Athonite Grammar II

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Verbs - Ρίματα

Verb Classes - Η Ταξις από το Ρίματα

  • 043. The Athonite verb has been influenced by Turkish to the extent that the many tenses present in Classical and Demotic Greek have been reduced to six.
  • 044. The six tenses are the present, the past, and the future, and their perfect counterparts.
  • 045. Athonite verbs are divided into two classes, those in which the personal ending is not accented (I) and those in which the personal ending is accented (II).
  • 046. The endings on the verbs are changed to denote person and number.

The Auxiliary Verbs - Το Βοιθιτίκ Ρίματα

  • 047. The auxiliary verbs are two of the few remaining irregular verbs.
εχω, I have
Present Past Future
1st singular εχω, I have ειχα, I had θα εχω, I shall have
2nd singular εχεις, you have ειχες, you had θα εχις, you will have
3rd singular εχι, he, she, it has ειχε, he, she, it had θα εχι, he, she, it will have
1st plural έχομε, we have είχαμε, we hadεί θα έχομε, we shall have
2nd plural έχετε, you have είχaτε, you had, θα έχετε, you will have
3rd plural εχoυν, they have ειχαν, they had θα εχoυν, they will have
ειμe, I am
Present Past Future
1st singular ειμε, I am, ειμουν, I was θα ειμε, I shαll be
2nd singular ειςε, you are ειςουν, you were θα ειςε, you will be
3rd singular εινε, he, she, it is ειταν, he, she, it wαs θα εινε, he, she, it will be
1st plural έμαςτε, wε are είμαςταν, wε were θα είμαςτε, we shall be
2nd plural ειςτε, you arε είςαςτε, you were θα ειςτε, you will be
3rd plural εινε, they are ειταν, they were θα εινε, they will be

The Active Voice - Η Ενέργ Φων

  • 048. The active voice denotes that the agent is doing the action of the verb.
The Present Tense - Ο Ενεςτώτ Χρον
Class I
Singular Plural
1st singular βλεπω, I see βλέπouμε, we see
2nd singular βλεπεις, you see βλέπετε, you see
3rd singular βλεπει, he, she, it sees βλεπουν, they see
Class II
Singular Plural
1st singular αγαπώ, I love αγαπάμε, we love
2nd singular αγαπάς, you love αγαπάτε, you love
3rd singular αγαπά, he, she, it loves αγαπάν, they love
The Past Tense - Ο Παρατατίκ Χρον
  • 049. The past tense is formed using endings different from the present and by removing the accent to the third syllable from the end.
  • 050. When there is no third syllable, the augment ε- is added.
Class I
Singular Plural
1st sg. έβλεπςα, I saw, was seeing βλέπςαμε, we saw, were seeing
2nd singular έβλεπςες, you saw, were seeing βλέπςατε, you saw, were seeing
3rd singular έβλεπςε, he, she, it saw, was seeing έβλεπςαν, they saw, were seeing
Class II
Singular Plural
1st singular άγαpςα, I loved, was loving αγάpςαμε, we loved, were loving
2nd singular άγαpςeς, you loved, were loving αγάpςατε, you loved, were loving
3rd singular άγαpςε, he, she, it loved, was loving άγαpςαν, they loved, were loving
The Future Tense - Ο Μελοντίκ Χρον

051. The future tense is formed by putting the particle θα before the present tense.

Class I
Singular Plural
1st singular θa βλεπω, I shall see θa βλέπouμε, we shall see
2nd singular θa βλεπεις, you will see θa βλέπετε, you will see
3rd singular θa βλεπει, he, she, it will see θa βλεπουν, they will see
Class II
Singular Plural
1st singular θ' αγαπώ, I love θ' αγαπάμε, we love
2nd singular θ' αγαπάς, you love θ' αγαπάτε, you love
3rd singular θ' αγαπά, he, she, it loves θ' αγαπάν, they love
The Present Perfect Tense - Ο Παρακείμεν Χρον
  • 052. The perfect tenses are not used as frequently in Athonite as they are in English, the past tense usually being used.
  • 053. The present perfect tense is formed by the present tense of the auxiliary verb εχω, I have, and the passive participle.
  • 054. The present perfect tense is used to denote an event of the past which has a bearing on the present.
Singular Plural
1st singular εχω βλέπομεν, I have seen έχoυμe βλέπομεν, we have seen
2nd singular εχεις βλέπομεν, you have seen έχετε βλέπομεν, you have seen
3rd singular εχει βλέπομεν, he, she, it has seen εχουν βλέπομεν, they have seen
The Past Perfect Tense - Ο Υπερςυντελικ Χρον
  • 055. The past perfect tense is more frequent than the present perfect. It is used to denote an event of the past which occurred before another event of the past.
  • 056. The past perfect tense is formed by the past tense of the auχiliary verb εχω and the passive participle.
Singular Plural
1st singular ειχα βλέπομεν, I had seen ειχαμε βλέπομεν, we had seen
2nd singular ειχεs βλέπομεν, you had seen ειχατε βλέπομεν, you had seen
3rd singular ειχε βλέπομεν, he, she, it had seen ειχαν βλέπομεν, they had seen
The Future Perfect Tense - Ο ςυντελεςμέν Μελοντ Χρον
  • 057. The future perfect tense is used to denote an event in the future which will have occurred before another event in the future.
  • 058. The future perfect tense is formed by the future tense of the auχiliary verb εχo and the passive participle.
Singular Plural
1st singular θa εχω βλέπομεν, I shall have seen θa έχoυμε βλέπομεν, we shall have seen
2nd singular θa εχειs βλέπομεν, you will have seen θa εχετε βλέπομεν, you will have seen
3rd singular θa εχει βλέπομεν, he, she, it will have seen θa εχoυν βλέπομεν, they will have seen

