Aoma

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Not to be confused with Ivbiosakon also called Aoma.

Aoma (Auma or Bowombor Speaking of Ours) is an a priori language created for the fantasy world Grundet by juhhmi.

Dictionary

See the dictionary for a sortable list of translated words.

History

Lore: Aoma and Rinap form the main languages of South-West-Herookuan family deriving from the ancestral Rinapri. Aoma is the official spoken and governmental language of Eastern Sceptre with around 15 million speakers, but it has little to do with the languages of Western Sceptre. The word Aoma seems to come from the name of eastern area with coast temples, Kaomaago (Kaa Omaike Hakoror, At the Coast of Temples). The language presented here has been stitched together from various very different dialects to unify peoples of the empire so no "true Aoma" has ever existed.

Actual: After Rinap I wanted something with fewer k-letters and difficult diphthongs, and I had already set my old script originally for Finnish as the script of this future language. This gave birth to a project randomly named Aoma - the story came later.

Problems: According to my lore history, Aoma and Rinap must have begun their separation at least 3500 years ago. Since I wasn't thorough enough to create Rinapri, there is some inconsistency between the languages, especially with phonetic change and vocabulary - I was unable to achieve a realistic linguistic relationship (very similar to Romance languages deriving from Latin and slightly to the history of Finnish and Sami languages), and hence invented the fact that both languages were mere compilations of different dialects (inspired by the birth of standard Finnish here as well). And Rinapri would probably never have been truly consistent as a spoken language as it was spread to a vast region.

Basic Grammar

Aoma is a Verb-Subject-Object, agglutinative-fusional language with strong head-initial tendencies (right-branching). The language has two numbers, three persons, four genders and five (or seven) cases with nominative-accusative alignment. The formal register, with polite forms of second person pronouns, honorifics and anti-honorifics, is very important to the speakers and the society.

Phonology

Consonants

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g ʔ
Fricative f v θ ð z s ʃ ʒ x h
Approximant ɹ j
Trill r
Lateral app. l

In spoken language, consonants (especially nasals) are somewhat liable to external sandhi between word boundaries so that they move towards the pronunciation of following consonant: Tolan kush [to'laŋ‿kʊʃ] (I see that). More formal registers require "clear sounds", which basically means adding stops in between words thus creating a special rhythm.

Vowels

Front Central Back
Close i y u
Near-Close ɪ ʊ
Close-Mid e ø o
Open-mid ɛ œ ʌ ɔ
Near-open æ ɐ
Open a ɑ

See stress for explanations of vowel appearance.

Vowels preceding r [ɹ] may appear as rhotic (especially in the genitive endings), and nasalization may occur in front of nasal consonants.

Consonants, when followed by close-mid to close front vowels, appear as slightly palatalized consonants /ʲ/: kʲeˈkaˑ

Epenthetic vowel /ɐ/ (anaptyxis) is added in between consonant clusters especially in verbs of class IIa.

Classical Aoma distinguishes following diphthongs which have their own graphemes:

  • au /ɐʊ̯/
  • Occurring at the end of words (DAT case) with varying pronunciation:
    • aee /aɛ:/ or /æeˑ/
    • oee /oe:/ or /œɛˑ/
    • uee /wɛ:/ or /ʊeˑ/
    • yee /jɛ:/ or /yɛˑ/

Stress and Pitch

Quite often Aoma places primary stress on the second syllable in words with two or more syllables unless the syllable consists only of weak i. Stressed vowels appear as more open and at front with a higher pitch.

  • Long vowels and the diphthong au indicate that the syllable is stressed: /ˈkʊ:tu/ (tree) vs. /kuˈtʊˑ/ (torso)
    • If multiple long vowels occur, stress returns to the second long syllable.
  • In conjugated verbs, stress is placed on the last syllable.
  • Declined noun genitives have stress on second syllable while adjectives formed from nouns have stress on the following syllable. Noun: /ɪˈwaˑɹɪ/ vs. Adjective: /ɪwɐˈɹiˑ/
  • Since stressed syllables get a slightly higher pitch, it can carry on to the next syllable in long words. The longest words might sometimes get a peculiar up-down pitch-pattern.
  • If many one-syllable words come after each other, the second and the last words are stressed.
  • When two words with two syllables follow each other, the main stress is on the last word's last syllable.

