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Dwekoenish (/dʷə.ˈkʰeɪ.nɪʃ/, native: Dvekönešč /dvɛ.ˈkʰœ.nɛʃʧ/) is a fictional diachronic language created by Marko Stanković, aka Stelvojoj. The following article primarily details characteristics of High Dwekoenish, the dialect most closely observed in public media and governmental affairs, but dialectal features are also considered.

Spoken in: Dwekoenia (Dveköneyya)
Conworld: Alternate Earth
Total speakers: Unknown
Genealogical classification: Arvaši
Northwestern Continental
Basic word order: VSO
Morphological type: Fusional
Morphosyntactic alignment: nominative-accusative
Writing system:
Created by:
Stelvojoj 2008 CE-present


The phonology of Dwekoennish largely mirrors the articulatory contrasts of most Indo-European languages, i.e., voiced vs. voiceless consonants, a vowel inventory which elaborates that of e.g. Latin, and the absence of such contrasts as pharyngealization, vocalic nasalization, and retroflexion. It is not without a few oddities, however, in comparison with other IE languages. Of special note are the abundance of coronal fricatives, affricates, and the presence of two fully open front vowels, /a/ and /ɶ/ (though the second retains only allophonic status).


Dwekoenish is written with variants of both the Latin and Cyrillic alphabets. Historically, the Cyrillic orthography has been in use since before the Latin, and is typically the more common of the two, except among a few smaller municipalities (and the later generations of many emigrant families). A few centuries ago, the Latin orthography underwent a major revision, many aspects of which were eventually reflected in the Cyrillic (e.g., as in the written representation of /j/). The changes were never intended to be applied to the Cyrillic, and while the origins of their reapplication are not fully known, they are often attributed to a particular journalist in one of the popular kingdom periodicals of the time. (It is worth noting that the Cyrillic counterpart of the letter <yy> is often referred to colloquially as "idiot's y" in Dwekoenish.)

In the table that follows, when more than one phoneme is present in a letter's description, the latter indicates a context-dependent allophone. (NOTE: To be elaborated later.)

Roman Cyrillic IPA
A a А а /a/
Á á Я я /ɑ/
B b Б б /b/
C c Ц ц /ʦ/
Č č Ч ч /ʧ/
D d Д д /d/
Ð ð Дх дх /ð/
E e Е е /e/
F f Ф ф /f/
G g Г г /g/
H h Х х /h/
Ħ ħ Ӿ ӿ /x/
I i І і /i/
K k К к /k, kʰ/
L l Л л /l, ɫ/
M m М м /m/
N n Н н /n, ŋ/
O o О о /o/
Ó ó Ӯ ӯ /ɤ/
P p П п /p, pʰ/
R r Р р /ɾ, ɹ/
S s С с /s/
Š š Ш ш /ʃ/
T t Т т /t, tʰ/
Þ þ Тх тх /θ/
U u У у /u/
V v В в /v/
W w Ԝ ԝ /w/
Y y И и /ɨ/
Yy yy Ии ии /j/
Z z З з /z/
Ž ž Ж ж /ʒ/
Ö ö Ӧ ӧ /œ/
Ü ü Ӱ ӱ /y/

There is also one unofficial letter:

Roman Cyrillic IPA
Öa öa Ӧа ӧа /ɶ/

The letter <öa> is sometimes alternatively written <ȍ> (<o> with double grave) in the Latin orthography; this is acceptable, but it is typically considered nonstandard, and it is never seen even in those publications which acknowledge /ɶ/. The digraph representation is preferred instead; otherwise, and more often, it is simply rendered as <ö>.




Dwekoenish is a highly inflected fusional language with agglutinative characteristics. Nouns and adjectives are declined for three numbers and sixteen cases. Patterns of declension are grouped into three genders, though the distinction is only morphologically contrastive in the singular (with the exceptions of a few minor irregularities in the dual and plural). It is more significant with regards to adjectives and articles.

The first declension pattern applies to masculine nouns whose nominative forms end in -è or any non-sibilant consonant.

Könè, king

Singular Dual Plural
Nominative könè köneas kȍnás
Genitive könu köne könem
Dative kön könedast kȍnadast
Benefactive köné könea könia
Accusative könu köneai köniaš
Locative könest könist kȍnast
Illative könesten könisten kȍnasten
Inessive könestí könistí kȍnastí
Elative könestom könistom kȍnastom
Allative könesté könisté kȍnasté
Adessive könestje könistje kȍnastje
Ablative könestod könistoðy kȍnastoða
Terminative könestá könistá kȍnastá
Prolative könestav könistav kȍnastav
Abessive könedz könidz kȍnadz
Comitative kȍnat köneat köniat

Note that the letter -ö- is assimilated to -ȍ- when it is proceeded by -a- or -à- (but not -ia-) in the following syllable.


Personal pronouns in Dwekoenish are inflected for person, number, case, and gender (excluding the first- and second-person singular). Forms separated by a slash (/) represent masculine and feminine forms respectively.


Singular Dual Plural
First Person meadve/móadwa meas/mias
Second Person do veadve/vóadwa veas/vias
Third Person ine/ina ineadve/inóadwa ineas/inias


Dwekoenish has two number systems: one decimal (base-10) and one undecimal (base-11). The terminology of both systems is the same concerning numbers between one and ten, and the differences in larger numbers are of minuscule value.

In the historical undecimal number, system, the number 11 is referred to by the name "džišõt" (contracted as "džõt"). Numbers are built similarly from this base, with the addition of forms like "džeþzodžõt" for the undecimal number 1A, etc. The undecimal system disappeared from everyday use several centuries ago, and is typically only found in ancient runic inscriptions. Because numbers are rarely named in these documents, there is ongoing controversy over whether the term "džišõt" was artificially introduced by linguists or historians. Also because the runic numbers are no longer in use, the number corresponding to the term "džišeþ" is typically denoted A in discussions about the undecimal number system.