Chinese sound correspondences

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This chart strives to document all regular sound correspondences between:

  • Middle Chinese and major modern Chinese languages
  • Middle Chinese and loans in Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese

This chart uses the following default Romanizations:

  • Baxter's orthography, for Middle Chinese
  • Hanyu Pinyin, for Mandarin (Beijing)
  • Jyutping, for Cantonese
  • Pre-1945 kana (歴史的仮名遣い) Romanized in faux-Wāpuro, for Japanese

Abbreviations that are used throughout:

Onset classes:

  • P = MC labials (p,ph,b,m)
  • T = MC dental plosives and nasals (t,th,d,n)
  • TR = MC retroflex plosives (tr,trh,dr), excluding nr
  • S = MC dental sibilants (ts,tsh,dz,s,z)
  • SR = MC retroflex sibilants (tsr,tsrh,dzr,sr)
  • SY = MC palatal sibilants (tsy,tsyh,dzy,sy,zy) and ny
  • K = MC velars and laryngeals (k,kh,g,ŋ,x,h,ʔ,y,hj)

Readings:

  • COL = colloquial reading (白讀)
  • LIT = literary reading (文讀)
  • See the explanation on Wikipedia

Tones:

  • 1 = Ping tone (平聲)
  • 2 or X = Shang tone (上聲)
  • 3 or H = Qu tone (去聲)
  • 4 = Ru tone (入聲)

Chongniu (重紐) classes:

  • CN-A = chongniu class A
  • CN-B = chongniu class B
  • See the rimes section for further information

Onsets

The onsets of Middle Chinese

Each onset is given with a traditional label (i.e. an exemplary character that uses the onset) as well as Baxter's notation for the onset. The actual phonetic values are subject to debate.

幫 p 滂 ph 並 b 明 m
端 t 透 th 定 d 泥 n 來 l
知 tr 徹 trh 澄 dr 娘 nr
精 ts 清 tsh 從 dz 心 s 邪 z
莊 tsr 初 tsrh 崇 dzr 生 sr (俟 zr)
章 tsy 昌 tsyh 常 dzy 日 ny 書 sy 船 zy
見 k 溪 kh 群 g 疑 ng
影 ʔ 以 y 曉 x 匣 h

(俟 zr is a controversial reconstructed phoneme. It makes the chart more symmetrical, but if it existed it was marginal at best.)

Traditional Chinese philology conflated some onsets and split others, due to later sound changes. The traditional analysis, though inaccurate as a description of (Early) MC, is still influential, and also useful in analyzing later sound changes, so the differences between the traditional analysis and the reconstruction given above are listed here, as follows:

First, the tsr- and tsy- rows are traditionally conflated as follows:

Traditional labels 穿
Retroflexes 莊 tsr 初 tsrh 崇 dzr 生 sr (俟 zr)
Palatals 章 tsy 昌 tsyh 船 zy 書 sy 常 dzy

Second, the p- row is split as follows:

Early MC 幫 p 滂 ph 並 b 明 m
Later labials
Later labiodentals

Though this split is late/post-MC, it is reflected in most Chinese varieties as an opposition between bilabials and labiodentals, and so the split is included in the onsets chart below. The conditions for the labiodentals are:

  1. The third-division (三等) and hekou (合口) rimes of 虞 ju, 微 jwɨj, 廢 jwojH, 凡 jom, 元 jwon, 文 jun, 陽 jwang, as well as
  2. (Excluding the onset 明 m) The third-division rimes of 東 juwng, 鍾 jowng, 尤 juw

(See the rimes section for an explanation of rime categories)

Third, the traditional onset category 喻 has been reanalyzed as a conflation of two distinct MC onsets: 云 and 以. Furthermore, 云 is now often analyzed as merely an allophone of 匣 h before third-division rimes (匣 h does not otherwise appear before third-division rimes). Baxter's orthography reflects this analysis: 云 and 匣 are both written as "h" while 以 is written as "y". The onset chart here goes for maximum separation: 匣, 云 and 以 each gets its own separate row.

Onset correspondences (general)

Though we have tried our best, a chart like the following is prone to clutter if we attempted to include every single variation. Thus, some details are omitted from the main chart. They are instead explained in notes that follow the main chart.

Onset Middle Chinese Mandarin
Beijing
Yue
Canton
Minnan
Taiwan
Hakka
Moiyen
Wu
Suzhou
Japanese Korean
Karlgren[1] Baxter[2] IPA[3] Go-On Kan-On Middle*[4] Modern
p p [p] b [p]

but p [pʰ]
(迫畔叛佩僕
譜圃瀑蹼)
and m [m] (秘泌)

b [p]

but p [pʰ]
(編遍佩譜圃豹鄙謗)
and m [m] (剝)

p p h [h] h [h] 彆 ㅂ [p] ㅂ [p]

ㅍ [pʰ] /_[a,je,jo,il] etc.

p' ph [pʰ] p [pʰ]

but b [p] (玻繽怖)

p [pʰ]

but b [p] (玻繽品怖坡)

h [h] h [h] 漂 ㅍ [pʰ] ㅍ [pʰ]

ㅂ [p] /_ak etc.

b' b [b] p [pʰ] /_1

b [p] /_234
but p [pʰ] (佩)

p [pʰ] /_1,

COL2
(棒婢被蚌抱倍蓓)
b [p] /_34,LIT2
but p [pʰ] (佩)

b b [b] h [h] 步 ㅃ [p'] ㅂ [p]

ㅍ [pʰ] /_[a,je,jo,il] etc.

m m [m] m [m]

but w [w] (戊)

m [m] m m m [m] b [b] 彌 ㅁ [m] ㅁ [m]
p p [f] f [f] f [f] f f h [h] h [h] 彆 ㅂ [p] ㅂ [p]

ㅍ [pʰ] /_[a,je,jo,il] etc.

p' ph [fʰ] f [f]

but p [pʰ] (捧)

f [f]

but p [pʰ] (捧)

f f h [h] h [h] 漂 ㅍ [pʰ] ㅍ [pʰ]

ㅂ [p] /_ak etc.

b' b [v] f [f] f [f] f or pʰ v b [b] h [h] 步 ㅃ [p'] ㅂ [p]

ㅍ [pʰ] /_[a,je,jo,il] etc.

m m [ɱ] w [w]

but m [m] (曼)

m [m] v

but some m

LIT: v

COL: m

m [m] b [b] 彌 ㅁ [m] ㅁ [m]
t t [t] d [t]

but n [n] (鳥)

d [t]

but t [tʰ] (禱)
and n [n] (鳥)

t t t [t] t [t] 斗 ㄷ [t] ㄷ [t]
t' th [tʰ] t [tʰ] t [tʰ] t [t] t [t] 呑 ㅌ [tʰ] ㅌ [tʰ]
d' d [d] t [tʰ] /_1

but d [t] (鼕)
d [t] /_234
but t [tʰ]
(挺艇鋌特突
沓蹋袒慟)

t [tʰ] /_1,

COL2
(盾挺艇鋌怠殆肚斷)
but d [t] (鼕)
d [t] /_34,LIT2
but t [tʰ] (袒)

d d [d] t [t] 覃 ㄸ [t'] ㄷ [t]
n n [n] n [n] n [n] n n n [n] d [d] 那 ㄴ [n] ㄴ [n]
l l [l] l [l]

but n [n] (弄)

l [l]

but d [t] (隸)

l l r [ɺ] r [ɺ] 閭 ㄹ [ɾ] ㄹ [ɾ]
tr [ʈ] zh [tʂ]

but ch [tʂʰ] (輟)
and d [t] (爹)

z [ts]

but c [tsʰ] (貯)
and d [t] (涿啄琢爹)

ts ts t [t] t [t] 斗 ㄷ [t] ㄷ [t]
t̂' trh [ʈʰ] ch [tʂʰ]

but zh [tʂ] (祉)

c [tsʰ]

but z [ts] (祉)

tsʰ tsʰ t [t] t [t] 呑 ㅌ [tʰ] ㅌ [tʰ]
d̂' dr [ɖʰ] ch [tʂʰ] /_1

zh [tʂ] /_234
but z [ts] (擇澤)
and ch [tʂʰ] (澈)
and d [t] (瞪)

c [tsʰ] /_1,

COL2 (峙重柱)
z [ts] /_34,LIT2
but c [tsʰ] (澈)
and d [t] (秩)

tsʰ z d [d] t [t] 覃 ㄸ [t'] ㄷ [t]
n nr [ɳ] n [n]

but w [w] (諉)

n [n]

but w [w] (諉)
and j [j] (釀)

n ȵ n [n] d [d] 那 ㄴ [n] ㄴ [n]
ts ts [ts] z [ts]

but c [tsʰ] (雀挫)

z [ts]

but c [tsʰ] (挫)

ts ts s [s] s [s] 即 ㅈ [ts] ㅈ [tɕ]
ts' tsh [tsʰ] c [tsʰ]

but z [ts] (緝竣)

c [tsʰ]

but z [ts] (竣)

tsʰ tsʰ s [s] s [s] 侵 ㅊ [tsʰ] ㅊ [tɕʰ]
dz' dz [dz] c [tsʰ] /_1

but d [t] (蹲)
z [ts] /_234
but c [tsʰ] (攢萃悴瘁)

c [tsʰ] /_1,

COL2 (坐)
z [ts] /_34,LIT2
but c [tsʰ] (攢)
and s [s] (萃悴瘁)

tsʰ z z [z] s [s] 慈 ㅉ [ts'] ㅈ [tɕ]