Phonotactics

Every syllable of Aoma requires a vowel, and most common syllables in Aoma are CV followed by CVC and V. C can be a cluster of at most two consonants, and V can be either a single or geminated vowel or a diphthong. There is always a syllable boundary between geminated consonants, contrary to long vowels. Although disyllables are most frequent, words have no limitations concerning the amount of syllables; some of the longest words are created as compounds especially with large numbers.

There aren't very many restrictions, but some forms are just preferred more:

  • Nasals, fricatives and liquids occur at the end of words much more often that plosives (stops)
  • Word-final semivowel /j/ has reduced into vowel /i/ (and /w/ to /u/): omai < *omaj
  • Two different plosives at a syllable boundary tend to be pronounced with only a geminated version of the first consonant: roktare /ɹɔ'k:aˑɹe/

Orthography

Aoma uses a quite phonemic script where graphemes correlate with phonemes. The system is more consistent with consonants since vowels can undergo various changes depending on the neighbouring vowels and consonants.

Consonants

Consonants /k/, /l/, /m/, /n/, /p/, /ɹ/, /r/, /s/ and /t/ all have a geminated version which are mostly found in two-syllable verb infinite forms. The double-consonants have special marks in written Mihkanor so glottal stop is indicated by writing the consonants separately. Notice: pp /p:ʰ/, tt /tθ/.

Romanization of some symbols:

  • š/sh /ʃ/, ng /ŋ/ and ' /ʔ/
  • Notice that in the beginning of words and after glottal stop c- is /kh/ while in the middle -c- is /sk/, and beginning z- is /ʒ/ while inside words -z- is /z/.
  • Syllables di and ti preceding vowels are pronounced as /ð/ and /θ/, respectively. The diacritic placed over t and d has probably been misinterpreted as the accent for i - thus the romanization.
  • One r is pronounced as /ɹ/, r'r /ɹ:/, rr /r/ and rrr /r:/.

Vowels

Similarly to consonants, vowels have geminated forms marked with special graphemes. Syllable boundary (glottal stop) can be indicated by writing short sound graphemes separately.

Possible phonemes for single vowel graphemes: (stressed front vs. unstressed back)

  • i: /i/ /ɪ/
  • y: /y/ /j/
  • u: /u/ /ʊ/
  • e: /e/ /ɛ/
  • ö: /ø/ /œ/
  • ä: /æ/ /ʌ/
  • a: /a/ /ɐ/ /ɑ/
  • o: /o/ /ɔ/

There is a glottal stop grapheme (') used for separating vowels. It is used especially with /i/, /æ/ and /œ/ which are written over preceding graphemes in some of the older writing systems (perhaps deriving from front vowel distinction diacritics over /e/). It should be noted that allophones of i are considered rather weak and may or may not be included in written language, often as mere diacritic grapheme.

Script

See information about the scripts.

Morphology

As an agglutinative language Aoma can have many morphemes per word and its inflections are quite regular.

Pronouns

Personal

1SG 2SG 3SG.F 3SG.M 3SG.N 1PL 2PL 3PL 2SG.POL 2PL.POL
NOM wa(n)a foo zu shy xi boo vot sot Nite Wyte
ACC nas fos zus sysh sish bos vösh sösh Netes Wetes
DAT naee foee zuee shye see boee votei sotei Neteki Weteki
GEN när for zur shyr sor bor votyr sotyr Nityr Wytyr

Waa is often pronounced /va:/ after conjugated first person verbs which end in n.

Prepositional is ACC + e, except that Netyse and Wetyse.

Possessive pronouns are placed after their heads and agree with all noun forms. They are inflected like adjectives ending with i: gehi när (my house), gehesh näris (my houses), gehik närike (SG-ACC), and so on

Reflexive

While reflexive pronouns for first and second person are the same (Ceman nas. "I wash myself."), third person has its own declined reflexive pronoun which refers to the subject itself. Singular nominative separates feminine and masculine.

3SG 3PL
NOM uu/yy uf
ACC ys ush
DAT jee uci
GEN yr ör

Examples:

  • Cema sysh. "He washes him."
    • Cema ys. "He washes himself."
  • Danai zu duti zur. "She read her book." (perhaps someone else owns it)
    • Danai zu duti yr. "She read hew own book." (definitely owned by the subject)
  • Nominative form is used for emphasizing the head: Komai yy sish. "He himself did it."
    • This also gives the meaning "by oneself" to other persons: Komin yy sish! "I did it by myself!"