The Progressive Tenses

  • 059. The active participle is used with the appropriate tense of ειμε, I am, to form progressive tenses.
present past future present perfect past perfect future perfect
ειμε βλεποντ
I am seeing, etc.
ειμουν βλεποντ
I was seeing, etc.
θα ειμε βλεποντ
I will be seeing, etc.
εχω ειμεν βλεποντ
I have been seeing, etc.
ειχα ειμεν βλεποντ
I had been seeing, etc.
θα εχω ειμεν βλεποντ
I will have been seeing, etc.

The Passive Voice - ι παθιτίκ φων

  • 060. The passive voice denotes that the agent is being acted upon.
  • The many forms of the passive in Modern Greek have been abandoned in favor of periphrastic expressions using the verb ειμε, 'I am' and the passive participle.
The Present Tense - ο Ενεςτώτ Χρον
Singular Plural
1st ειμε βλέπoμεν, I am seen είμαςτε βλέπoμεν, we are seen
2nd ειςε βλέπoμεν, you are seen ειςτε βλέπoμεν, you are seen
3rd εινε βλέπoμεν, he, she, it is seen εινε βλέπoμεν, they are seen
The Past Tense - Ο Παρελθοντίκ Χρον
Singular Plural
1st ειμουν βλέπoμεν, I was seen είμαςτε βλέπoμεν, we were seen
2nd ειςουν βλέπoμεν, you were seen είςαςτε βλέπoμεν, you were seen
3rd ειταν βλέπoμεν, he, she, it was seen ειταν βλέπoμεν, they were seen
The Future Tense - Ο Μελοντίκ Χρον
Singular Plural
1st θa ειμε βλέπoμεν, I shall be seen θa είμαςτε βλέπoμεν, we shall be seen
2nd θa ειςε βλέπoμεν, you will be seen θa ειςτε βλέπoμεν, you will be seen
3rd θa εινε βλέπoμεν, he, she, it will be seen θa εινε βλέπoμεν, they will be seen
The Perfect Tenses- Ο Παρακείμεν Χρον
  • 061. The perfect tenses are formed by using the appropriate tense of εχω with the passive participle of ειμε.
εχω ειμεν βλέπoμεν
I have been seen, etc.
past ειχα ειμεν βλέπoμεν
I had been seen, etc.
future θα εχω ειμεν βλέπoμεν
I shall have been seen, etc.

The Indefinite Form - Η Αοριςτ Μορφ

  • 062. The indefinite form corresponds closely to what is called the infinitive in other languages.
  • 063. The indefinite form is found only in the present tense.
  • 064. Class I verbs form the indefinite by adding -ςω to the present form minus the .
Singular Plural
1st singular βλεπςω, I see βλέπςoυμε, we see
2nd singular βλεπςεις, you see βλέπςετε, you see
3rd singular βλεπςει, he, she, it sees βλεπςου, they see
  • 065. Class II verbs form the indefinite by adding -ιςω to the present form minus the .
Singular Plural
1st singular αγάπιςω , I love αγαπίςαμε, we love
2nd singular αγάπιςας, you love αγαπίςατε, you love
3rd singular αγάπιςα, he, she, it love αγάπιςαν, they love
  • 066. There are a few verbs that form the indefinite irregularly:
    • λεγω, say > πω
    • δινω, give > δoςω
    • πιγενω, go > παω.
  • 067. The indefinite form is preceded by να and follows the main verb.
θελo να βλεπςω, I want to see.
θελo να αγάπιςα, I want to love.