ㅊ [tɕʰ]

s s [s] s [s]

but sh [ʂ] (珊姍)
and c [tsʰ] (賜棲鞘粹)
and z [ts] (燥噪峻)

s [s]

but c [tsʰ]
(棲賽塞速賜肖鞘
燥噪)
and z [ts] (峻)

s s s [s] s [s] 戍 ㅅ [s] ㅅ [s]
z z [z] s [s]

but ∅ (嶼)
and c [tsʰ] in
MC zi1 (詞祠辭)
and MC zjuw1 (囚)

c [tsʰ] /_1,

COL2 (似)
z [ts] /_34,LIT2
but s [s]
(旋羨遂隧殉緒)

s z z [z] s [s] 邪 ㅆ [s'] ㅅ [s]
照莊 tṣ tsr [tʂ] zh [tʂ]

but z [ts]
(阻俎詛鄒責仄)

z [ts] ts ts s [s] s [s] 即 ㅈ [ts] ㅈ [tɕ]
穿初 tṣ' tsrh [tʂʰ] ch [tʂʰ]

but c [tsʰ]
(策冊測惻廁篡)
and zh [tʂ] (錚)

c [tsʰ]

but z [ts] (錚)
and s [s] (篡)

tsʰ tsʰ s [s] s [s] 侵 ㅊ [tsʰ] ㅊ [tɕʰ]
床崇 dẓ' dzr [dʐʰ] ch [tʂʰ] /_1

but c [ts] (岑)
zh [tʂ] /_234
but sh [ʂ] (士事柿)

c [tsʰ] /_1,

COL2 (柿)
but s [s] (潺愁崇)
z [ts] /_34,LIT2
but s [s] (士事)

tsʰ z z [z] s [s] 慈 ㅉ [ts'] ㅅ [s]

ㅊ [tɕʰ]
ㅈ [tɕ]

審生 sr [ʂ] sh [ʂ]

but ch [tʂʰ] (產)
and s [s]
(灑澀縮瑟色嗇森)

s [s]

but c [tsʰ] (產刷杉)

s s s [s] s [s] 戍 ㅅ [s] ㅅ [s]
禪俟 ź zr [ʐ] s [s] z [ts] s z z [z] s [s] 邪 ㅆ [s'] ㅅ [s]
照章 tsy [tɕ] zh [tʂ]

but ch [tʂʰ] (捶)
and d [t] (盹)

z [ts]

but c [tsʰ] (捶診疹)
and d [t] (盹)

ts ts s [s] s [s] 即 ㅈ [ts] ㅈ [tɕ]
穿昌 tś' tsyh [tɕʰ] ch [tʂʰ]

but sh [ʂ] (樞瀋)

c [tsʰ]

but s [s] (樞瀋)

tsʰ tsʰ s [s] s [s] 侵 ㅊ [tsʰ] ㅊ [tɕʰ]
床船 dź' zy [ʑ] sh [ʂ] /_234

_1:
ch [tʂʰ] (船乘唇)
sh [ʂ] (神繩蛇)

s [s] s z z [z] s [s] 慈 ㅉ [ts'] ㅅ [s]
審書 ś sy [ɕ] sh [ʂ]

but ch [tʂʰ] (弛翅舂)

s [s]

but c [tsʰ]
(始弛矢設束翅奢)
and z [ts] (舂)

s s s [s] s [s] 戍 ㅅ [s] ㅅ [s]
禪常 ź dzy [dʑ] sh [ʂ] /_234

but r [ɻ] (瑞)
_1:
ch [tʂʰ] (most)
sh [ʂ]
(時匙誰韶殊裳)

s [s]

but c [tsʰ] (恃)

s z z [z] s [s] 邪 ㅆ [s'] ㅅ [s]

ㅈ [tɕ]
ㅊ [tɕʰ]

ńź ny [ȵ] r [ɻ]

er [aɚ] <
MC nye (兒爾邇) &
MC nyij (二貳) &
MC nyi (而耳餌)

j [j] ŋ or j z n [n] z [z] 穰 ㅿ [z] ㅇ [∅]
k k [k] g [k]

but k [kʰ]
(扛礦昆柯膾愧榷)
and h [x] (梟懈偕)
and w [w] (蝸)

g [k] (kaikou)

gw [kʷ] (hekou)
but k [kʰ(ʷ)]
(概溉丐給汲級冀規
會膾劊愧拘駒溝箍
羯竭訣決抉蹶厥礦
襟昆)
and h [h] (梟懈)
and w [w] (蝸媧)
and ∅ (柯)

k k k [k] k [k] 君 ㄱ [k] ㄱ [k]
k' kh [kʰ] k [kʰ]

but h [x]
(隙恢詼墟溪)

Random? :

h [h] or k [kʷ] (kaikou)
f [f] or kw [kʰʷ] (hekou)
but p [pʰ] (棵)
and g [k] (隙)

k [k] k [k] 快 ㅋ [kʰ] ㄱ [k]

ㅋ [kʰ] /_[wɛ]

g' g [g] k [kʰ] /_1

but g [k] (畿鯨)
g [k] /_234
but k [kʰ] (匱饋)

k(w) [kʰ(ʷ)] /_1,

COL2 (近臼舅菌)
but g [k] (畿)
g(w) [k(ʷ)] /_34,LIT2
but k(w) [kʰ(ʷ)] (匱及)

g g [ɡ] k [k] 虯 ㄲ [k'] ㄱ [k]
ng ng [ŋ] null

but n [n]
(擬孽逆虐凝牛倪霓)
and g [k] (疙圪岌)
and k [kʰ] (聵)
and r [ɻ] (阮)

ng [ŋ]

ng [ŋ̩] < MC ngu
but k [kʰ] (岌聵)

ŋ ŋ g [ɡ] g [ɡ] 業 ㆁ [ŋ] ㅇ [∅]
' ʔ [ʔ] null

but g [k] (娟)
and h [x] (穢)

∅, j [j] or w [w]

depending on rime
but g [k] (娟)
and n [n] (凹)

∅, y [j] or w [w]

depending on rime

∅, y [j] or w [w]

depending on rime

挹 ㆆ [ʔ] ㅇ [∅]
x x [h] h [x]

but k [kʰ] (況迄訖)

h [h] (kaikou)

f [f] (hekou)
but k(w) [kʰ(ʷ)] (吸賄)
and gw [kʷ] (轟)
and ng [ŋ] (迄訖)
and j [j] (欣)

h h k [k] k [k] 虛 ㅎ [h] ㅎ [h]
ɣ h [ɦ] h [x]

but g [k] (迥)
and k [kʰ] (潰洽)
and ∅ (完皖莞肴螢熒)

h [h] (kaikou)

w [w] (hekou)
but gw [kʷ] (迥)
and k(ʷ) [kʰ(ʷ)] (潰繪攜)
and ng [ŋ] (肴)
and j [j] (螢熒)

h ɦ g [ɡ]

w [w] (蟹攝合口)

k [k] 洪 ㆅ [h'] ㅎ [h]
喻云 j hj [ɦj] null

but h [x] (彙彗雄熊)

j [j] or w [w]

depending on rime
but h [h] (雄熊)

[j] or [v]? [j] or [v]? y [j] or w [(w)]

depending on rime

欲 ㅇ [∅]

but 業 ㆁ [ŋ] for division 3

ㅇ [∅]
喻以 y [j] null

but g [k] (捐)
and k [kʰ] (鉛)

j [j] or w [w]

depending on rime
but g [k] (捐)

[j] or [v]? [j] or [v]? y [j] or w [(w)]

depending on rime

欲 ㅇ [∅]

but 業 ㆁ [ŋ] for divison 3

ㅇ [∅]

Notes

Mandarin — Beijing

This following major shift is completely omitted from the above chart:

z [ts] and g [k] > j [tɕ] / _i [i], ü [y]
c [tsʰ] k [kʰ] q [tɕʰ]
s [s] h [x] x [ɕ]

Furthermore, the modern semivowels are analyzed as epenthetic consonants occuring when the onset is null:

i [i] > yi [ji] / #_#
ü [y] yu [ɥy]
u [u] wu [wu]
i [i] y [j] #_V
ü [y] yu [ɥ]
u [u] w [w ~ ʋ] #_V except #_o#
w [w] #_o#

For example, MC onset 以 y tends to correspond to modern y [j] or yu [ɥ], but the correspondence chart gives the modern reflex of 以 y as null; y [j] or yu [ɥ] are then synchronically produced using this sound change. This also correctly predicts situations where MC 以 y does not give modern y [j] or yu [ɥ], e.g. 惟 ywij > wéi [ʋei], where y > null and [ʋ] is produced by the Mandarin rime uei [uei], the regular descendent of MC -wij.

Yue — Canton

The MC initials 見溪群曉匣 (k kh g x h) are each given two modern reflexes, a non-labialized reflex and a labialized one. Which one occurs depends on the rime. The rime correspondence tables below specify when labialization occurs with the symbol "w [ʷ]" in the Cantonese columns. (Furthermore, unless otherwise noted, where a rime correspondence is denoted with "w [ʷ]", the labialization is neutralized after MC onset ng = Cantonese onset ng [ŋ].) Furthermore, labialization always occurs when the Cantonese rime is one of u ui un ut [uː uːi uːn uːt] (but not ung uk [ʊŋ ʊk])

Up until the early 20th century, Cantonese had alveolo-palatal sibilants [tɕ tɕʰ ɕ] corresponding to Middle Chinese retroflex and palatal onsets, but these have since merged into the plain alveolar sibilants /ts tsʰ s/. As a corollary, /ts tsʰ s/ may be pronounced palatalized, especially before the front high vowels.

The following changes, disapproved of by prescriptivists, are ongoing:

  • n [n] > l [l] (onset)
  • ng [ŋ], ∅ > [ŋ ~ ∅] (onset)
  • gw kw [kʷ kʰʷ] > g k [k kʰ] / _ong,ok [ɔːŋ ɔːk]
  • ng k [ŋ k] > n t [n t] (coda)
  • ng [ŋ̩] > m [m̩] (syllabic)

Wu — Suzhou The following recent sound changes apply but are omitted to reduce clutter:

  • [k kʰ g h ɦ n] > [tɕ tɕʰ dʑ ɕ dʑ ȵ] / _[i,j,y,ɥ]

Japanese

The following consonants have allophones before i [i], y [j] and u [u]. (The influx of Western borrowings are changing many of these allophones into phonemes in their own right, but for the purposes of analyzing Chinese borrowings, they can be treated as allophones.)

C > /i [i], y[j] /u [u]
t [t] > ch [tɕ] ts [ts]
d [d] > j [ʑ] z [z]
s [s] > sh [ɕ] s [s]
z [z] > j [ʑ] z [z]
n [n] > n [ɲ] n [n]
h [h] > h [ç] f [ɸ]


Middle Korean The prescriptive spellings and pronunciations were ultimately ignored:

  • The "muddy" (全濁) onsets were pronounced (and spelt) with plain consonants instead of emphatic consonants;
  • The kh- (溪) onset tended to be pronounced without aspiration;
  • The l- (來) onset was pronounced ㄴ [n] when word-initial (i.e. the first character of a compound) (but see the note below about North Korean);
  • The ny- (日) onset was not pronounced when word-initial;
  • The ng- (疑) onset was not pronounced at all.

