Calcoradish

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This page is edited by a Japanese-native-speaker. Please forgive me for that there may be incorrect English use.

Calcoradish is a language which is spoken in Calcoradenadúr as its official language. This language is called "Calcoradetár[kalkoradeta:r]" in Calcoradish.

Phonology

Consonants

Calcoradish has about twenty consonants.

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Velar Glottal
Stop p [p] / b [b] t [t] / d [d] c [k] / g [g]
Affricative ţ [ts]
Nasal m [m] n [n]
Fricative f [f] / v [v] þ [θ] / ð [ð] s [s] / z [z] ç [x] / ğ [ɣ] h [h]
Approximant r [r]
Lateral l [l]

In latin transcription, "c" is always pronounced [k], and "k" is never used. In loanword or foreign name, j[j], w[w], š[ʃ], ž[ʒ], č[tʃ] may be used.

Vowel

Calcoradish has nine vowels. The vowel length is distinctive. But /ɔ/ always appear as a long vowel. And the distinction between the long vowel /i:/ and /e:/ is not clear in many dialect.

Long vowels are spelled with acute accent(For example, the spell "á" is pronounced [a:]).

Short vowel
Front Central Back
Unrounded Rounded
Close i [i] y [y] u [u]
Close-mid e [e] o [o]
Open-mid æ [ε] ø [œ]
Open a [a]
Long vowel
Front Central Back
Unrounded Rounded
Close ( í [i:] ) ý [y:] ú [u:]
Close-mid é [e:] ó [o:]
Open-mid ǽ [ε:] ǿ [œ:] â [ɔ:]
Open á [a:]


Some combination of two vowels are pronounced as diphthong.

  • ei, ai, æi [εi]
  • øi [œi]
  • yi [ɥi]
  • oi [ɔi]
  • ui [ui]
  • ae [aε]
  • oe [ɔε]
  • ue [uε]
  • æu, eu [εu]
  • øu [œu]


Writing system

Calcoradish is written in segmental script called Ambeladian(Its old name was Ádian). In Calcoradish, 29 letters are used.

Grammar

Nouns

Noun classes(Grammatical gender)

Any nouns in Calcoradish are classified into two noun classes. There are "animal noun" and "non-animal noun" in Calcoradish. These distinction is needed when you use article, or personal pronoun. Nouns that indicates human, are classified into "animal noun".

Cases

Calcoradish noun has five cases, nominative, accusative, propositional-genitive, postpositional-genitive, and dative.

Nominative will be the subject in the sentence. Accusative, postpositional-genitive, and dative will be the object in the sentence. You must remember which case will be used as object to the verb. For example, the verb "odǽl"(to eat) needs accusative object. The verb "veþnǿl"(to love) needs postpositional-genitive object.

Articles

In Calcoradish, there is no distinction between definite articles and indefinite articles.

  • na(+non-animal noun that bigins with consonants)
  • ne(+non-animal noun that bigins with vowel)
  • ne(+animal noun)

Verbs

Form of verbs

Infinitives of verb have ending "-ǽl", "-ǿl" or "-úl". A verb which ends with -ǽl is called "Class I verb". A verb which ends with -ǿl is called "Class II verb". A verb which ends with -úl is called "Class III verb".

Infinitive ending Examples
Class I -ǽl cadǽl (to open), stǽl (to write)
Class II -ǿl grǿl (to obtain), dragǿl (to bring)
Class III -úl gardúl (to walk), corúl (to read)

Verbs are conjugated to indicate tense, aspect, and mood. But there is no conjugation for grammatical person(like most of Indo-European languages).

Tenses and Aspects

There are two tenses, past tense and non-past tense(present tense). And there are three aspects, perfective and non-perfective.

They are indicated by conjugation of verb.

Present(non-past) tense
Perfective Non-perfective
Class I -æs -æi
Class II -øis -ui
Class III -yis -ui

When the verb is past tense, at first, you make "past stem" by changing verb's ending.

Infinitive Past Stem I Past Stem II
Class I -ǽl -að- -eð-
Class II -ǿl -oð- -oð-
Class III -úl -uð- -oð-

After making past stem, you will add suffix that indicates aspects.

past tense
Perfective Non-perfective
Class I I II + -æi
Class II I II + -ui
Class III I II + -ui

In this table, "I" represents "past stem I", and "II" represents "past stem II".

Adjectives

Attributive adjectives are put after nouns. The word order is [Noun + Adjective].

  • Example: vorg adyl (means “fast car”. “vorg”=”car”(noun), “adyl”=”fast”(adjective))

But when the combination of noun and adjective is treated as a proper noun, adjectives precede nouns and the word order is [Adjective + Noun].

Word Examples

Noun

Calcoradish English Japanese
bard room heya(部屋)
brǿge silver gin(銀)
caldo gold kin(金)
cegor train ressha(列車)
çǿpe bread pan(パン)
colf foot ashi(足)
crǿge bridge hashi(橋)
dǽr mountain yama(山)
dæime tree ki(木)
druig table, desk tēburu(テーブル), tsukue(机)
dýf book hon(本)
døn hill oka(丘)
fǽbe cloud kumo(雲)
fezob lake mizuumi(湖)
fýs milk gyūnyū(牛乳)
gald castle shiro(城)
geþ house ie(家)
glém forest mori(森)
helme island shima(島)
lǽnoð sea umi(海)
lúd way, road michi(道), dōro(道路)
nór human, person hito(人)
pamor window mado(窓)
sáde hand te(手)
speğ door doa(ドア), tobira(扉)
tár language kotoba(言葉), gengo(言語)
veð water mizu(水)
vorg car kuruma(車), jidōsha(自動車)
vǿm river kawa(川)

Numerals

Number Cardinal number
1 nén
2 vræi
3 sui
4 carde
5 gante
6 oçor
7 telþ
8 nolþ
9 feçen
10 dǽl

External link

[1](Written in Japanese. under construction)