Reciprocal

When something happens similarly between one another, preposition sa (with someone) is used with the pronoun:

  • Böjomoo bos. "We are listening to ourselves."
    • Böjomoo sa bor. "We are listening to one another."
  • Fetus dutesh (votyr) sa votyr. "You share (your) books with one another."

When reciprocal is the indirect object, sa is not used, only reflexive:

  • Pekos dutesh uci. "They give books to one another." (They give books to themselves)

Demonstrative

Pronouns this, these and that, those are used both as demonstratives, but also in relative clause constructions. Of two listed persons (/items) cu refers to the former and cy to the latter despite gender.

PROX.SG PROX.PL DIST.SG DIST.PL
NOM cy cufo cu cifo
ACC cys cös kush kosh
DAT cee cuki kuee ciki
GEN cyr cör kur kor

Locatives kyxu "here" and cuxu "there" can also be conjugated (Bebi kyxuee. "I went there."), but it is not necessary.

Declined genitive forms are used when demonstrative pronouns act as determiners: Ni cyy kelaree. vs. Ni kekii kelaree cyrii. (This is heavy. vs. This rock is heavy.)

Interrogative

If interrogative sentence can't be began with a verb in question form (so + verb), the interrogative pronouns can be used. Often the sentence still begins with the verb or adjunct soni? "is it?", and interrogative is placed after it.

zoo? what

NOM ACC DAT GEN
SG zoo sos soee sör
PL shöö shök shöki zör

To add further meaning to this declined "what?", helping words are used and sometimes written as one word:

  • zoo gy? (who?, what person), sos gys? (whom?), soee gyee (to whom?) and sör gyr? (whose?)
  • zoo ci? (which place?, declinable) or zoxu? (where?, LOC)
  • zoo la? (what time?, declinable) or zax? (when?, TEMP)

Or lone question words: zarre? (why?), zurre? (how?), zorri? (what kind of?)

PREP is ACC + e and prepositional expressions are placed after the verb:

  • Jetytse kys sose gyse cys?
    • PERF-get-PRES.2SG from what.PREP person-PREP DEM.PROX.ACC
    • From whom have you got this?

Verb questions can be answered either by repeating the same verb and adding the agreement/negation: Sovamo Aumax? Von uu./Sön vom. (Do you speak Aoma? I speak indeed./I don't speak.) In a more casual situation one may use short answers: Uu./Sö.

Nouns

Noun declension according to two numbers and five cases correlates with the four noun genders which are indicated by the last vowel of nominative singular:

  • divine a
  • masculine y
  • feminine u
  • neuter i

There are no articles (fused into prepositions), but definiteness is indicated by lengthening the last vowels: tymy (a man) → tymyy (the man). Dative is always thought as definite, but sometimes indefiniteness is emphasized by leaving the second e out.

Declension

The declension is shown with suffixes added to the stem gotten by removing the nominative vowel ending. Example word endings in all genders/declensions: Divine: eharr|a (god); Masculine: tym|y (man); Feminine hen|u (woman); Neuter: dok|i (object).

Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive
D.SG a ax aee ar
D.PL ol ox oee or
M.SG y ys yee yr
M.PL uvo ösh uhee ör
F.SG u us uee ur
F.PL ivo osh ihee oir
N.SG i ik ee ir
N.PL esh ek ei er

Prepositional case is formed by adding e to the accusative.

Declensions of Aoma are also called genders although there are some nouns with gender different from declension: öhaly (night; temporal declension).

Genitive forms of nouns also agree with all of their heads' forms (compare with adjectives): nyy henuuryy (boy of the woman), kakky nyyry henuurryy (dog of the woman's boy), xorri kakkyri nyyrry henuurryy (bone of the dog...)

If a noun stem ends with a vowel, dative endings for SG & PL are the following: näe & nöe (Div), wie & yhee (M), wee & uhee (F), jee & jei (N). Oma|i (coast), omajee (DAT to the coast) to avoid confucion with other genders. Feminine plural genitive ending is wur.