Modern Korean This change is omitted from the chart:

ㄷ [t] > ㅈ [tɕ] / _i [i], _y- [j-]
ㅌ [tʰ] ㅊ [tɕʰ]

Following which: y [j] > null /tɕ_ and tɕʰ_.

Furthermore:

  • ㄹ [ɾ] > ㄴ [n] / #_ (this change has been reversed in North Korea due to spelling pronunciation)
  • following which: ㄴ [n] > ㅇ Ø / _[i,j]

Korean also has an extensive consonant sandhi system. For example:

    • ㅂ ㄷ ㅈ ㄱ ㅅ [p t tɕ k s] > ㅃ ㄸ ㅉ ㄲ ㅆ [p' t' tɕ' k' s'] after consonants (in compounds)

Rimes

MC rimes are traditionally grouped into four divisions (等). The divisions might have had something to do with the vowels and/or medials (semivowels before the main vowel). The divisions are also useful as categories in MC phonotactics. In Baxter's orthography:

  • third-division rimes are written with "i", or with "j" followed by any other vowel;
  • first-division rimes are written with back vowels "a", "o" or "u";
  • second-division rimes are written with low front vowels "æ" or "ɛ" (which had a tendency to merge with each other);
  • fourth-division rimes are written with "e", which later tended to shift to "je" thereby merging with the third-division rimes

Baxter further categorized the large third-division into three categories:

  • "Independent" rimes, limited to coming after labials and velars/laryngeals, with a tendency to merge with other, more fully distributed rimes
  • "Mixed" rimes, with a more complete distribution after several series of onset consonants;
  • "Chongniu" rimes. These rimes are distributed widely just liked "mixed" rimes. Furthermore, a distinction referred to as chongniu (重紐) was made among characters with labial or velar/laryngeal onsets. The nature of this distinction is unknown but it was likely phonemic. The two categories can be referred to as type A and type B. (They are also, confusingly, called "division-four chongniu rimes" and "division-three chongniu rimes", based on their placement in rime books, even though the rimes themselves are division-three (do not confuse with actual division-four rimes).) The distinction is represented in Baxter's orthography with an extra -i- or -j- for those characters in chongniu type A rimes.

Like several modern southern Sinitic languages, MC permitted the consonant codas of -p, -t, -k, -m, -n and -ng. Baxter also uses the notations of -wk and -wng in a few rimes, which might reflect MC phonology. In MC, rimes ending on stops (-ap, -at, -ak) are treated as belonging to the corresponding rimes ending on nasals (-am, -an, -ang).

Within many of the rime categories, characters were further divided into kaikou (開口) and hekou (合口), which probably referred to the presence of some kind of labialization (denoted as an additional -w- in Baxter's orthography). This distinction was generally neutralized with both labial onsets and labial codas. Instead, rimes with labial codas (in Baxter's orthography, those in -w, -m and -wng) are classified as kaikou. (The pair of 魚 jo and 虞 ju are kaikou and hekou respectively.)

Syllables with labial onsets are also put into kaikou or hekou rime categories, but because the distinction is neutralized, if a given kaikou rime occurs with labials, its corresponding hekou rime would (usually) not occur with labials, and vice versa. In particular:

  • In the second and fourth divisions, labial onsets are paired with kaikou rimes
  • In the first division, labial onsets are paired with kaikou rimes, except for 戈 -wa, 灰 -woj, 桓 -wan and 魂 -won.
  • In the third division "independent" category, labial onsets are paired with hekou rimes.
  • In the third division "mixed" category, labial onsets are paired with hekou rimes, except for 之 -i and 蒸 -ing.
  • In the third division "with chongniu" category, labial onsets are paired with kaikou rimes.

The rimes were, later on, grouped into categories called she (攝) based on similarity to each other.

Rimes:

She Name Division One Division Two Division Three Division Four
"Independent" "Mixed" "with Chongniu"
果 Guo 歌 a 歌 ja
戈 wa 戈 jwa
假 Jia 麻 æ 麻 jæ
麻 wæ
止 Zhi jɨj 微 i 之 支 je 脂 ij
jwɨj 微 支 jwe 脂 wij
蟹 Xie 泰 ajH 咍 oj 夬 æjH 皆 ɛj 佳 ɛɨ 廢 jojH 祭 jejH 齊 ej
泰 wajH 灰 woj 夬 wæjH 皆 wɛj 佳 wɛɨ 廢 jwojH 祭 jwejH 齊 wej
遇 Yu 模 u 魚 jo
虞 ju
效 Xiao 豪 aw 肴 æw 宵 jew 蕭 ew
流 Liu 侯 uw 尤 juw 幽 iw
咸 Xian 談 am 覃 om 銜 æm 咸 ɛm 嚴 jæm 鹽 jem 添 em
凡 jom
深 Shen 侵 im
山 Shan 寒 an 刪 æn 山 ɛn 元 jon 仙 jen 先 en
桓 wan 刪 wæn 山 wɛn 元 jwon 仙 jwen 先 wen
臻 Zhen 痕 on 欣 jɨn 真臻 in
魂 won 文 jun 真諄 win
宕 Dang 唐 ang 陽 jang
唐 wang 陽 jwang
曾 Zeng 登 ong 蒸 ing
登 wong 蒸 wing
梗 Geng 庚 æng 耕 ɛng 庚 jæng / 清 jeng 青 eng
庚 wæng 耕 wɛng 庚 jwæng / 清 jweng 青 weng
江 Jiang 江 æwng
通 Tong 東 uwng 冬 owng 東 juwng 鍾 jowng
  • This table is organized according to Baxter's notation. The actual MC vowels continue to be debated.
  • Some rimes occur only in the departing tone (qusheng). These are marked with "-H", Baxter's notation for that tone.
  • -p, -t and -k rimes are implied for -m, -n and -ng rimes, respectively.
  • The pair of 嚴 -jæm and 凡 -jom, which are classified as kaikou and hekou respectively, are actually in complementary distribution, the former coming after velar onsets and the latter after labial onsets.
  • Baxter analyzes the rimes of 庚 jæng and 清 jeng as forming a chongniu type-B / type-A pair. He also classifies 幽 iw rimes as a "chongniu" type rime that has only type-B rimes in it, on the basis of the placement and description of the 幽 iw rime in the rime books.

Permissible onset-rime combinations ("no" does not necessarily mean that there are no characters given in those combinations in the rime books, but that such exceptions are so sparse and/or obscure that they are possibly exceptions/mistakes):

Divisions 1 & 4 Division 2 Division 3 "Independent" Division 3 "Mixed" Division 3 "Chongniu"
Kaikou Hekou Kaikou Hekou Kaikou Hekou Kaikou Hekou Kaikou Hekou
p,ph,b,m Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes + Chongniu
t,th,d,n Yes Some D1 rimes No No No No No No
tr,trh,dr,nr No No Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes
l Yes Some D1 rimes 臉、冷 No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes
ts,tsh,dz,s Yes Some D1 rimes No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes
z No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes
tsr,tsrh,dzr,sr No No Yes Limited No No Yes Yes Yes Yes
tsy,tsyh,zy,sy,dzy,ny No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes
k,kh,x,h,ʔ Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes + Chongniu Yes + Chongniu
g No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes + Chongniu Yes + Chongniu
y No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes
  • Division 1 and 4 rimes occurred in similar environments.
  • Division 3 rimes could occur in the most environments, and were also the most frequent (over 50% of characters).
  • The dental stops (t, th, d) were in complementary distribution with the retroflex stops, retroflex sibilants, and palatal sibilants.

Some of the onset-rime combinations attested in rime books correspond to extremely rare characters. Owing to the difficulty of ascertaining the pronunciation of those characters in modern languages, the modern reflexes of those combinations have been omitted (for now). Accordingly, those combinations are not included in the "Distribution" columns of the following charts.

果攝 Guo She

Rime Middle Chinese C_ Mandarin
Beijing
Yue
Canton
Minnan
Taiwan
Hakka
Moiyen
Wu
Suzhou
Japanese Korean
Karlgren Baxter Go-On Kan-On
歌一開 â a T,l uo [uo]
But a [ɑ] (他它大那娜)
o [ɔː]
But aa [aː] (他它那)
a [a] a [a]
S uo [uo] o [ɔː] a [a] a [a]
But oa [wa] (左佐)
K e [ɤ]
But uo [uo] (我), a [ɑ] (阿)
o [ɔː]
But a [ɑː] (阿)
a [a] a [a}
But ae [ɛ] (個)
戈一合 wa P o [uo]
But a [ɑ] (爸)
o [ɔː]
But aa [aː] (爸)
a [a]
T,l uo [uo] o [ɔː] a [a]
S uo [uo] o [ɔː] a [a]
K uo [uo] /_k,ng,ʔ
but e [ɤ] (戈)

e [ɤ] /_kh,x
but uo [uo] (禍和)

wo [ʷɔː]
(fo [fɔː] < kh_)
wa [(w)a]
戈三開 i̯â ja K ie [iɛ] (茄) e [ɛː] (茄) ya [ja]
戈三合 i̯wâ jwa K üe [yɛ] (瘸靴) e [ɛː] (瘸); oe [œː] (靴) we [e] wa [a]

假攝 Jia She

Rime Middle Chinese C_ Mandarin
Beijing
Yue
Canton
Minnan
Taiwan
Hakka
Moiyen
Wu
Suzhou
Japanese Korean
Karlgren Baxter Go-On Kan-On
麻二開 a æ P a [ɑ] aa [aː]
TR,nr a [ɑ] aa [aː]
SR a [ɑ] aa [aː]
K ia [iɑ] aa [aː]
麻二合 wa SR a [ɑ] (傻) o [ɔː] (傻)
K ua [uɑ] waa [ʷaː]
(kwaa [kʰʷaː] < kh_)
麻三開 i◌̯a SY e [ɤ] e [ɛː]
S ie [jɛ] e [ɛː]
y ie [jɛ] je [jɛː]

止攝(開口) Zhi She (Kaikou)

