Classical Arithide adpositions

From FrathWiki
Jump to: navigation, search

Due to the extensive inflectionary marking in Classical Arithide, the number of adpositions in common use is very few, although for purposes of scansion, some archaic ones can still be seen in poetry, sometimes in redundancy; the adpositions were revived, however, in Modern Arithide, as postpositions.

Appendent adpositions

The appendent adpositions (or postpositions), so called because they are appended to the connective case of nouns, are in more widespread use than the standalone prepositions. Forming discrete nouns from the root which carry specific positional or lative denotations, they include the following common ones:

  • ānos, ān temporal locative, not added to nouns denoting time; this effectively makes a new noun, which is then declined accordingly
    • Taitiān ūliāno medeon. When it is night we shall wait for it to be day (lit. for daytime). (Casubus)
    • Filān eiēs nis obissimnai. His wine disappears (lit. tends to disappear) when he is with his friends (lit. when he is a friend).
    • Serrānis syndrēs itor evtēn. The sins of power (lit. of when powerful) reveal the man.
  • dolos, dolō "around"
    • Alladolō siethē senēn. There are flowers around (surrounding) the city. (See also the next section)
  • dunios, duniō "out of"
    • Steptaduniō sōpedēs nagi ena konegēn. "Out of the fortress the soldiers rushed like a wave." (Osces, The Baenian Wars)
  • innos, innum "top"
    • Epsolinnum lārēs senēn. There is a clock on (top of the) building.
    • cf. Epsolum lārēs senēn. There is a clock on (the face of etc. but not the top of) the building.
  • iros, irae "towards"
    • Fēnus abitirae abulon! (We) will march towards the abode of the gods! (Haratus, Orations)
  • iros, iri "within, inside" (inessive marker)
    • Inne roimiri kithiri flēgos faeos pēdēn. "In this frail body there lies a robust mind." (Haratus, Orations)
  • isos, isae "against, counter"
    • Kodhisae sōpedēs solmē toiti. The soldiers fought (lit. battled) bitterly against the enemy.
  • men, menum "in front of"
    • Egnī viringa dagemenum daktēn. The black sedan stopped in front of the house.
  • stera, strera "beside"
    • Savlus orestrera rodēor ariftimnai. Grass grows better beside a river. (Proverb)
  • tandos, tandum below"
    • Saluntandum augulē soni. (We) live meagrely under the heavens. (Pladisian, Verses)

In each of the above cases appending the noun form of the adposition forms an adpositional noun that is usually a circumlocution of another noun (e.g. saluntandos "the place under the heavens", instead of saluntandum, is an alternative of halagum "on earth, in the mortal world").

Standalone adpositions

Most standalone adpositions govern a designated case or several designated cases; the latter situation indicates multiple, usually related, meanings canvassed under the preposition concerned.

  • ansa + accusative "before (adverbial)"
    • Mena/Menās ōssi ansa dōno enespi. She had hoped before she died that her son would return. (i.e. she is dead)
    • cf. Menās ōssi ansa dōn enespi. She had hoped that her son would return, before he died. (i.e. son is dead)
  • ansa + temporal locative ablative (see previous section) "before (independent)"
    • Mena/Menās ōssirānōn ansa dōno enespi. She had hoped that her son would return before she died. (i.e. she is living, but has given up)
    • cf. Menās ōssirānōn ansa dōn enespi. She had hoped that her son would return before he died. (i.e. son still living, but she has given up)
  • dolō + ablative "around"
    • Dolō allior siethē senā. There are flowers all about the city. (See also the previous section.)
  • paro or par + ablative "about, regarding"
    • Par kossinātēn zierrēn nam dialōn fēnus segeri. Of humans who have fallen (lit. fallen humans) and the rise of the gods (I) write. (Daldaian the Younger, Songs)
  • syba + accusative "after (adverbial)"2
    • Leidro syba fādou dōno Tētio te illossēn. The father wants to name his son "Tētios" after he is born.
  • syba + temporal locative ablative (see next section) "after (independent)"2
    • Leidrānōn syba okkor saiera kurrebi. Since he was born (lit. since birth) he has always quarrelled with his sister.
  • sīs/sīn + ablative "by (agentive)"
    • Sīs avnossātōn pitōn hedhurās. (They) were planted by a man whom we do not know.
  • sīs/sīn + instrumental "with (accompaniment)"
    • Sīn filet (etel) eurīs vaksei. (He) had gone to the park (together) with his friend.
  • te + accusative direct quotation particle
    • Leidro syba fādou dōno Tētio te illossēn. The father wants to name his son "Tētios" after he is born.

See also