(2) which is washed(3) by mother(1)

Or using morphemes (v)N(v), (v)L(v), (v)T(v), and their combinations with the stem vocalization:

mam ram milaULO - mother(1) who washes(3) the window(2)
mam ram malOTULO - mother(1) who washes(3) the window(2)
mam malULO - mother who washes
ram malUTO - the window being washed
ram mam melUTO - the window(1) being washed(3) by mother(2)
mam ram malOLUTO - the window(1) being washed(3) by mother(2)
ANmalUTO - something being washed
ANmalULO - someone washing
ANmule - someone washing

Participle-like meanings may also be expressed with morphemes (v)S(v), (v)M(v):

mal mamISO - washing mother
mal ramIMO - washed window
malUSA - one who washes
malUMA - one being washed

Negation is expressed with morpheme N(v)K(v):

mam ram mol NEK - mother(1) doesn't(4) wash(3) the window(2)

The parallel members are made with morpheme (v)Q(v):

mam ramOQ - mother and window
mam ramOQ rasOQ - mother and window and rose

The plural is expressed with morpheme (v)R(v):

mamER ramER mol - mothers(1) wash(3) the windows(2).

In verbs this morpheme denotes repeated action:

mam ram mol ER - mother(1) washes(3) the window(2) many times(4)

In adjectives the actant is the main word:

ras red - rose is red
ras rude - red(2) rose(1), or rose which is red

The dependent word may go before the main:

rad rasOS - rose(2) is red(1)
rad rasISO - red rose

In nouns the first actant expresses the thing being a noun:

ras fles - rose is flower
flas rasOS - there is a flower rose

The second actant expresses the thing possessed by a noun:

mam risa - mother's rose

Possession may be expressed analitically:

mam rasITO - mother's rose
ras mamIMO - rose of mother

The verb 'to be' may be expressed explicitly as S(v)T(v):

ras flas sot - rose(1) is(3) a flower(2)
flas rad sot - flower(1) is(3) red(2)

Postpositions take the verb as the first actant, the adverbial as the second:

mam ram mol damOV - mother(1) washes(3) the window(2) at home(4)

Using (v)L(v) the adverbial may be put in the beginning of the sentence:

damIVA ram molOL - at home the window is washed

Postpositions may build a participle forms:

mam ram mol damIVO - at the home(4) where mother(1) washes(3) the window(2)
mam ram mol ANIVO - at some place(4) where mother(1) washes(3) the window(2)

The morpheme (v)P(v) takes an action as the first actant, and its end as the second:

mam ram mol ram klerOP - mother(1) washes(3) the window(2) to make the window(4) clean(5)

It is used to build causatives:

ram kler - the window is clean
mam ram klerOP - mother(1) cleans(3) the window(2)
klar - to be clean
klarIPA - to clean
mam klarOP - mother cleans

Modal verbs take a verb as the second actant:

ag ram mila wol - I(1) would like(4) to wash(3) the window(2)
ag mam ram mol wol - I(1) want(5) mother(2) to wash(4) the window(3)

Using (v)M(v) one may build the conditional mood:

ag wel mam ram molOM - I(1) wish(2) that mother(3) would wash(5) the window(4)

Verbs of speech (e.g. talk, say, tell) take an indirect speech as the second actant:

ag mam ram mol lok - I(1) say(5) that mother(2) washes(4) the window(3)

Using (v)M(v) one may build the recurrent mood:

ag lek mam ram molOM - I(1) say(2) that mother(3) washes(5) the window(4)

(v)V(v) - locative-directional postposition, fr(v)m(v) - deponent postposition, k(v)m - instrumental-collective postposition.

The word derivation is possible with postposition:

lak - to speak
lakANKIMO - language, or the thing used for speaking
lag - logical, smart


Lakankimo Luge - logical language

Extended version

M()   = CaC     A()   = CuCa     B()   = CiCa
M(A)  = CeC     A(A)  = CuCe     B(A)  = CiCe
M(B)  = CaiC    A(B)  = CuCai    B(B)  = CiCai
M(A,B)= CoC     A(A,B)= CuCo     B(A,B)= CiCo
M(B,A)= CauC    A(B,A)= CuCau    B(B,A)= CiCau