Rime Middle Chinese C_ Mandarin
Beijing
Yue
Canton
Minnan
Taiwan
Hakka
Moiyen
Wu
Suzhou
Japanese Korean
Karlgren Baxter Go-On Kan-On
支三開 ie̯ j(i)e P i [i]

but ei [ei] for
some p,b_ (碑卑被)

ei [ei] i [i] i [i] 이 [i]
l,nr i [i] ei [ei] i [i] i [i] 이 [i]
TR i [ʅ] i [iː] i [i] i [i] 이 [i]

but some 아 [a]

SR i [ʅ] i [iː] i [i] i [i] 이 [i]

but some 아 [a]

SY i [ʅ]

er [ɑɚ] /ny_

i [iː] i [i] i [i] 이 [i]

but some 아 [a]

S i [ɿ]

but i [i] (徙璽)

i [iː]

but aai [aːi] (徙璽)

i [i] i [i] 이 [i]

but some 아 [a]

K i [i] ei [ei] /k,kh,g,x_

i [iː] /ng,ʔ,y_
but ai [ɐi] (蟻)

i [i] i [i] 이 [i]

의 [ɰi] /x,ŋ,ʔ_

脂三開 i (j)ij P i [i]

but some ei [ei]
(悲美備眉湄媚魅)

ei [ei] i [i] i [i] 이 [i]
d,l,nr i [i] ei [ei] i [i] i [i] 이 [i]
TR i [ʅ] i [iː] i [i] i [i] 이 [i]
sr i [ʅ] i [iː] i [i] i [i] 이 [i]
SY i [ʅ]

er [ɑɚ] /ny_

i [iː] i [i] i [i] 이 [i]
S i [ɿ] i [iː]

but ei [ei] (死四)

i [i] i [i] 아 [a]
K i [i] ei [ei] /k,kh,g,x_

i [iː] /ng,ʔ,y_

i [i] i [i] 이 [i]

의 [ɰi] /x,ŋ,ʔ_
but 이 [i] (伊咿)

之三開 i i l,nr i [i] ei [ei]

but eoi [ɵy] (裏)

i [i] i [i] 이 [i]
TR i [ʅ] i [iː] i [i] i [i] 이 [i]
SR i [ʅ]

but e [ɤ] (廁)

i [iː] i [i] i [i] 이 [i]

but some 아 [a]

SY i [ʅ]

er [ɑɚ] /ny_

i [iː] i [i] i [i] 이 [i]

but some 아 [a]

S i [ɿ] i [iː] i [i] i [i] 이 [i]

but some 아 [a]

K i [i] ei [ei] /k,kh,g,x_

i [iː] /ng,ʔ,h,y_

mostly o [o]

i [i] /ʔ,h,y_

i [i] 이 [i]

의 [ɰi] /x,ŋ,ʔ_

微三開 e̯i jɨj K i [i] ei [ei] /k,kh,g,x_

i [iː] /ng,ʔ,h,y_

e [e] i [i] 이 [i]

의 [ɰi] /x,ŋ,ʔ_

止攝(合口) Zhi She (Hekou)

Rime Middle Chinese C_ Mandarin
Beijing
Yue
Canton
Minnan
Taiwan
Hakka
Moiyen
Wu
Suzhou
Japanese Korean
Karlgren Baxter Go-On Kan-On
支三合 wie̯ jw(i)e l ei [ei] eoi [ɵy] ui [ui] ui [ui] 우 [u]
TR uei [uei] eoi [ɵy] ui [ui] ui [ui] 우 [u]
SR uai [uai] eoi [ɵy] ui [ui] ui [ui] 우 [u]
SY uei [uei] eoi [ɵy] ui [ui] ui [ui] 우 [u]
but 웨 [we] (惴)
S uei [uei] eoi [ɵy] ui [ui] ui [ui] 우 [u]
K uei [uei] gwai [kʷɐi] < k_,
kwai [kʰʷɐi] < kh_,
ngai [ŋɐi] < ng_,
fai [fɐi] < x_1,
wai [wɐi] <

x_H,
wai [wɐi] < h,ʔ,y_

wi [i] wi [i] 유 [ju] /k,kh_

but some 웨 [we] (詭佹燬)

脂三合 wi (j)wij l ei [ei] eoi [ɵy] ui [ui] ui [ui] 유 [ju]
TR uei [uei] eoi [ɵy] ui [ui] ui [ui] 우 [u]
SR uai [uai] eoi [ɵy] ui [ui] ui [ui] 우 [u]
SY uei [uei] eoi [ɵy] ui [ui] ui [ui] 우 [u]
유 [ju] / ny_
S uei [uei] eoi [ɵy] ui [ui] ui [ui] 위 [wi] (顇醉瘁翠)
K uei [uei]

but i [i] (遺季悸)

gwai [kʷɐi] < k_,g_H,
kwai [kʰʷɐi] < kh_,g_1,
wai [wɐi] < h,y_
wi [i]

yui [jui] /y_

wi [i] 우 [u]

유 [ju] / h,y_
but some 웨 [we] /k,g_ (晷位)

微三合 we̯i jwɨj P fei [fei] < p,ph,b_
wei [ʋei] < m_
fei [fei] < p,ph,b_

(but fai [fɐi] (沸費))
mei [mei] < m_

i [i] i [i] 이 [i]
K uei [uei] gwai [kʷɐi] < k_,
ngai [ŋɐi] < ng_,
fai [fɐi] < x_1,
wai [wɐi] < x_H,
wai [wɐi] <

h,ʔ_

wi [i] /ʔ,h_

we [e]

wi [i] /K_ 위 [wi]

蟹攝(開口) Xie She (Kaikou)

Rime Middle Chinese C_ Mandarin
Beijing
Yue
Canton
Minnan
Taiwan
Hakka
Moiyen
Wu
Suzhou
Japanese Korean
Karlgren Baxter Go-On Kan-On
咍一開 âi oj P ei [ei] ui [uːi] ai [ai] ai [ai]
T,l ai [ai] aai [aːi] / n_X (乃迺)
oi [ɔːi] / else

but aai [aːi] (態)

ai [ai] ai [ai]
S ai [ai] oi [ɔːi]

but aai [aːi] (猜)

ai [ai] ai [ai]
K ai [ai] oi [ɔːi] ai [ai] ai [ai]
泰一開 âi- ajH P ei [ei] ui [uːi] ai [ai] ai [ai]
T,l ai [ai] aai [aːi]
oi [ɔːi] /n_
ai [ai] ai [ai]
S ai [ai] oi [ɔːi] ai [ai] ai [ai]
K ai [ai] oi [ɔːi]

but aai [aːi] (艾)

ai [ai] ai [ai]
皆二開 ăi ɛj P ai [ai] aai [aːi] e [e] ai [ai]
SR ai [ai] aai [aːi] e [e] ai [ai]
K jie [tɕiɛ] < k_

but ga [kɑ] < k_ (尬)
kai [kʰai] < kh_ (揩楷)
xie [ɕiɛ] < h_ (諧鞋械瀣) or
hai [xai] < h_ (駭骸)

aai [aːi] e [e] ai [ai]
夬二開 ai- æjH P ai [ai] aai [aːi] e [e] ai [ai]
dzr ai [ai] (寨) aai [aːi] (寨) ai [ai] ai [ai]
佳二開 ai ɛɨ P ai [ai] aai [aːi] e [e] ai [ai]
SR ai [ai] aai [aːi] e [e] ai [ai]
K jie [tɕiɛ] < k_

but jia [tɕiɑ] < k_ (佳)
ya [jɑ] < ng_
xie [ɕiɛ] < h_
wa [ʋɑ] < ʔ_1 (娃)
ai [ai] < ʔ_X,H (矮隘)

aai [aːi]

but ai [ɐi] < ʔ_X (矮)
and waa [waː] < ʔ_1 (娃)

e [e] ai [ai]
廢三開 i̯ɒi- jojH ŋ i [i] aai [aːi] e [e] ai [ai]
祭三開 i̯äi- j(i)ejH P i [i] / p,ph,b_

ei [ei] / m_ (袂)

ai [ɐi] e [e]
ei [eː]
l i [i] ai [ɐi] e [e]
ei [eː]
TR i [ʅ] ai [ɐi] ai [ai] ei [eː]
SR i [ʅ] ai [ɐi] e [e] ei [eː]
SY i [ʅ] ai [ɐi] e [e] ei [eː]
ts i [i] ai [ɐi] ai [ai] ei [eː]
K i [i] ai [ɐi]

jai [jɐi] < y_

e [e]

ei [eː] / y_

ei [eː]
齊四開 iei ej P i [i] ai [ɐi] ai [ai] ei [eː]
T,l i [i] ai [ɐi] ai [ai] ei [eː]
S i [i] ai [ɐi] ai [ai] ei [eː]
K i [i] ai [ɐi] e [e] ei [eː]

蟹攝(合口) Xie She (Hekou)

Rime Middle Chinese C_ Mandarin
Beijing
Yue
Canton
Minnan
Taiwan
Hakka
Moiyen
Wu
Suzhou
Japanese Korean
Karlgren Baxter Go-On Kan-On
灰一合 uâi woj P ei [ei] ui [uːi] e [e] ai [ai]
T,l uei [uei] /t,th,d_

ei [ei] /n,l_

eoi [ɵy]

but oi [ɔːi] (內)

ai [ai] ai [ai]
S uei [uei] eoi [ɵy] ai [ai] ai [ai]
K uei [uei]

but uai [uai] (塊)

gwai [kʷɐi] < k_,

fui [fuːi] < kh,x_,
but kwai [kʰʷɐi] < kh_ (盔)
and faai [faːi] < kh_ (塊)
ngai [ŋɐi] < ng_ (隗嵬)
or wai [wɐi] < ng_ (桅)
wui [wuːi] < h,ʔ_,
but wai [wɐi] < ʔ_ (猥)

we [e] wai [(w)ai]
泰一合 wâi- wajH T uei [uei] eoi [ɵy] ai [ai] ai [ai]
S uei [uei] eoi [ɵy] ai [ai] ai [ai]
K uei [uei] /k,x,h_

but kuai [kʰuai] < k_ (膾儈)
wai [ʋai] < ng_ (外)

kui2 [kʰuːi˧˥] < k_ (膾儈劊)

ngoi6 [ŋɔːi˨] < ng_ (外)
wai3 [wɐi˧] < x_
wui6 [wuːi˨] < h_ (會) or
kui2 [kʰuːi˧˥] < h_ (繪)

we [e] wai [ai]
皆二合 wăi wɛj K uai [uai] waai [ʷaːi] we [e] wai [ai]
夬二合 wai- wæjH K uai [uai]

but ua [uɑ] (話)

waai [ʷaːi]

but waa [waː] (話)

we [e] wai [ai]
佳二合 wai wɛɨ K ua [uɑ]

but uo [uo] (蝸)

waa [ʷaː]

but wo [wɔː] (蝸媧)

we [e] wai [(w)ai]
廢三合 i̯wɒi- jwojH P ei [ei] ai [ɐi] o [o] ai [ai]
K hui [xuei] < x,ʔ_ (喙穢) fui [fuːi] < x_ (喙)

wai [wɐi] < ʔ_ (穢)

we [e] wai [(w)ai]
祭三合 i̯wäi- jw(i)ejH TR uei [uei] eoi [ɵy] ai [ai] ei [eː]
SY uei [uei] eoi [ɵy] e(i) [e(ː)] ei [eː]
S uei [uei] eoi [ɵy] ai [ai] ei [eː]
K gui [kuei] < k_

hui [xuei] < h_
but wei [ʋei] < h_ (衛)
rui [ɻuei] < y_

gwai [kʷɐi] < k_

wai [wɐi] < h_
jeoi [jɵy] < y_

e(i) [e(ː)] / y_

we [e] /h_

ei [eː]

wei [eː] /h_

齊四合 iwei wej K uei [uei]

but ie [iɛ] (攜)

wai [wɐi] we [e] wai [ai]

