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Apfiso is the descendant of Itapesituc by way of Atpisto and then Appisto.


  • Phonemes:
    • Vowels:
    • Consonants:
      • Stops: p b t d k g
      • Affricates: pf) bv) ts) dz) tʃ) dʒ) tsʷ) dzʷ) tʃʷ) dʒʷ) kx) gG)
      • Fricatives: s z ʃ x
      • Nasals: m n
      • Approximants: r l
  • Constraints:
    • Nuclei: any vowel
    • Syllable Initial Consonants: /p b t d k g s x m n r l/ or nothing
    • Syllable Final Consonants: any consonant except /m n l/, included clusters /pt kt st xk/, /r/ with any stop or /s x/, or nothing
    • Intersyllabic Cluster: any final consonant or cluster (or nothing) and then any initial consonant (or nothing), except for geminate stops.
  • Allophony:
    • s x :> ʃ prior to i




Between Appisto and Apfiso the following sound changes occurred:

Beginning with mass affrication:

  • ps bs ts ds ks gs rs :> pf) bv) ts) dz) tsˠ) dzˠ) dzˠ)
  • px bx tx dx kx gx rx  :> pf) bv) tʃ) dʒ) tʃˠ) dʒˠ) dʒˠ)
  • pr br tr dr kr gr :> pf) bv) tʃ) dʒ) tʃˠ) dʒˠ)
  • pp bb tt dd kk gg :> pf) bv) ts) dz) kx) gG)

In addition to some other simplifications as well:

  • sx xs :> ʃ ʃ
  • si xi :> ʃi ʃi
  • sr xr :> st xk
  • VsCV :> Vs:V
  • VsV Vs:V :> VzV VsV
  • tsˠ) tʃˠ) dzˠ) dʒˠ) :> tsʷ) tʃʷ) dzʷ) dʒʷ)