Hellerick's torrentive grammar

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No name yet. Engelang by Hellerick translated by Rgj40q. Originally published there.


Most vocabulary words are predicates, with clearly defined lexical meanings and types of basic arguments. No argument is required when using a word in a phrase.

Words are connected by asymmetrical connections, they determine what is the argument and what is the predicate in the phrase.

There are two types of connection between words: direct and reverse. The presence of two types of communication instead of one allows you to make the word order in the sentence more flexible.

With a direct type of connection, the subordinate word is to the right of the main word, and the predicate gets the ending -a.

leya usosu - reading is useful

With the reverse type of connection, the subordinate word is to the left of the main word, while the predicate receives the ending -i.

usosi leyu - useful reading

The lack of connection between words is indicated by the ending -u between them.

leyu usosu - reading, usefullness,

that is, a meaningless phrase. The last word of the sentence also acquires the ending -u, since there are no further words to connect to.

The theme marker (ending -n) and the rheme marker (ending -s) are also inserted into the declarative sentence. The theme is usually translated as subject, and the rheme as predicate.

Leyan usosus - reading is useful
Usosin leyus - the useful thing is reading

There is one word, lu (where -u is the ending), whose meaning is not defined. I.e. anything can be lu. So, for example, if grandu means "to be big", then la grandu means "something that is big".

For greater flexibility in the display of connections, the bracket words are used, they allow you to associate a word with an arbitrarily large number of other words. The bracket expressions are put after the main word and are composed as:

k(a|i) *u (a|i) *u (a|i) *u ... al,

where the choice between a and i is determined by the type of connection between the main word and the one that is further introduced. E.g.

Leya la ka grandu a usosu al - "To read something big and useful"
Leyus ki lan grandu a usosu al - "A big one reads something useful"

The scheme of the phrase is:

Reads {< someone > big; > useful}.

There is also an auxiliary word ayu, expressing a kind of indirect object. The meaning of a connection through it is determined by which predicate it depends on, and is given in the dictionary. For example,

Libri donas aya la grandu = "[One] gives a book to a big one"

with the word donu, "to give", the word ayu introduces a chain indicating the recipient of the action.


(expressions are given in direct word order):

A elu = A is he/she
А sorora B = A is a sister of B
A vivu = A lives
A dificilu = A is difficult
A meu = A is I, me, myself
A jelosa ka B al aya C = A is jealous of B to C
A gatu = A is a cat
A da B = A is in some kind of relationship with B
A kosa B = A causes B
A vida B = A sees B
A felicu = A is glad


She is my sister.
Eli la sororas meu.
Those who have a sister have hard time.
Sorori la vivan dificilus.

(I had to write "The life of the one having a sister is difficult")

Being sister is difficult.
Sororan dificilus.
I'm jealous of my sister to my cat.
Mei lan jelosas ka la sorora meu al aya la gata da meu.
Being jealous hurts.
Jelosan kosas dolu.
I see my sister.
Mei lan vidas la sorora meu.
I'm glad to see my sister.
Sorori li vidan cosas felici meu.