On top of the five basic cases, Aoma has got two partial cases, locative and temporal, often considered as clitics since they are used with verb infinitives as well.

Plural

Most nouns of any of the four gender have regular plural forms. If a noun happens to be plurale tantum, gender-agreeing josh* (many) can be used to indicate a larger amount: kevol (empire) → kevol joshol (many empires).

Many animal groups have additional plural forms in nominative (ending added to root):

  • Flock of avian creatures: eno: nemeno (flock of birds)
  • School of marine creatures: olo: mo'olo (school of fish)
  • Herd of land creatures: epo: pevepo (herd of antelopes)
  • Swarm of fire creatures: iro: nyrriro (swarm of nires)
  • Flight of light beings: ifo: ungarifo (flight of yules; northern lights)
  • Horde of shadow beings: öno: xeföno (horde of hums)
  • Shoal of spirits: ago: iwago (shoal of free spirits)

Plural forms of verbs are used with these groups: Pepös pevepoo hy sakakysee. (The herd of antelopes is roaming on the grasslands.)

Case

Collection of case usage:

  • Nominative (NOM): subject of clause
  • Accusative (ACC): direct object of transitive verbs
    • Personal passive
  • Prepositional (PREP; from ACC): only with prepositions
  • Dative (DAT): indirect object (for/to)
    • Allative (movement to)
    • Noun similarity (adjective in NOM)
    • With verbs in permissive mood
    • Verb constructions e.g. wappe töshee (to go to war)
  • Genitive (GEN): possession
    • Possessive pronouns always agree with their heads but nowadays genitive noun forms rarely agree. However, the formal register reguires complete declension e.g. "woman's objects" dokesh henuresh, dokei henurei and so forth.
    • With many prepositions
    • Objects of non-finite verb forms
    • Noun comparison with adjectives (comparative)
    • Derivation of adjectives
  • Locative (LOC): place
    • Mostly with common expressions such as gehixu (in the house), ketyxu (in the town).
    • There is also a form ogehixu which means "outside the house"
    • Also for more abstract "regarding": Aumaxu (in Aoma)
  • Temporal (TEMP): time
    • Used adverbially to express the moment of time. Mostly occurs in proper temporal nouns although the divine gender shares forms (thus confusing).
    • To adverbialize verb infinites
    • See expressions of time
    • Endings:
NOM ACC DAT GEN TEMP
SG a ak aee ang ax
PL ol ok oee ong ox
Compound nouns

Using genitive or dative cases is the most common way of creating compound words, but they can be joined together as well. The strong right-branching of Aoma is visible in the compounds in such manner that, when words are joined together, the head noun stays on the left while modifiers and the origin-suffix s* with correct head gender succeed it.

  • Genitive: heshii geedyrii "the top of a mountain"
  • Dative: heshii geedyee "the top for the mountain"
  • Joined: heshigeedysi top-mountain-N
    • compare English "mountaintop"

Adjectives

Adjectives of Aoma are inflected according to the case and definiteness of their head noun. Most adjectives can be recognised from their re or ri ending since they are formed from nouns simply by adding e to the genitive case. This is sometimes called the adjective case or adjective form of a noun.

Declension

Last vowel remains when declined since it changes the meaning.

ire (good):

NOM ACC DAT GEN
SG ire ireke ireki irre
PL ires irece ireci irres

When the adjective root ends in a consonant different than r, genitive case is created by duplicating the last consonant: henu dele (beautiful woman), gehi henurii dellee (house of the beautiful woman). Voiced consonants are reduced to voiceless unless the word might be confused with another. In genitive, the semivowels j and w become ji and wu respectively.

Genitive forms of adjectives remain uninflected.

Adverbs

Adverbs, which aren't inflected, are formed from adjectives' SG-GEN forms by changing the last vowel eä and ia: efireefirreefirrä (happy → of happy → happily). If the last vowel is not e or i, the adverb is created by adding ee to the genitive case: geedageettaee (high → highly)

Comparison

When positive-form adjectives are used as predicatives, they can be placed after nouns, as if common attributes, if there are no other adjectives. The adjective case corresponds with the case of (pro)nouns being referred to: Ni dokii kelaree. (The object is heavy.); Jussa nas efireke (It made me happy.)