遇攝 Yu She

Rime Middle Chinese C_ Mandarin
Beijing
Yue
Canton
Minnan
Taiwan
Hakka
Moiyen
Wu
Suzhou
Japanese Korean
Karlgren Baxter Go-On Kan-On
模一開 uo u P u [u] ou [ou] u [u] or o [o] o [o]
T,l LIT
u [u]
COL

some ou [ou] (都露)

ou [ou] u [u] or o [o] o [o]
S u [u]

uo [uo] some ts_H (措錯)

ou [ou] u [u] or o [o] o [o]
K u [u] u [uː]

ng [ŋ̩] < ŋ_

u [u] or o [o] o [o]

wo [o] /ʔ_

魚三開 i̯wo jo l,nr ü [y]

but u [u] some l_1 (廬蘆)

eoi [ɵy] o [o] yo [jo]
TR u [u] yu [yː]

but eoi [ɵy] (除)

yo [jo] yo [jo]
SR u [u]

but uo [uo] (所)

o [ɔː] yo [jo] o [o]
SY u [u] yu [yː] yo [jo] yo [jo]
S ü [y] eoi [ɵy] o [o] yo [jo]
K ü [y] eoi [ɵy] /k,kh,g,x_

yu [yː] < ŋ,ʔ,y_

yo [jo] /y_

o [o] /K,ʔ_

yo [jo]
虞三合 i̯u ju P fu [fu] < p,ph,b_

wu [u] < m_

fu [fuː] < p,ph,b_

mou [mou] < m_

u [u] u [u]
l ü [y] eoi [ɵy] u [u] u [u]
TR u [u] yu [yː] yuu [juː] yuu [juː]
SR u [u] o [ɔː]

but ou [ou] (數)

yu [ju] yu [ju]
SY u [u] yu [yː] u [u] 

yu [ju] /dzy,ny_

yu [ju]
S ü [y] eoi [ɵy] u [u] yu [ju]
K ü [y] eoi [ɵy] /k,kh,g,x_

yu [yː] < ŋ,ʔ,h,y_

u [u]

yu [ju] /y_

u [u]

yu [ju] /y_

效攝 Xiao She

Rime Middle Chinese C_ Mandarin
Beijing
Yue
Canton
Minnan
Taiwan
Hakka
Moiyen
Wu
Suzhou
Japanese Korean
Karlgren Baxter Go-On Kan-On
豪一開 âu aw P ao [ɑu] ou [ou]
T,l ao [ɑu] ou [ou]
S ao [ɑu] ou [ou]
K ao [ɑu] ou [ou]
肴二開 au æw P ao [ɑu] aau [aːu]
nr ao [ɑu] aau [aːu]
TR ao [ɑu] aau [aːu]
SR ao [ɑu] aau [aːu]
K iao [jɑu] aau [aːu]
宵三開 i̯äu j(i)ew P iao [jɑu] iu [iːu]
l iao [jɑu] iu [iːu]
TR ao [ɑu] iu [iːu]
SY ao [ɑu] iu [iːu]
S iao [jɑu] iu [iːu]
K iao [jɑu] iu [iːu]
蕭四開 ieu ew T iao [jɑu] iu [iːu]
S iao [jɑu] iu [iːu]
K iao [jɑu] iu [iːu]

流攝 Liu She

Rime Middle Chinese C_ Mandarin
Beijing
Yue
Canton
Minnan
Taiwan
Hakka
Moiyen
Wu
Suzhou
Japanese Korean
Karlgren Baxter Go-On Kan-On
侯一開 ə◌̯u uw P ou [ou]

but mŭ [mu˨˩˦] < m_X (母牡)
except mŏu [mu˨˩˦] (某)
and mào [mɑu˥˩] < m_H (茂貿袤)

au [ɐu]
but ou [ou] (母)
T,l ou [ou] au [ɐu]
S ou [ou] au [ɐu]
K ou [ou] au [ɐu]
尤三開 iə◌̯u juw P fu [fu] < p,ph,b_

except fǒu [fou˨˩˦] < p_X (否缶)
mou [mou] < m_
except mao [mɑu] (矛)

p,ph,b_ >
fau [fɐu] (否缶浮涪阜)
or fu [fu] (富副婦負)

mau [mɐu] < m_
except maau [maːu] (矛)

l,nr iou [iou] au [ɐu]
TR ou [ou]

but u [u] (畜)

au [ɐu]

but uk [ʊk] (畜)

SR ou [ou] au [ɐu]
SY ou [ou] au [ɐu]
S iou [iou] au [ɐu]
K iou [iou] au [ɐu]
jau [jɐu] < kh,x,ʔ,h_
幽三開 i̯ěu jiw P iao [iao] / p_ (彪)
iou [iou] / m_ (謬)
iu [iːu] / p_ (彪)
au [ɐu] / m_ (謬)
K iou [iou] au [ɐu] / k,g_ (糾赳虯)
jau [jɐu] < ʔ_ (幽幼)

咸攝(舒聲) Xian She (Nasal Coda)

Rime Middle Chinese C_ Mandarin
Beijing
Yue
Canton
Minnan
Taiwan
Hakka
Moiyen
Wu
Suzhou
Japanese Korean
Karlgren Baxter Go-On Kan-On
談一開 âm am T,l an [an] aam [aːm]
S an [an] aam [aːm]
K an [an] am [ɐm]
覃一開 â.m om T,l an [an] aam [aːm]
S an [an] aam [aːm]
K an [an] am [ɐm]
銜二開 am æm SR an [an] aam [aːm]
K ian [iɛn] aam [aːm]
咸二開 ăm ɛm l ian [iɛn] (臉) im [iːm] (臉)
TR an [an] aam [aːm]
SR an [an] aam [aːm]
K ian [iɛn]
but an [an] (黯)
aam [aːm]
but aan [aːn] (醶)
and am [ɐm] (黯)
嚴三開 i̯ɒm jæm K ian [iɛn] im [iːm]
jim [jiːm] < ng_
凡三合 i̯wɒm jom P fan [fan] < p,ph,b_ faan [faːn] < p,ph,b_
鹽三開 i̯äm j(i)em P ian [iɛn] in [iːn]
l,nr ian [iɛn] im [iːm]
TR an [an] im [iːm]
SY an [an] im [iːm]
S ian [iɛn] im [iːm]
K ian [iɛn] im [iːm]
jim [jiːm] < ʔ,h_
添四開 iem em T,l ian [iɛn] im [iːm]
S ian [iɛn] im [iːm]
K ian [iɛn] im [iːm]
jim [jiːm] < h_

咸攝(入聲) Xian She (Plosive Coda)

Rime Middle Chinese C_ Mandarin
Beijing
Yue
Canton
Minnan
Taiwan
Hakka
Moiyen
Wu
Suzhou
Japanese Korean
Karlgren Baxter Go-On Kan-On
盍一開 âp ap T,l a [a] aap [aːp]
K e [ɤ] ap [ɐp]
合一開 â.p op T,l a [a] aap [aːp]
S a [a] aap [aːp]
K e [ɤ] ap [ɐp]
狎二開 ap æp K ia [iɑ] aap [aːp]
but aat [aːt] (壓)
洽二開 ăp ɛp TR a [a] aap [aːp]
SR a [a] aap [aːp]
K ia [iɑ] aap [aːp]
but ap [ɐp] (恰)
業三開 i̯ɒp jæp K ie [iɛ] ip [iːp]
jip [jiːp] < ng_
乏三合 i̯wɒp jop P fa [fa] < p,ph,b_ faat [faːt] (法)
or fat [fɐt] (乏)
葉三開 i̯äp j(i)ep l,nr ie [iɛ] ip [iːp]
but it [iːt] (捷睫)
TR e [ɤ] ip [iːp]
SY e [ɤ] ip [iːp]
S ie [iɛ] ip [iːp]
K ie [iɛ] ip [iːp]
帖四開 iep ep T ie [iɛ] ip [iːp]
S ie [iɛ] ip [iːp]
K ie [iɛ]
but ia [iɑ] (頰俠)
ip [iːp]
but ap [aːp] (頰俠)

深攝 Shen She

Rime Middle Chinese C_ Mandarin
Beijing
Yue
Canton
Minnan
Taiwan
Hakka
Moiyen
Wu
Suzhou
Japanese Korean
Karlgren Baxter Go-On Kan-On
侵三開 i̯əm (j)im P ing [iɪŋ] (稟)
in [in] (品)
an [ɐn]
l,nr in [in] am [ɐm]
TR en [ən] am [ɐm]
SR en [ən] am [ɐm]
SY en [ən] am [ɐm]
S in [in]
but ün [yn] (尋潯)
am [ɐm]
K in [in] am [ɐm]
jam [jɐm] < kh,ng,x,ʔ_
緝三開 i̯əp (j)ip l i [i] ap [ɐp]
but aap [aːp] (立)
TR e [ɤ] (蟄)
or i [ʅ] (縶)
at [ɐt] (蟄)
or ap [ɐp] (縶)
SR i [ʅ] ap [ɐp]
but aap [aːp] (澀)
SY i [ʅ]
ru [ɻu] < ny_(入)
ap [ɐp]
S i [i] ap [ɐp] (緝輯)
or aap [aːp] (集習襲)
K i [i]
but ei [ei] (給)
ap [ɐp]
jap [jɐp] < kh,ʔ,h_

