DECLINATION, FLEXION, MODALS/MOODS/MODUS in ABCL
There are no gender, number and casus declination/flexion at all. Where necessary, gender may be identified by a corresponding noun/adjective. The casus will not be needed, also no locative prepositions since the unambiguous verb itself normally implies the cases and the object is defined clearly by its position in the sentence. Only in case of complexity the preposition may be needed.
ABCL has five modals:
They are placed as prefix to the verbs. Because this way a cluster emerges, in speaking only the first vowel of the verb repeats as gap filling and vowel harmony in between or soundless “ı” as convenient. The modals will not be conjugated and declined at all.
There are countless “verbal modus” in living World languages. Which often used in one language does not exist such as in another at all. If necessary, modus is expressed using particals and prepositions. For the first level we abandoned most of them, leaving a few where we think it easy to learn and nice to have them for good expression.
Possession is one which “must be”, is formed by suffix “_z” and placed after nouns and pronouns. Plural “_i” is used as suffix also after nouns.
ABCL has in Level 1 nine verb features indicated by partical marker and suffixes:
|Verb Features||ABCL Marker/sufix||English example||ABCL example|
|Conditional (factual-predictive):||if…||when I feel well, I sing||if…|
|-- (marker conjunction "when, if")||if I feel well, I shall sing|
|Imperative/jussive||(pp).verb.ı/i||(2. PS) go and “let us” go||(o).yal.eş/e.yal.eş|
|Passive||_n||modal verb+ “Verb_ed”/(painted)||koy/koy.#.n|
|Ergative||_t||The kettle boiled/I boiled the kettle||dul/dul.#.t|
|Reflexive||_m||I wash myself||das.#.m|
|Reciprocal||_k||modal (love-make love) or verb (beat-fight)||bas.#.k|
|Causative||_p||get + “Verb _ed”/ (get painted)||koy/koy.#.p|
|---Present||--||He suggested I should eat||U fuy.o a c.dek.e|
|---Past/conditional (counterfactual)||_ç||if I were well I would have sung||tek/tek.#.ç|
-#: (varying vowel for tenses)
“Real” conditional mood marker is the conjunctional partical “if” (same as English). Imperative/jussive will be performed by adding the related personal pronouns to the verb (o.Verb, u.Verb (let him.Verb), e.Verb (let us.Verb)…) and “_eş” as suffix. For second person singular the prefix “o” may be dropped thus imperative being “Verb.eş”
Passive suffix is “_n”. Passive form will be in case of ergatives (from intransitive to transitive conveyed verb) Verb.t.n (for the example in the table above, passive will be “dul.t.n”)
ABCL uses for counterfactual subjunctives the suffix “_ç” for the past and the verb “bab=to be” as modal for the future cases. (see under “aspects” above) Other types of subjunctives will be marked by suitable particles.
Negation suffix “_x” will be placed as a rule at the end of the conjugated verb. In some cases it could come to sequencing of two suffixes in a row such as “koy.k.e.n.x” (the house is not get painted). In such cases also between “_x” and the suffix before a soundless “ı” or the last vowel can be put for vowel harmony.
Level 2 moods (in Level 1 expressed by auxiliary particals)
|Inferential mood/Hearsay||_v||bas.#y||she is “said to” love me /she "would" love me|
|Optative||_y||sen.i.y||(I wish you) be well|
Inflexional Suffixes for Nouns: Genetive and Plural
|Genitive||_z||şintü.z şindü / o.z şintü||(of, _’s) kitten of the cat / your cat|
|Plural||_i||hanka.i||_s - (houses)|