|Timeline and Universe:||Polycosm, Unknown World|
|Spoken:||Nangah-Riki (Nangoh-Ruku) Archipelago|
|Created:||Spring, 2016 (updated Summer 2017)|
Kandaxangg (Kondaxongg) is the language of the Nggang (Nggong), the human inhabitants of the Nangah-Riki (Nangoh-Ruku), the Northern Archipelago, who dwell in villages upon the shores while the fey Nggang-Angik (Nggong-Anguk), the Predecessors, live within the mirror-world of the glaciers. Tangg-Nggang (Tangg-Nggong) culture is paleolithic, animist, and illiterate. The Nggang hunt seals and sometimes birds (including the ptarmigan, 'kandaxang' (kondaxong). Despite this nomadic lifestyle, Tangg-Nggang culture is highly unified in worship and ethics, valuing cooperation, honesty, and piety towards the triple goddess Handangangg (Hondangongg), Iring (Irung), and Xanggah (Xonggoh). Tangg-Nggang men have a cult of Nggang-Hindangg Handangand (Nggong-Hundangg Hondangond), Grandfather Sun, who stays long months in the sky in the summer months, but leaves on a hunting expedition in the winter. Nggang-Hindangg Nandang (Nggong-Hundangg Nandang), Grandmother Moon, presides over the cult of women and the left side of the tent.
Kandaxangg is a member of the proposed Kandaxangg-Pantaammu language family with Pantaammu, spoken in the Nampassii islands to the (immediate) south.
A favorite game of the Nggang is Tangahanggang Arangg, or Tangahanggang, a combination of Twenty (in this case fifteen) questions and Bingo.
Phonology and Orthography
There are three voiceless obstruents, coronal, velar, and glottal [t] /t/, [k] /k/, and [Ɂ] /x/.
There are two voiced and prenasalized obstruents, coronal and velar [ⁿd] /nd/ and [ⁿg] /ngg/.
There are two nasals, coronal and velar [n] /n/ and [ŋ] /ng/
There is one fricative, glottal [h] /h/.
There is one lateral/rhotic, uvular [ᴚ] /r/. Whether/r/ is grouped with non-coronal non-glottal or non-coronal glottal consonants, and therefore whether the vowel is nasalized or not, is a primarily isolect in Kandaxangg.
In phonotaxis, the consonants are divided into coronal and non-coronal consonants. The non-coronal consonants are further divided into glottal and non-glottal consonants.
There are three vowels phonetically but two vowels orthographically. Research is ongoing into the history of the language, in particular the derivation of the original two-vowel system, but the lack of records is delaying the reconstruction.
[i] /i/ is a high unrounded front vowel. It is considerably rarer than /a/.
[ɯ] is the allophone of [i] after a non-coronal consonant.
[◌̃ɯ] is the allophone of [i] after a glottal consonant.
[ɐ] /a/ is a low unrounded vowel most of the time.
[ɑ] is the allophone of [ɐ] after a non-coronal consonant.
[◌̃ɑ] is the allophone of [ɑ] after a glottal consonant.
[ə] /a/ is a mid unrounded vowel, originally epenthetic.
[ɤ] is the allophone of [ə] after a non-coronal consonant.
[◌̃ɤ] is the allophone of [ə] after a glottal consonant.
Although most scholars of Kandaxangg use the orthography detailed above, an alternative orthography (Alternate Vowel Orthography or AVO) exists, based on the desire to more clearly distinguish the non-coronal allophones. In AVO, the non-coronal allophones of /i/ are written as 'u' and those of /a/ as 'o', and all allophones of /ə/ as 'e'. The majority opinion objects to this because the orthographical presence of back vowels implies rounding which is not present in Kandaxangg, to which the minority opinion responds that the two-vowel orthographic system is unnecessarily confusing and does not adequately reflect the surface forms.
Kandaxangg lacks grammatical gender, although some nouns have a natural gender. If gender specification is needed, the following nouns are used:
nanggingg (nanggungg) man
nirangg (nirongg) woman
xanding (xonding) stone
There are five basic personal pronouns in Kandaxangg
|Personal Pronouns||1st||2nd familiar||2nd polite||3rd||4th (Obviative)||Generic|
|nangg (nangg)||hanggang (honggong)||handang (hondang)||andang (andang)||ndanga (ndango)||nggang (nggong)|
4th person is used to distinguish two otherwise identical 3rd person arguments.
Kandaxangg numbers are quinary. After the initial binary system (the Nggang have no concept of zero), the system operates with a central focus number flanked by two lesser subtractive numbers and two greater additive numbers. It is rare that a Nggang needs to count discrete objects higher than fifteen (15). Scholars of Kandaxangg hypothesize that the proto-Kandaxangg system was ternary, later expanded to quinary by subtraction and to the current system by subtraction and addition. Kandaxangg also possesses a detailed set of measurement words which ameliorates the paucity of the number system.
1 ndang (ndang)
2 kand (kond)
3 kand kang randax (kond kong rondax)
4 ndang kang randax (ndang kong rondax)
5 randax (rondax)
6 randax tandax ndang (rondax tandax ndang)
7 randax tandax kand (rondax tandax kond)
8 kand kang nandik (kond kong nandik)
9 ndang kang nandik (ndang kong nandik)
10 nandik (nandik)
11 nandik tandax ndang (nandik tandax ndong)
12 nandik tandax kand (nandik tandax kond)
13 kand kang arangg (kond kong arongg)
14 ndang kang arangg (ndang kong arongg)
15 arangg (arongg)
16 arangg tandax ndang (arongg tandax ndang)
17 arangg tandax kand (arongg tandax kond)
white - ndarand (ndarond)
black - tangganingga (tanggeninggo)
red - randingg (rondingg)
blue/green - rahand (rohond)
yellow - ndirand (ndirond)
cat - harangg
fox - tandax
gnat - nandahax
mouse - nandah
seal - hanggar
flightless bird - handangand (hondangond)
flying bird - ndahand (ndahond)
ptarmigan - kandaxang (kandexong)
Axihangg - The Sea Dragon (Draco)
Hanggar Kand - The Seals (Ursa Major and Minor)
Ndakara - The Spear (Orion's Belt)