山攝(開口舒聲) Shan She (Kaikou, Nasal Coda)

Rime Middle Chinese C_ Mandarin
Beijing
Yue
Canton
Minnan
Taiwan
Hakka
Moiyen
Wu
Suzhou
Japanese Korean
Karlgren Baxter Go-On Kan-On
寒一開 ân an T,l an [an] aan [aːn]
S an [an] aan [aːn]
K an [an] on [ɔːn]
刪二開 an æn P an [an] aan [aːn]
SR an [an] aan [aːn]
K ian [iɛn] aan [aːn]
山二開 ăn ɛn P an [an] aan [aːn]
TR an [an] aan [aːn]
SR an [an] aan [aːn]
K ian [iɛn] aan [aːn]
元三開 i̯ɒn jon K ian [iɛn]
but üan [yɛn] (軒)
in [iːn]
jin [jiːn] < ng,ʔ_
仙三開 i̯än j(i)en P ian [iɛn] in [iːn]
l ian [iɛn] in [iːn]
TR an [an] in [iːn]
SR an [an] in [iːn]
SY an [an] in [iːn]
S ian [iɛn] in [iːn]
K ian [iɛn] in [iːn]
jin [jiːn] < ng,ʔ,h,y_
先四開 ien en P ian [iɛn] in [iːn]
T,l ian [iɛn] in [iːn]
S ian [iɛn] in [iːn]
K ian [iɛn] in [iːn]
jin [jiːn] < h,ʔ_

山攝(開口入聲) Shan She (Kaikou, Plosive Coda)

Rime Middle Chinese C_ Mandarin
Beijing
Yue
Canton
Minnan
Taiwan
Hakka
Moiyen
Wu
Suzhou
Japanese Korean
Karlgren Baxter Go-On Kan-On
曷一開 ât at T,l a [ɑ] aat [aːt]
S a [ɑ] aat [aːt]
K e [ɤ] ot [ɔːt]
but aat [aːt] < ʔ_ (遏)
鎋二開 at æt P a [ɑ] aat [aːt]
SR a [ɑ] aat [aːt]
K ia [iɑ] at [ɐt] (瞎轄)
黠二開 ăt ɛt P a [ɑ] aat [aːt]
SR a [ɑ] aat [aːt]
K ia [iɑ] aat [aːt]
月三開 i̯ɒt jot K ie [iɛ] it [iːt]
jit [jiːt] < ʔ_ (謁)
薛三開 i̯ät j(i)et P ie [iɛ] it [iːt]
l ie [iɛ] it [iːt]
TR e [ɤ] it [iːt]
SR e [ɤ] it [iːt]
SY e [ɤ] it [iːt]
S ie [iɛ]
but üe [yɛ] (薛)
it [iːt]
K ie [iɛ] it [iːt]
jit [jiːt] < ng_ (孽)
屑四開 iet et P ie [iɛ] it [iːt]
T,l ie [iɛ] it [iːt]
S ie [iɛ] it [iːt]
K ie [iɛ] it [iːt]
jit [jiːt] < ng,ʔ_ (臬噎)

山攝(合口舒聲) Shan She (Hekou, Nasal Coda)

Rime Middle Chinese C_ Mandarin
Beijing
Yue
Canton
Minnan
Taiwan
Hakka
Moiyen
Wu
Suzhou
Japanese Korean
Karlgren Baxter Go-On Kan-On
桓一合 uân wan P an [an] un [uːn]

but aan [aːn]] (饅幔漫)

T,l uan [uan] yun [yːn]
S uan [uan] yun [yːn]
K uan [uan] un [uːn]

wun [wuːn] < ng,h,ʔ_

刪二合 wan wæn SR uan [uan] aan [aːn]
K uan [uan] gwaan [kʷaːn] < k_

waan [waːn] < ng,h,ʔ_

山二合 wăn wɛn K uan [uan] gwaan [kʷaːn] < k_

waan [waːn] < h_

元三合 i̯wɒn jwon P fan [fan] < p,ph,b_

wan [ʋan] < m_

faan [faːn] < p,ph,b_

maan [maːn] < m_

K üan [yɛn]
but ruăn [ɻuan˨˩˦] < ng_X (阮)
and wăn [ʋan˨˩˦] < ʔ_X (宛婉菀)
hyun [hyːn] < kh,x_

gyun [kyːn] < g_X,H
jyun [jyːn] < ng,h,ʔ_

仙三合 i̯wän jw(i)en l ian [iɛn] (戀)
or uan [uan] (孌)
yun [yːn]
TR uan [uan] yun [yːn]
SR uan [uan] yun [yːn]
SY uan [uan] yun [yːn]
S üan [yɛn] yun [yːn]
K üan [yɛn]
but ian [iɛn] (沿鉛)
yun [yːn]

jyun [jyːn] < ʔ,h,y_

先四合 iwen wen K üan [yɛn]
but ian [iɛn] (縣)
yun [yːn]

jyun [jyːn] < h,ʔ_

山攝(合口入聲) Shan She (Hekou, Plosive Coda)

Rime Middle Chinese C_ Mandarin
Beijing
Yue
Canton
Minnan
Taiwan
Hakka
Moiyen
Wu
Suzhou
Japanese Korean
Karlgren Baxter Go-On Kan-On
末一合 uât wat P o [uo] ut [uːt]
T,l uo [uo] yut [yːt]
S uo [uo] yut [yːt]
K uo [uo] ut [uːt]
wut [wuːt] < h_
waat [waːt] < ʔ_ (斡)
鎋二合 wat wæt SR ua [uɑ] aat [aːt]
K ua [uɑ] gwaat [kʷaːt] < k_
黠二合 ăt ɛt K ua [uɑ] waat [waːt] < h_
月三合 i̯wɒt jwot P fa [fɑ] < p,b_
wa [ʋɑ] < m_
faat [faːt] < p_
fat [fɐt] < b_
mat [mɐt] < m_
K üe [yɛ] yut [yːt]
jyut [jyːt] < ng,ʔ,h_
薛三合 i̯ät j(i)et l üe [yɛ]
but ie [iɛ] (劣)
yut [yːt]
TR uo [uo] yut [yːt]
SR uo [uo] yut [yːt]
SY uo [uo] yut [yːt]
S üe [yɛ] yut [yːt]
K üe [yɛ] yut [yːt]
jyut [jyːt] < ʔ,y_
屑四合 iwet wet K üe [yɛ]
but ie [iɛ] (血)
yut [yːt]
jyut [jyːt] < h_

臻攝(開口) Zhen She (Kaikou)

Rime Middle Chinese C_ Mandarin
Beijing
Yue
Canton
Minnan
Taiwan
Hakka
Moiyen
Wu
Suzhou
Japanese Korean
Karlgren Baxter Go-On Kan-On
痕一開 ən on th un [uən] (吞) an [ɐn] on [oɴ] on [oɴ]
K en [ən] an [ɐn]

jan [jɐn] < ʔ_ (恩)

on [oɴ] on [oɴ]
欣三開 jən jɨn K in [in] an [ɐn]

jan [jɐn] < ʔ_

on [oɴ] in [iɴ]
真三開 jĕn (j)in P in [in] an [ɐn] in [iɴ] in [iɴ]
l in [in] eon [ɵn] in [iɴ] in [iɴ]
TR en [ən] an [ɐn] in [iɴ] in [iɴ]
SY en [ən] an [ɐn] in [iɴ] in [iɴ]
S in [in]

but ün [yn] (訊汛)

eon [ɵn]

but an [ɐn] (辛新薪親)

in [iɴ] in [iɴ]
K in [in] an [ɐn]

jan [jɐn] < ʔ,y_

in [iɴ] (CN-A)

on [oɴ] (CN-B)

in [iɴ]
臻三開 jɛn in SR en [ən] an [ɐn]

but eon [ɵn] (臻榛)

in [iɴ] in [iɴ]
沒一開 ət ot h e [ɤ] at [ɐt]  ?  ?
迄三開 jət jɨt K i [i] at [ɐt] oti [otɕi] itu [itsu]
質三開 jĕt (j)it P i [i] at [ɐt]

but it [iːt] (必)

iti [itɕi] itu [itsu]
l i [i] eot [ɵt] iti [itɕi] itu [itsu]
TR i [ʅ] at [ɐt]

but it [iːt] (秩)

iti [itɕi] itu [itsu]
SY i [ʅ] at [ɐt] iti [itɕi] itu [itsu]
S i [i] at [ɐt] iti [itɕi] itu [itsu]
K i [i] at [ɐt]

jat [jɐt] < ʔ,y_
but jyut [jyːt] (乙)

iti [itɕi]

but otu [otsu] (乙)

itu [itsu]
櫛三開 jɛt it SR e [ɤ] (瑟)

and i [ʅ] (櫛蝨)
and ie [iɛ] (櫛)

at [ɐt] /SR_

but it [iːt] (櫛)

iti [itɕi] itu [itsu]

臻攝(合口) Zhen She (Hekou)

