Conlang Relay 17/Laefèvëši

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by Andrej Šuc

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The Text

Kínooitiivi šegíoavi

Olvóir aśóa hánt ôwlamotoo Seánteu. Iŋzèn-ŗàima Seánt mőgila ti hánt en-enákimatoo. Óiale vót A'jam swóntimetoo-vó Seánteu li póli Savémaŗoo gális.

Aśía Alätau č-ásew hánt sójdel unešèionta ñè þi-Seánteu medéaśouu. Jonéj-o pól-Alätau Séant éloloa ñ-inóavaifi Ćitaíselu. Séantiti hánteu lobíelua dö tásjavau li-te tílinoloa-nó. Hánt-ëŗài astémimi li ne-Savélua sèj áneli dzeóseroške. Tújej táamalua ovêrvaj. Seántiti okeltäluaze ñ-Ajolíndas axólalae li keltälai Samòjahatu seimýlovoa xás wárom latílisfa Seántasa. Seántiti hánteu harélua l-oñeoþília ijim-eŋséneu.

Smooth English Translation

The Violence of a Beast

A long time ago a man has fed a lion. Although the lion was fearsome the man was not afraid. It was because only he personally was able to restrain the lion and everyone knew that.

One day, however, the man suddenly decided to ride his lion. But that day the lion wanted to return into the wild. The lion threw the man off his back and the started attacking him. The man was frightened and he didn't know what is happening. Because of that the man tried to escape. The lion roared so strong that the mountains trembled and the roar drew a lot more lions out of the forest. The lion hunted the man down and ate his flesh.


The gloss is listed in alphabetical order. Nouns adjectives and verbs are listed in their basic form that is nouns are in the nominative singular adjectives are in their masculine form in nominative singular verbs are in the infinitive. Stem is separated from suffix by a slash (/). Clitic forms and other suffixes are separated from the main gloss.


A' art. definite article used as an emphasiser in the text
Ajolínd m. mountain
Alät m. day
áneli aux. auxiliary verb “to be” in 3-p. used in dramatic present tense in indicative
ásew aux. was/has (auxiliary verb “to be” in 3-p. sg. compound past tense in indicative)
aśía num. one a an a certain that (genitive case masculine sg.)
aśóa num. one a an a certain that (nominative case masculine sg.)
astém/imi adj. afraid frightened fearful
axóla/laj perf. to tremble to shake
Ćíntais m. wild
prep. from (to throw) off (requires genitive case)
dzéos/laj imperf. to happen to be going on
él/vaj perf. to wish to want
enáki/laj imperf. to be afraid (of) (requires object in genitive)
eŋsén m. flesh meat
gá/lis pron. everyone everybody
hánt m. man
haré/laj perf. to hunt to hunt down
inóa/vij perf. to return
iŋzèn conj. although
jam pron. 3-p sg. masculine (he)
jonéj conj. but however
keltälai f. roar(ing)
Kínoo f. beast
li adj. other
li conj. and
lobíe/laj perf. to fling to throw
madéa/vaj perf. to ride to mount (a horse)
mőg/imi adj. fearsome ferocious
ñè conj. that
óiale conj. because for as seeing that
okeltä/laj perf. to roar to release a roar to let out a roar
olvóir adv. long (time) ago
oñeoþí/vij perf. to eat up to eat
ovêr/vaj perf. to escape
ôwlam/vaj imperf. to feed to nourish to supply with food
pó/li dem. pron. this (can correspond to “that” in English)
Samòjah m. forest
Savé/laj imperf. to know to be aware (of)
Séant m. lion
seimýl/vaj perf. to draw to induce to lead
sèj pron. what
sójdel adv. whimsically suddenly
swónt/vij imperf. to control to restrain to have power over
šegíoavi f. violent-ness
táam/laj imperf. to try
tásjav m. back
ti pron. 3-p. sg. masculine genitive case
tílin/vaj    imperf.    to attack
tújej conj. therefore thus so because of that
uneśéi/laj perf. to decide
vót adv. only
wárom adv. a lot of more many more many
xás adv. even (more) just still as yet yet