The Use of να - Ι Χρις του να

  • 068. Intention, hope, desire and the like are eχpressed by using the particle να.
  • 069. With the present tense, να eχpresses a continuous intention, etc.
θελω να δουλευω εξι oρι ι ιμέρ, I want to be working six hours a day.
άρχιςε να τραγυδά, He started singing.
  • 070. With the past tense, να eχpresses a past intention, etc. This construction always follows a past tense.
Χτες το βραδυ θελςα να πιγενα ςτο θέατ αλά δεν μπóρεςα, Last night I wanted to go to the theater, but I did not manage to.
  • 071. With the indefinite να expresses a non-continuous future intention, etc.
ελπιτζω να φταςω ςτιν Aθíν τρις μ.μ., I hope to arrive at Athens at 3 p.m.
Μπορω να παρω ενα τςιγάρ, May I take a cigarette?
  • 072. Certain verbs commonly used only in the third person are also followed by να.
πρεπει, it is necessary; αξιζει, it is worthwhile, etc.
Πρεπει να πιγενω τορα, I must be going now.

Negation

  • 073. Negation is expressed by putting the negative particle δεν in front of the verb.
το πρoíν ειν' ετιμ, Breakfast is ready.
το πρoíν δeν ειν' ετιμ, Breakfast is not ready.
το μπαρ δεν εινε γεμάτ, The bar is not full.
δεν πιγενω, I'm not going.

The Imperative Mood - ι προςτακτίκ εγκλις

  • 074. The formation of the imperative is greatly simplified in Athonite. There are only two forms.
  • 075. The imperative of the simple present expresses duration or repetition of the action.
  • 076. To form the continuous imperative, for the singular and -(ε)τε for the plural replace the of the present.
Singular Plural
βλεπε, keep on seeing βλεπ(ε)τε, keep on seeing
αγαπα, keep on loving αγαπατε, keep on loving
  • 077. The imperative of the simple past shows non-continuation which means either that the action is not ongoing or that the speaker is not interested in its duration.
  • 078. To form the simple past imperative, for the singular and -(ε)τε for the plural replace the of the indefinite.
Singular Plural
βλεπςε, see βλέπςετε, see
αγάπιςε, love αγαπιςτε, love
  • 079. A negative command is eχpressed by μι and the indefinite or present depending on whether the action is fixed or continuous.
Mι τον αγάπιςε, Do not love him.

There Is/Are

  • 080. Athonite has abandoned the conjugated verbs υπαρχεί and υπαρχούν in favor of the Turkish βαρ and the negative γιοκ.
λουλούδ τραπέζου εν βαρ, There is a flower on the table.
λουλούδ τραπέζου εν γιοκ, There is no flower on the table.
  • 081. In reply to a βαρ or γιοκ question, the answer is always βαρ or γιοκ, never "yes" or "no".
τραπέζου εν μίλα βαρ; Are there apples on the table?
βαρ. Yes, there are.
γιοκ. No, there are not.

Deponent Verbs

  • 082. The deponent verbs of Modern Greek have become regular verbs, e.g., έρχομαι, I come, > ερχω

The Use of είνε

  • 083. When an adjective is used predicatively, the copula είνε is not used, e.g., το κυαν ςπιτ, the blue house; but το ςπιτ κυαν, the house is blue.

Questions

  • 084. A question with an interrogative pronoun has the same word order as a regular sentence.
Π' ειςε; Who are you?
πιόν έβλεπςες; Whom did you see?
ςε πιον μίλςατε; To whom were you talking?
  • 085. A yes-no question has the same word order as a regular sentence, but is followed by the interrogative particle μι.
πιγενεις ςτο ςχολί. You are going to school.
πιγενεις ςτο ςχολί μι. Are you going to school?
  • 086. A question with a tag has the same word order as a regular sentence, but is followed by the interrogative particle ντιλ μι.
αυτ εινε βιβλί, ντιλ μι; This is a book, isn't it?
ςυ έγραψας ι επιςτόλ, ντιλ μι; You wrote the letter, didn't you?
ςυ ερχεις αυρι, ντιλ μι; You'll come tomorrow, won't you?