Rime Middle Chinese C_ Mandarin
Beijing
Yue
Canton
Minnan
Taiwan
Hakka
Moiyen
Wu
Suzhou
Japanese Korean
Karlgren Baxter Go-On Kan-On
魂一合 uən won P en [ən] an [ɐn] (奔賁笨噴)
or un [uːn] (本盆門悶)
T,l un [uən] /t,th,d,l_

en [ən] /n_

eon [ɵn]
but yun [yːn] / d_1,l_
S un [uən]

but ün [yn](巽遜)

yun [yːn]
but eon [ɵn] (尊樽遜)
K un [uən] gwan [kʷɐn] < k_
kwan [kʰʷɐn] < k_
fan [fɐn] < x_
wan [wɐn] < ng,h,ʔ_
文三合 juən jun P fen [fən] < p,ph,b_
wen [ʋən] < m_
fan [fɐn] < p,ph,b_
man [mɐn] < m_
K ün [yn] gwan [kʷɐn] < k_,g_H
kwan [kʰʷɐn] < g_1
fan [fɐn] < x_
wan [wɐn] < ʔ,h_
真三合 juĕn jwin K ün [yn]

but iong [yʊŋ] (窘)

wan [wɐn]
淳三合 juĕn (j)win l un [uən] eon [ɵn]
TR un [uən] eon [ɵn]
SY un [uən] eon [ɵn]
S ün [yn]

but un [uən] (筍遵)

eon [ɵn]
K ün [yn]

but in [in] (尹)

gwan [kʷɐn] < k_
wan [wɐn] < h_
沒一合 uət wot P o [uɔ]

but ei [ei] (沒)

ut [uːt]
T,l u [u] at [ɐt] (突凸)
or eot [ɵt] (咄)
S u [u] yut [yːt] (猝)
K u [u] gwat [kʷɐt] < k_
fat [fɐt] < kh,x_
ngat [ŋɐt] < ng_
物三合 juət jut P fu [fu] < p,ph,b_
wu [wu] < m_

but o [uɔ] (佛)

fat [fɐt] < p,ph,b_
mat [mɐt] < m_
K ü [y]

but üe [yɛ] (崛倔掘)

gwat [kʷɐt] < g_
wat [wɐt] < kh,ʔ_
術三合 juĕt (j)wit l ü [y] eot [ɵt]
TR u [u] eot [ɵt]
SR uai [uai] eot [ɵt]
SY u [u] eot [ɵt]
S ü [y] eot [ɵt]
K ü [y] gwat [kʷɐt] < k_
wat [wɐt] < y_

宕攝 Dang She

Rime Middle Chinese C_ Mandarin
Beijing
Yue
Canton
Minnan
Taiwan
Hakka
Moiyen
Wu
Suzhou
Japanese Korean
Karlgren Baxter Go-On Kan-On
唐一開 âng ang P ang [ɑŋ]
T,l ang [ɑŋ]
S ang [ɑŋ]
K ang [ɑŋ]
陽三開 i̯ang jang l,nr iang [iɑŋ]
TR ang [ɑŋ]
SR uang [uɑŋ]
SY ang [ɑŋ]
S iang [iɑŋ]
K iang [iɑŋ]
鐸一開 âk ak P o [uo]
T,l uo [uo]
S uo [uo]
K e [ɤ]
藥三開 i̯ak jak l LIT
üe [yɛ]
TR LIT
uo [uo]
COL
ao [ɑu] (著)
SY LIT
uo [uo]
COL
ao [ɑu] (勺)
S LIT
üe [yɛ]
COL
iao [iɑu] (雀嚼削)
K LIT
üe [yɛ]
COL
iao [iɑu] (腳藥鑰)
唐一合 wâng wang K uang [uɑŋ]
陽三合 i̯wang jwang P fang [fɑŋ] < p,ph,b_
wang [ʋɑŋ] < m_
K uang [uɑŋ]
鐸一合 wâk wak K uo [uo]
藥三合 i̯wak jwak b fù [fu˥˩] (縛)
K üe [yɛ]

曾攝 Zeng She

Rime Middle Chinese C_ Mandarin
Beijing
Yue
Canton
Minnan
Taiwan
Hakka
Moiyen
Wu
Suzhou
Japanese Korean
Karlgren Baxter Go-On Kan-On
登一開 əng ong P eng [ɤŋ]
T,l eng [ɤŋ]
S eng [ɤŋ]
K eng [ɤŋ]
but en [ən] (肯)
蒸三開 i̯əng ing P ing [iɪŋ]
l ing [iɪŋ]
TR eng [ɤŋ]
SR eng [ɤŋ]
SY eng [ɤŋ]
S eng [ɤŋ]
K ing [iɪŋ]
but ün [yn] (孕)
德一開 ək ok P LIT
o [uo]
COL
ei [ei] (北)
T,l LIT
e [ɤ]
COL
ei [ei] (得忒勒肋)
S LIT
e [ɤ]
COL
ei [ei] (賊塞)
K LIT
e [ɤ]
COL
ei [ei] (黑)
職三開 i̯ək ik P i [i]
l,nr i [i]
TR i [ʅ]
SR LIT
e [ɤ]
and onset is
plain alveolar
COL
ai [ai]
and onset is
retroflex (色)
SY i [ʅ]
S i [i]
K i [i]
登一合 wəng wong K ong [ʊŋ]
德一合 wək wok K uo [uo]
職三合 i̯wək wik K ü [y]


梗攝(開口舒聲) Geng She (Kaikou, Nasal Coda)

Rime Middle Chinese C_ Mandarin
Beijing
Yue
Canton
Minnan
Taiwan
Hakka
Moiyen
Wu
Suzhou
Japanese Korean
Karlgren Baxter Go-On Kan-On
庚二開 ɒng æng P eng [ɤŋ]
but ang [ɑŋ] (盲)
(t) da [tɑ] (打)
l leng [lɤŋ] (冷)
nr ing [iɪŋ]
TR eng [ɤŋ]
SR eng [ɤŋ]
K eng [ɤŋ]
but ing [iɪŋ] (更行杏)
耕二開 ɛng ɛng P eng [ɤŋ]
but in [in] (拼)
TR eng [ɤŋ]
SR eng [ɤŋ]
K eng [ɤŋ] /k,kh_
ing [iɪŋ] /ng,h,ʔ_
庚三開 i̯ɒng jæng P ing [iɪŋ]
but in [in] (皿)
SR eng [ɤŋ]
K ing [iɪŋ]
清三開 i̯äng jieng P ing [iɪŋ]
but in [in] (聘)
l ing [iɪŋ]
TR eng [ɤŋ]
but en [ən] (貞)
SY eng [ɤŋ]
S ing [iɪŋ]
K ing [iɪŋ]
青四開 ieng eng P ing [iɪŋ]
T,l ing [iɪŋ]
S ing [iɪŋ]
K ing [iɪŋ]

梗攝(開口入聲) Geng She (Kaikou, Plosive Coda)

Rime Middle Chinese C_ Mandarin
Beijing
Yue
Canton
Minnan
Taiwan
Hakka
Moiyen
Wu
Suzhou
Japanese Korean
Karlgren Baxter Go-On Kan-On
陌二開 ɒk æk P LIT
o [uo]
COL
ai [ai] (伯百拍白)
or a [ɑ] (怕)
TR LIT
e [ɤ]
and onset may be
plain alveolar (澤擇)
COL
ai

[ai]
and onset is
retroflex (宅)

SR LIT
e [ɤ]
and onset may be
plain alveolar (嘖)
COL
ai

[ai]
and onset is
retroflex (窄)

K e [ɤ]
but ia [iɑ] (嚇)
麥二開 ɛk ɛk P LIT
o [uo]
COL
ai [ai] (擘麥脈)
TR COL
ai [ai] (摘)
SR LIT
e [ɤ]
and onset is
plain alveolar (責策冊)
COL
ai

[ai]
and onset is
retroflex (債??)

K e [ɤ]
陌三開 i̯ɒk jæk P i [i]
K i [i]
but ü [y] (劇)
昔三開 i̯äk jiek P i [i]
TR i [ʅ]
SY i [ʅ]
S i [i]
K i [i]
錫四開 iek ek P i [i]
T,l i [i]
S i [i]
K i [i]

梗攝(合口) Geng She (Hekou)

Rime Middle Chinese C_ Mandarin
Beijing
Yue
Canton
Minnan
Taiwan
Hakka
Moiyen
Wu
Suzhou
Japanese Korean
Karlgren Baxter Go-On Kan-On
庚二合 wɒng wæng K uang [uɑŋ]
but eng [ɤŋ] (橫)
耕二合 wɛng wɛng K ung [ʊŋ]
庚三合 i̯wɒng jwæng K iong [yʊŋ]
and rong [ɻʊŋ] < y_1 (榮)
but ing [iɪŋ] (憬瑩)
清三合 i̯wäng jwieng s ing [iɪŋ]
K ing [iɪŋ]
but iong [yʊŋ] (瓊)
青四合 iweng weng K iong [yʊŋ]
but ing [iɪŋ] (熒螢滎)
陌二合 wɒk wæk nr uo [uo]
K uo [uo]
麥二合 wɛk wɛk K uo [uo]
but ua [uɑ] (劃)
陌三合 i̯wɒk jwæk ʔ huo [xuo] (擭)
昔三合 i̯wäk jwiek y yi [ji] (役疫)
錫四合 iwek wek K ü [y]


江攝 Jiang She

Rime Middle Chinese C_ Mandarin
Beijing
Yue
Canton
Minnan
Taiwan
Hakka
Moiyen
Wu
Suzhou
Japanese Korean
Karlgren Baxter Go-On Kan-On
江二開 ång æwng P ang [ɑŋ] ong [ɔːŋ] ou [oː] au [oː] 앙 [aŋ]
TR uang [wɑŋ] oeng [œːŋ] ou [oː] au [oː] 앙 [aŋ]
SR uang [wɑŋ] oeng [œːŋ] ou [oː] au [oː] 앙 [aŋ]
K iang [jɑŋ]

but ang [ɑŋ] (扛缸港)

ong [ɔːŋ] ou [oː] au [oː] 앙 [aŋ]
覺二開 åk æwk P LIT

o [uo]
but u [u] (朴)
COL
ao [ɑu] (剝雹) or iao [iɑu] (朴)

ok [ɔːk] oku [oku] aku [aku] 악 [ak]
TR LIT

uo [uo]

oek [œːk] (涿啄琢卓桌)

or ok [ɔːk] (擢濯)
or uk [ʊk] (濁鐲)

aku [aku] aku [aku] 악 [ak]
SR LIT

uo [uo]

ok [ɔːk] (朔欶)

or uk [ʊk] (捉)

aku [aku] aku [aku] 악 [ak]
K LIT

üe [yɛ]
but iao [jɑu] (殼)
uo [uo] / ʔ_
COL
iao [jɑu] (角)
and e [ɤ] (殼)

ok [ɔːk]

ak [ɐk] /ʔ_

aku [aku] aku [aku] 악 [ak]

通攝(舒聲) Tong She (Nasal Coda)