-ëŗài imperf. was (verb “to be” in 3-p. sg. m. past tense in indicative mood)
-nó perf. te begin to start
-o pron. reflexive pronoun used with reflexive verbs
-ŗàima imperf. was (verb “to be” in 3-p. sg. m. past tense in generic mood)
-te pron. 3-p. sg. masculine accusative case
-vó imperf. can be able to
č- particle acts as an emphasiser (omitted when translating into English)
en- adv. not (used to negate a verb)
ijim- pron. his (inalienable possessive pronoun 3-p. sg. masculine)
l- conj. and
ñ- conj. that
ne- adv. not (used to negate a verb)
pól- dem. pron. this (can correspond to “that” in English) '
þi- pron. reflexive possessive pronoun (corresponds to “my, his, her” etc. depends on the context)

Grammatical Suffixes

-as n. nominative case singular masculine
-asa n. genitive case plural masculine
-atu n. ellative case singular masculine
-au n. genitive case singular masculine
-elu n. illative case singular masculine
-eroške v. 3-p. sg. masculine dramatic present tense in indicative mood (compound tense formed with the auxiliary verb “áneli”)
-eu n. accusative case singular masculine
-fa adj. genitive case masculine
-ila adj. qualitative suffix emphasising the meaning nominative sg. masculine
-imetoo v. 3-p. sg. past tense in generic mood
-imi adj. qualitative suffix nominative singular masculine
-iti n. augmentative suffix sg. masculine
-ivi adj. relational suffix sg. (the genitive case can be used in English)
-lae v. 3-p. sg. masculine past tense in indicative mood
-lia v. 3-p. sg. masculine past tense in indicative mood
-lis adj. pron. relational and quantitative suffix nominative plural masculine
-lua v. 3-p. sg. masculine past tense in indicative mood
-maŗoo v. 3-p. pl. past tense in generic mood
-matoo v. 3-p. sg. past tense in generic mood
-motoo v. 3-p. sg. past tense in generic mood
-oloa v. 3-p. sg. masculine past tense in indicative mood
-onta v. compound past tense participle (indicative) singular masculine
-ovoa v. 3-p. sg. masculine past tense in indicative mood
-śouu v. 3-p. sg. masculine future-in-the-past tense in indicative mood
-vaifi v. 3-p. sg. masculine nonpast tense in conditional mood
-ze v. 4th degree of comparison out of 7 degrees verbal comparison **corrected**

Note: **corrected** I only later saw that mistake and I corrected it but the correction was not included in the text sent to the next in line. This might have contributed to different translations for later texts.

Grammatical Notes

The basic word order in a neutral sentence is SVO but it actually depends on what is stressed (focus). All possibilities of the word order can occur in the language. The stressed part comes at the end of a sentence. This is possible because the language has cases and the basic meaning of a sentence does not change if the word order is changed.

Nouns in Laefèvëši are declined for case gender and number. There are two declensions, masculine and feminine, each one expresses case and number through suffixes. Same applies for adjectives too.

Laefèvëši has a large number of clitic forms which include verbs pronouns adjectives and adverbs. Clitics are connected to another word (host) by using a hyphen (-) and a clitic can be either a proclitic or an enclitic. More than one clitic can be connected with the host. Clitic and the host word are pronounced as one word where the primary stress carries the host and clitic(s) carry the secondary stress. When none of the words carries a primary stress the stress falls on the first syllable.

Laefèvëši verbs are also conjugated for mood tense number person and gender. Personal pronouns are often omitted except when emphasised or to avoid ambiguity.

Where a verb is expressed in two parts Laefèvëši has two ways for conjugating. If one of the verbs is a modal or a phase verb (phase verbs are 'to start' 'to continue' 'to finish') Laefèvëši will conjugate the semantic head and the auxiliary verb will be expressed by using the enclitic form of the modal or phase verb. If the two verbs are full lexical verbs (e. g. “to try to remember”) Laefèvëši will conjugate the first verb and leave the semantic head in the infinitive form.

Note on verbs: Laefèvëši has a large verbal morphology and the described ways of expressing two parts verbs are not the only possibilities but are only the ways occurring in the text.