Conlang Relay 18/Jarda
Kelzêvô jô kipvo rêłvôd diṛ. Liṛvi runi gru, ņazŏs krağ rêł. Ğêlra vŏṛa zel źṛêņna nŏ raś au kêg au pin, źê pinsiķag lôxôm, ķödadol zulṛêma logê Jez. Zulṛêmvo stê wel ņêr zabê nêv nŏ ðizŏs kêz ni ļev nêslö baṛ ðan, ni ṛel źŭğ au mavlö, ni mêð sün stônta ģün źê tṛaz. Źin ğöṛ ślŭ pṛapṛinvo, au fömmas vŏ jô. Plên ṛoxê lul kêzṛa ni voṛ faṛvu ka źev łim dêgol vŏ.
au (au) conj - and (joins two verbs) baṛ (baɻ) vi - to stand dêg (deɡ) nab - front diṛ (diɻ) vi - small, little ðan (ɮan) vi - vertical, upright ðiz (ɮiz) vt - to support (physically) faṛ (faɻ) vt - to play (a game) föm (føm) vi - to be proud of, satisfied with gru (ɡru) vi - young ģün (ɟyn) vi - orange (color), dark yellow ğêl (ɣel) vt - send, emit, transmit ğöṛ (ɣøɻ) vt - to forget jez (jɛz) ni - iron (Fe, element 26) jô (jo) adv - again, re- ka (ka) art - the (inanimate) kel (kɛl) vt - to begin, start kêg (keɡ) vt - to break, snap kêz (kez) na - woman, adult female kip (kip) nab - corner, angle krağ (kraɣ) na - a small flying dragon, the size of a fruit bat ķöd (cød) vt - surround, encompass; around, surrounding, encompassing liṛ (liɻ) na - arm, from shoulder to wrist log (lɔɡ) vt - to call, name, label lôx (lox) vi - old lul (lul) adv - not more than, at most; just, only ļev (ʎɛv) ni - clothing, garment łim (ɬim) vi - to shine, glow mav (mav) vt - to admire mêð (meɮ) ni - cheek (side of face) nês (nes) vt - to see, view nêv (nev) ni - snow ni (ni) vt - having, with ņaz (ɲaz) vt - to awaken, wake up. ņêr (ɲer) vi - broad, wide (in size, esp. laterally) nŏ (nɤ) rp - which pin (pin) vt - to tie, knot plên (plen) vt - to pull, draw pṛa (pɻa) vt - to precede; earlier pṛin (pɻin) nab - time (as a dimension), duration raś (raɕ) vi - to rotate, spin, roll rêł (reɬ) vt - to carve, sculpt run (run) na - man; adult male ṛel (ɻɛl) ni - face; facial features ṛêm (ɻem) nab - place, spot, site, location ṛox (ɻɔx) vi - to descend; down siķ (sic) vt - to write stê (ste) vi - there is, there are stôn (ston) nab - color sün (syn) vt - to color, dye, paint ślŭ (ɕlɯ) nab - all, everything tṛaz (tɻaz) ni - tea, beverage made from leaves in boiling water voṛ (vɔɻ) na - smile vôd (vod) nab - form, structure vŏ (vɤ) pron - he, she, it, him, her, his, its wel (wɛl) ni - table (furniture) zab (zab) vi - to cover, shield, insulate zel (zɛl) nab - voice, vocal sound (produced by larynx) zêv (zev) vi - to move around in place; be active zul (zul) vt - trade, exchange, barter, buy, sell źev (ʑɛv) nab - mask źê (ʑe) vt - like, as, in the manner of źin (ʑin) conj - and, but, however źṛêņ (ʑɻeɲ) nab - smoke źŭğ (ʑɯɣ) vi - arrogant, conceited
-a (-a) genitive case (abstract nouns) -ad (-ad) nab - verbal noun representing an abstraction; quality of being, -ness -ag (-aɡ) nab - verbal noun representing the object of a verb -ê (-e) passive participle -i (-i) genitive case (animate nouns) -lö (-lø) vi - worthy of, deserving -ma (-ma) reflexive -na (-na) dative case (abstract nouns) -ol (-ɔl) ablative case (abstract nouns) -ô (-o) present tense -ôm (-om) augmentative -ŏs (-ɤs) imperfective aspect -ra (-ra) repetitive aspect -ṛa (-ɻa) ergative case (animate nouns) -s (-s) imperfective aspect -ta (-ta) instrumental case (abstract nouns) -vi (-vi) locative case (animate nouns) -vo (-vɔ) locative case (abstract nouns) -vu (-vu) vi - to resemble; similar to, like, -ish
Jarda has three categories of nouns: animate, inanimate, and abstract. Nouns take different case endings depending on their category. The plain, unadorned form of the noun is the absolutive case, which is considered the primary object of a verb or preposition (the only one which cannot normally be omitted). Subjects of verbs are typically in the ergative case, although some verbs take a subject in the dative case. The locative case typically represents the location where something exists or an action takes place. The ablative case, among other uses, marks the source or origin of a thing, and the dative case marks a destination.
|ablative||-lü||-öl, -l||-ol, -l|
|dative||-na, -n||-in, -n||-na, -n|
Jarda has intransitive verbs which take a single argument in the absolutive case, as well as transitive verbs with an ergative subject and absolutive object. The verb typically precedes its subjects and objects. Transitive verbs, such as "prêl" (to open), can be used intransitively without any change to the verb, simply by omitting the subject. For example:
"I opened a box"
"a box has been opened"; "a box is open"
The verbs in these examples are in the perfective aspect, which is unmarked. The imperfective aspect is marked with the suffix "-sê" (after vowels) or "-ŏs" (after consonants). Jarda also has a repetitive aspect, marked with -ra, which denotes a series of short, repeated actions.
"I am opening a box"
"I am opening boxes"
Verbs in Jarda often take on the role of an adjective or a preposition in languages like English. As an adjective, a phrase like "an open box" in English becomes "a box that has been opened" in Jarda. Compare:
"a box has been opened"; "a box is open"
"a box that has been opened"; "an open box"
Note that the relative pronoun "nŏ" is optional in this sort of phrase and typically omitted. So you can essentially think of verb roots as having a double role as verbs and as adjectives.
A typical use of a verb as a preposition is the word "ni", which can mean "to have" or "with".
"the bat-dragon has short wings"
"the bat-dragon with short wings"
Smooth English translations
Translation from Kēlen:
A small statue is stirring on the corner again; in the crook of a young man’s arms, a carved small predator awakens; it barks at the smokes that have become twisted and also broken and knotted like a letter in the interlace alphabet, from around the market Iron; at the market there is a broad table covered with snow that has above it a well-dressed woman standing upright, her face disdainful and awe-inspiring, her cheeks flushed with pink as tea; but all past events have become forgotten, and proud again; the woman with a playful smile only pulled down the shining mask from in front of her.
Translation of Jarda text:
A small carved form starts to move around again on the corner. In the arm of a young man, a carved bat-dragon awakens. It sends repeated vocal sounds to the smoke that is spinning, broken, and knotted, like ancient knot-writing, from around the market called Iron. At the market is a broad table covered in snow which supports a woman with attractive clothes standing upright, with an arrogant and admiration-worthy face, with cheeks colored a dark orange color like tea. But everything in the past has been forgotten, and she is proud again. The woman with a playful smile only pulled down the shining mask from in front of her.