| Koġołħuẓ |
|Basic word order:|
', A a, B b, D d, Ḍ ḍ, E e, F f, G g, G̣ ġ, H h, Ḥ ḥ, Ħ ħ, I i, J j, K k, L l, Ḷ ḷ, Ł ł, M m, N n, Ṇ ṇ, O o, P p, R r, S s, Ṣ ṣ, Ś ś, T t, Ŧ ŧ, U u, W W, Y y, Z z, Ẓ ẓ
Koġołħuẓ is consonental root language, but unlike Semitic languages, each root doesn't need to be three consonants. In Koġołħuẓ every root can be between one and three consonants. Grammars are expressed by adding vowels between the consonants. The vowels are /ɑ/, /ɛ/, /i/, /o/, /u/ and a null vowel (Ø). The null vowel stands for the absence of a vowel. Some consonants have a vocalic allophone, these pairs are /ʔ/-[ɑ], /ŋ/-[ɛ], /j/-[i] and /w/-[u]. These consonants turn into their vocalic counterpart to avoid illegal clusters, which often result from the insertion of the null vowel. In the following grammars explanation, infixes are represented as groups of three vowels. Each of these three vowels is inserted into its right place in the root.
The first vowel of all nouns is null, because the first position is used for derivation. The second vowel stand for the type of case: a for cases related to the accusative, e for locative cases, i for different kinds of nominative cases and o for the rest of the cases (which have in common that the word they are applied to usually are neither the subject nor the direct object of the sentence). The third vowel does not have such a systematic meaning, but there are some patterns that can be seen; Ø is used for the most "basic" or "simplest" cases and e is used for cases that are often used together with inanimate nouns.
Koġołħuẓ has the following 15 cases + a zero-syntactic role.
- (*)Abstract accusative - ØaØ
- Allative - Øei
- Benefactive - Øoa
- Comitative - Øou
- (*)Concrete accusative - Øaa
- (*)Declarative - ØiØ
- Elative - Øea
- (*)Nominative in process - Øie
- Instrumental - Øoe
- Locative - Øee
- (*)Measure - Øau
- Nominative - Øii
- (*)Passive - Øai
- (*)Possessed - Øae
- (*)Unvoluntary nominative - Øia
- Zero-syntactic - ØØØ
The abstract accusative is used for the semantic roles of range and result.
They sang a song.
The allative is used for the semantic role of goal, i.e. what something moves towards.
This raft will take us to the opposite shore.
The benefactive is used for beneficiaries (for who something is done for) and recipient (who receives something).
The princess gave alms to the poor.
Can you hang the laundry up for me?
The comitative is used for the semantic role of accompaniment (who something is done with).
I went to fish with a friend.
The concrete accusative is used with patients that are somehow affected by the action described in the sentence. These are often concrete, inanimate objects.
I will eat an apple.
Close the door will you?
I'll cut the meat and you'll make the salad.
The declarative is used for describing that a patient is or becomes something.
She was surprised.
The water is cold.
The weather is turning bad.
The elative is used for the semantic role of source, i.e. where something comes or originates from.
A bird fell from the sky.
Out of the way!
The Nominative in process is used about things that have undergone, are undergoing or will undergo a process. The difference between the common nominative and nominative in process is that the common nominative is actively making it so that something happens, while the nominative in process is in a situation where something happens whether he/she/it wants it or not. The process is something that the noun with this case can't stop, pause or reverse.
The water has frozen.
The cat died.
Instrumental stands for the semantic role of instrument.
Use a pair of tweezers to get the splinter out.
The locative is used for expressing where something is.
The bread is on the table.
Measure is used for the semantic roles of measure and time. It is used for expressing things like how much something costs, how long something will take, etc.
This ring sure cost a lot of money.
During rush hour it will take two hours to get to the capital.
It will take a lot of effort to move this rock.
Nominative is used about the agent, the subject who is actively performing the verb in the sentence.
The police are investigating the murder.
The kids are running.
Mice have gotten into the granary (they deliberately gnawed their way in).
The passive is used for expressing that someone is the "victim" of some event.
The boy got stung by a bee.
Many civilians got killed during the war.
I was robbed!
Possessed is used about a patient that is possessed, acquired or exchanged.
I have a dog.
I got oranges from the neighbour.
I bought some rice.
The unvoluntary nominative is used about an agent who does something by accident, or experiences something she has no control of. It doesn't necessarily mean that the event is something unpleasant, in Koġołħuẓ it is by default just neutral.
She saw a crocodile (allthough she wasn't on the look for one).
He heard some bad news (from someone who he hadn't inquired about anything).
Whoops! I dropped an egg.
The zero-syntactic role, which is not really a case, is used for nouns that are not used in full sentences, for examples in lists, titles, etiquettes and so on, or when meta-linguistically referring to a word.
Harry Potter and the Goblet of fire
Olives (written on a jar)
Bread, oranges, milk, soap
What does equilibrium mean?
You have written the word "the" twice."