Adverbs - επιρίματα

  • 087. Adverbs are words used to modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs.
  • 088. Some common adverbs:
εδó, here
εκί, there
πιςω, behind
μπρoςτά in front
τωρα, now
υςτερ, after, later
νωρίς, early
αυρι, tomorrow
εχθές, yesterday
πolύ, a lot, very
ιδι, already
ποτέ, never
παλι, again
ιςως, perhaps
παντα, always
ακomι, yet
ετςι, thus
  • 089. As in Turkish adjectives may be used as adverbs without any change in form.
το ιςυχ πεδ , the quiet child.
τρεχε ιςυχ. Run quietly.
  • 090.The comparative and superlative of adverbs are formed in the same way as with adjectives.
ευκολ, easy; ευκολ, easily
πιο ευκολ, easier, easiest; πιο ευκολ, more/most easily


Prepositions

  • ανά
1. Distributive: in the midst of; each, apiece (with numbers)
2. Spatial (in composition with verbs): up, motion upwards
  • αντί
1. Substitution: instead of, in place of
2. Exchange/Equivalence: for, as, in the place of, in exchange for, in return for, for the sake of, at the price of, for, instead of
3. Cause: because of
4. Position: over against, opposite, compared with
5. Time: at the same time as
  • από,
1. Position: from, ξεκίνηςε από το ςπίτι, started from home.
2. Source, Origin: from, είμαι από την Ελλάδα, I am from Greece.
3. Time: from, at, by, since, θα είμαι εδώ από νωρίς ,I'll be early (literally, I will be here from early)
4. Cause: by, with, from, παραςύρθηκε από την οργή, he was carried away by anger
5. Measurement: from, από 25 ως 28 βαθμούς, from 25 to 28 degrees
6. State: from, έγινε από φιλόλογος προγραμματιςτής, he changed from philologist into programmer
7. Arithmetic: out of, from, προςελήφθηςαν οι τρεις από τους πέντε υποψηφίους, three out of five applicants were taken on; 10 από 35 κάνει 25, 10 from 35 gives 25
  • δια
1. Agency: by, through
2. Means: through
3. Spatial: through
4. Temporal: through(out), during
5. Cause: because of, on account of, for the sake of
  • ειν
1. Spatial:into, toward, in
2. Temporal: for, throughout
3. Purpose: for, in order to, to
4. Result: so that, with the result that
5. Reference/Respect: with respect to, with reference to
6. Advantage: for
7. Disadvantage: against
  • εκ
1. Source: out of, from
2. Separation: away from, from
3. Temporal: from, from [this point]...on
4.Cause: because of
5. Partitive (i.e., substituting for a partitive gen.): of
6. Means: by, from
  • εν
1. Spatial/Sphere:in (and various other translations)
2. Temporal: in, within, when, while, during
3. Association (often close personal relationship): with
4. Cause: because of
5. Instrumental: by, with
6. Reference/Respect: with respect to/with reference to
7. Manner: with
8. Thing Possessed: with (in the sense of which possesses)
9. Standard (=Dative of Rule): according to the standard of
10.As an equivalent for eis (with verbs of notion)
  • επι
1. Spatial: on, upon, at near
2. Temporal: in the time of, during
3. Cause: on the basis of
4. Spatial: on, upon, against, at, near
5. Temporal: at, at the time of, during
6. Spatial: on, upon, to, up to, against
7. Temporal: for, over a period of
  • κατα
1. Spatial: down from, throughout
2. Opposition: against
3. Source: from
4. Standard: in accordance with, corresponding to
5. Spatial: along, through (extension); toward, up to (direction)
6. Temporal: at, during
7. Distributive: indicating the division of a greater whole into individual parts
8. Purpose: for the purpose of
9. Reference/Respect: with respect to, with reference to
  • μετα
1. Association/Accompaniment: with, in company with
2. Spatial: with, among
3. Manner (Attendant Circumstance): with
4. Temporal: after, behind
5. Spatial (rare): after, behind
  • παρα
1. in general, from (the side of) (with a personal object)
2. Source/Spatial: from
3. Agency: from, by
4. Spatial: near, beside
5. Sphere: in the sight of, before (someone)
6. Association: with (someone/something)
6. Virtually equivalent to simple dative
8. Spatial: by, alongside of, near, on
9. Comparison: in comparison to, more than
10. Opposition: against, contrary to
  • περι
1. Reference: concerning
2. Advantange/Representation: on behalf of, for (= uper)
3. Spatial: around, near
4. Temporal: about, near
5. Reference/Respect: with regard/reference to
6. Spatial: before, in front of, at
7. Temporal: before
8. Rank/Priority: before
  • προς
1. Purpose: for, for the purpose of
2. Spatial: toward
3. Temporal: toward, for (duration)
4. Result: so that, with the result that
5. Opposition: against
6. Association: with, in company with (with stative verbs)
  • ςυν
1. Expresses accompaniment/association: with, in association (company) with
  • υπερ
1. Representation/Advantage: on behalf of, for the sake of
2. Reference/Respect: concerning, with reference to (= peri)
3. Substitution: in the place of, instead of (= anti)
4. Spatial: over, above
5. Comparison: more than, beyond
  • υπο
1. (Ultimate) Agency: by
2. Intermediate Agency (with active verbs): through
3. Means: by (rare)
4. Spatial: under, below
5. Subordination: under (the rule of)