Rime Middle Chinese C_ Mandarin
Beijing
Yue
Canton
Minnan
Taiwan
Hakka
Moiyen
Wu
Suzhou
Japanese Korean
Karlgren Baxter Go-On Kan-On
東一開 ung uwng P eng [ɤŋ] ung [ʊŋ] u [u]

some uu [uː]

ou [oː] 옹 [oŋ]
T,l ong [ʊŋ] ung [ʊŋ] u [u]

some uu [uː]

ou [oː] 옹 [oŋ]
S ong [ʊŋ] ung [ʊŋ] u [u]

some uu [uː]

ou [oː] 옹 [oŋ]
K ong [ʊŋ]

weng [ʋɤŋ] /ʔ_

ung [ʊŋ]

but jung [jʊŋ] (翁)

u [u]

some uu [uː]

ou [oː] 옹 [oŋ]
冬一開 uong owng T ong [ʊŋ] ung [ʊŋ] o [o]

some ou [oː]

ou [oː] 옹 [oŋ]
S ong [ʊŋ] ung [ʊŋ] o [o]

some ou [oː]

ou [oː] 옹 [oŋ]
k ong [ʊŋ] ung [ʊŋ] ou [oː] 옹 [oŋ]
東三開 i̯ung juwng P eng [ɤŋ] /P_ ung [ʊŋ]

jung [jʊŋ] /y_

u [u], uu [uː] ou [oː] 웅 [uŋ]
l ong [ʊŋ] ung [ʊŋ] u [u], uu [uː] yuu [juː] 웅 [uŋ]
TR ong [ʊŋ] ung [ʊŋ] yuu [juː], yu [ju] yuu [juː] 웅 [uŋ]
dzr ong [ʊŋ] ung [ʊŋ] yuu [juː], yu [ju] yuu [juː] 웅 [uŋ]
SY ong [ʊŋ] ung [ʊŋ] yuu [juː], yu [ju] yuu [juː] 웅 [uŋ]
S ong [ʊŋ] ung [ʊŋ] yuu [juː], yu [ju] yuu [juː] 웅 [uŋ]
K ong [ʊŋ]

iong [yʊŋ] /g,hj_ (窮雄熊)
rong [ɻʊŋ] < y_1 (融)

ung [ʊŋ]

jung [jʊŋ] /y_

yuu [juː], yu [ju]

(incl. y_ )

yuu [juː] 웅 [uŋ]
鍾三開 i̯wong jowng P eng [ɤŋ] /P_ ung [ʊŋ]

jung [jʊŋ] /ʔ,y_

u [u], uu [uː] ou [oː]/P_ 옹 [oŋ]
l ong [ʊŋ] ung [ʊŋ] yuu [juː], yu [ju] you [joː] 옹 [oŋ]
TR ong [ʊŋ] ung [ʊŋ] yuu [juː], yu [ju] you [joː] 옹 [oŋ]
SY ong [ʊŋ] ung [ʊŋ] yuu [juː], yu [ju] you [joː] 옹 [oŋ]
S ong [ʊŋ] ung [ʊŋ] yuu [juː], yu [ju] you [joː] 옹 [oŋ]
K ong [ʊŋ]

iong [yʊŋ] /x,ʔ,y_
rong [ɻʊŋ] < y_1 (容)

ung [ʊŋ]

jung [jʊŋ] /ʔ,y_

u [u], uu [uː] you [joː] 옹 [oŋ]

용 [joŋ] /y_
융 [juŋ] /x_

通攝(入聲) Tong She (Plosive Coda)

Rime Middle Chinese C_ Mandarin
Beijing
Yue
Canton
Minnan
Taiwan
Hakka
Moiyen
Wu
Suzhou
Japanese Korean
Karlgren Baxter Go-On Kan-On
屋一開 uk uwk P u [u] uk [ʊk] oku [oku] oku [oku] 옥 [ok]
T,l u [u] uk [ʊk] oku [oku] oku [oku] 옥 [ok]
S u [u] uk [ʊk] oku [oku] oku [oku] 옥 [ok]
K u [u] uk [ʊk] oku [oku] oku [oku] 옥 [ok]
沃一開 uok owk P u [u] uk [ʊk] oku [oku] oku [oku] 옥 [ok]
T,l u [u] uk [ʊk] oku [oku] oku [oku] 옥 [ok]
S u [u] uk [ʊk] oku [oku] oku [oku] 옥 [ok]
K u [u]

but uo [uo] (沃)

uk [ʊk]

but juk [jʊk] (沃)

oku [oku] oku [oku] 옥 [ok]
屋三開 i̯uk juwk P u [u] uk [ʊk] uku [uku]
oku [oku] /m_
uku [uku]
oku [oku] /m_
옥 [ok]
l LIT
u [u]

COL
iou [jou] (六)

uk [ʊk] oku [oku] iku [iku] 육 [juk]
TR LIT
u [u]

COL
iou [jou] (軸)

uk [ʊk] iku [iku] iku [iku] 욱 [uk]
SR u [u]

but uo [uo] (縮)

uk [ʊk] uku [uku] yuku [juku] 욱 [uk]
SY LIT
u [u]

COL
iou [jou] (粥熟肉)

uk [ʊk] uku [uku]
iku [iku] /ny_
yuku [juku]
iku [iku] /ny_
욱 [uk]
S LIT
u [u]

COL
iou [jou] (宿)

uk [ʊk] uku [uku] yuku [juku] 욱 [uk]
K ü [y] uk [ʊk] iku [iku] iku [iku] 욱 [uk]

육 [juk] /y_

燭三開 i̯wok jowk P u [u] uk [ʊk] oku [oku] yoku [joku] 옥 [ok]
l u [u]

but ü [y] (綠)

uk [ʊk] oku [oku] yoku [joku] 옥 [ok]
TR u [u] uk [ʊk] oku [oku] yoku [joku] 옥 [ok]
SY u [u] uk [ʊk] oku [oku] yoku [joku] 옥 [ok]

욕 [jok] /ny_

S u [u]

but ü [y] (續)

uk [ʊk] oku [oku] yoku [joku] 옥 [ok]
K ü [y] uk [ʊk]

juk [jʊk] < ŋ_

oku [oku]

yoku [joku] < y_

yoku [joku] 욱 [uk]

욕 [jok] /y_

Tones

Middle Chinese is traditionally described as having four tones. However, the Ru tone (入聲) is in complementary distribution with each of the other three tones. If MC were a modern language, a modern linguist might analyze it as an allophone of one of the other tones:

Open syllable Closed syllable with nasal coda Closed syllable with plosive coda
Ping/level tone (平聲) Yes Yes No
Shang/rising tone (上聲) Yes Yes No
Qu/departing tone (去聲) Yes Yes No
Ru/entering tone (入聲) No No Yes

In MC, Ping was much more common than each of the other three tones.

Karlgren uses : and - while Baxter uses X and H for the Shang and Qu tones. (Ping is left unmarked and Ru is of course self-evident.)

Near the end of, or after, MC, the tones split into high and low varieties based on the onset of the syllable. Syllables with voiceless onsets became high, while syllables with voiced onsets became low. In most Sinitic languages, the voice distinction was then lost, and the high/low distinction became phonemic for some or all tones. Whenever this happened, the high varieties come to be called called "Yin" (Yin Ping, Yin Shang, Yin Qu, Yin Ru) while the low varieties are called "Yang" (Yang Ping, Yang Shang, Yang Qu, Yang Ru). Here is an idealized illustration of how the system would work for a given tone (aspiration is ignored in this illustration for simplicity):

Before After
pan (P) pan (YinP)
man (P) man (YangP)
ban (P) pan (YangP)

The vast majority of languages and dialects today have separate Yin Ping and Yang Ping tones. Only some southern languages and dialects have separate Yin Qu and Yang Qu tones. It is even rarer to have separate Yin Shang and Yang Shang tones; instead, there is a widespread tendency to move what would be Yang Shang syllables, beginning with obstruent onsets, into the Qu tone. Taking the dialect of Changsha as an example:

MC Changsha
pan (S) pan (S)
man (S) man (S)
ban (S) pan (YangQ)
pan (Q) pan (YinQ)
man (Q) man (YangQ)
ban (Q) pan (YangQ)

The Ru tone deserves special mention, because with a few exceptions (e.g. Changsha, Wenzhou), it lived and died with the plosive codas that it was associated with. In southern languages that maintain plosive codas, the Ru tone survives (though, as in MC, the Ru tone, or Ru tones where the tone has split, is/are usually associated exclusively with plosive codas, and can therefore be analyzed as an allophone or allophones of other tones.) On the other hand, plosive codas have dropped away completely in most dialects of Mandarin, and syllables with Ru tone were reassigned to other tones.

Reconstructions are omitted from the following since no one seems to be attempting it (??).

  • P = MC unvoiced obstruent onset
  • M = MC sonorant onset
  • B = MC voiced obstruent onset
Tone Mandarin Jin
Taiyuan
Yue
Canton
Minnan Mindong
Fuzhou
Hakka
Moiyen
Gan
Nanchang
Wu Xiang
Changsha
Vietnamese
Beijing Jinan Xi'an Wuhan Chengdu Hefei Yangzhou Amoy Teochew Suzhou Shanghai Wenzhou

Ping
P 55 213 21 55 44 212 21 11 55 44 33 55 44 42 44 52 44 33 ngang
M 35 42 24 213 31 55 34 21 24 55 53 11 24 224 YangQ 31 13
B huyền

Shang
P 214 55 53 42 53 24 42 53 35 53 52 33 31 213 52 YinQ 45 41 hỏi
M 23 COLYangQ
LITYinS
COLYangS
LITYinS
COLYangQ
LITYinS
YinP or YinS YangQ YangQ 34 ngã
B 51 21 55 35 13 53 55 45 COLYangS
LITYangQ
YangQ 35 YangQ COLYinP
LITQ
YangQ YangQ nặng

Qu
P 33 21 213 213 52 55 412 34 42 45 sắc
M 22 22 11 242 21 231 14 22 21 nặng
B

Ru
P Random YinP YinP YangP YangP 4 4 2 33(long)
5(short)
32 11 24 1 5 4 44 323 24 sắc
M Q Q 22 4 4 5 5 2 23 24 212 nặng
B YangP YangP YangP 54

Resources

Middle Chinese

Modern Chinese

Sino-Xenic

Other correspondence lists

Footnotes

  1. Bernhard Karlgren, also known as 高本漢.
  2. William Baxter.
  3. Values suggested by Pan Wuyun (潘悟雲).
  4. The hanja and prescriptive han'gŭl are spellings from the Dongguk Jeongun (東國正韻 동국정운).