  • However, adjectives usually appear before the noun to clarify the meaning, especially with multiple adjectives: Ni kelaree dokii gesharii. Sö milarii. (The yellow object is heavy. Not the blue one.)

Adjectives' comparative is formed by geminating the ending vowel of SG-GEN, and superlative by adding a(n) prefix and te suffix to the SG-GEN: milaremilarreeamilarrete (cold, colder, the coldest)

  • When two nouns are compared, genitive case is used with the second: Nu efirree shyr. (She is happier than him.)
  • Similarity is shown with adjective in nominative, mini (SJV it were) and dative: Mene geshare mini binuee foreki. (You're as lively as your mother.)

Adverbs' comparative is formed similarly through vowel lengthening and superlative by changing the last vowel of corresponding adjective superlative: efirräefirrääanefirretä, (happily → more happily → most happily)

  • Adverbs are added directly after the verb they modify: Efas efirrä kyy ketysee. (They live happily in the town.)

Negative forms can be created with o(w) prefix: oware (non-divine, mundane from are meaning divine)

Prepositions

In Aoma, fusional prepositions also convey the word gender and definiteness through vowel change. Same prepositional stems have different ending consonants which give new meanings together with the case of the following word. Only prepositional and genitive cases are used. Masculine vowel is always y and feminine & neuter vowel is u → Dictionary form is divine since it can have either a or o.

  • (NEG +) stem + D/F&N/M + endings + cases
  • k + a + s + PREP = from: kas eharroxe (from gods)
Stem k w ow h öw s os b r n d t
Div a a o a o a o o o a o a
Ending k s t t e s l it t t l t l t l l
Case G P G P P G P G G G G PL.P P P G P G P G G
Meaning into, towards at, near from, away as inside outside over on about under with someone without during in the middle of between in front of before behind after with (instrument) along across, opposite

In casual language, the consonant endings are often omitted if the case differs: ku gehike (near the house) and kuk gehir (into the house) which becomes ku gehir (to the house), but still kus gehike (from the house). It is also possible to use dative gehee for "to the house".

Bare, r-ending genitive is used with prepositions.

Verbs

Verbs are conjugated according to person, number, tense, aspect, mood which are indicated by suffixes, prefixes and reduplication.

Conjugation Tables

The conjugation stem is received by removing the last syllable, and then endings are added to its place. Vowel preserved in conjugation is bolded.

Class I

Verbs whose infinite ends in vowel a, o or e.

Ia) last vowel a/o: tol|la (see)

1SG 2SG 3SG 1PL 2PL 3PL 2SG.POL 2PL.POL
Present simple tolan tolu tola tolom tolus tolos toltu toltus
Past simple tolin tolui tolai tolimo toluis tolosi tolti toltis
Future tolaran tolrau tolas tolramo tolrus tolaros toltaru toltarus

Ib) last vowel e, often intransitive (& anticausative): e.g. rok|ke (run):

1SG 2SG 3SG 1PL 2PL 3PL 2SG.POL 2PL.POL
Present simple rokeng roke rok rokem rokes rokös rokite rokites
Past simple roking rokei roki rokim rokis rokösi roketi roketis
Future rokeran rokraa rokase rokrom rokres rokrös roktare roktares

Words of conjugations Ia & Ib often come in transitive-intransitive pairs so that switching the last vowel from a/o to e gives anticausative meaning: Ema sish (He moves it <emma) to Em xi (It moves <emme)

Class II

The only Aoman verbs whose infinite forms end in consonants m or s.

IIa) last consonant m: sum (eat) (a in parenthesis is added in difficult pronunciation e.g. with plosive consonants)

1SG 2SG 3SG 1PL 2PL 3PL 2SG.POL 2PL.POL
Present simple sun s(a)mu su sumo(o) s(a)mus sus sutu s(a)mutu
Past simple suin s(a)mui sui suim s(a)muis suis sutti s(a)mutti
Future suran sura suas surom surus suros surta surasa

IIb) last syllable tes/kes/hes (→ z, x, sh) e.g. ty|tes (get):

1SG 2SG 3SG 1PL 2PL 3PL 2SG.POL 2PL.POL
Present simple tyten tytse=tyze tyte tytöm tyzes tytös tyzite tyzites
Past simple tyt(e)in tyzei tytei tytöim tyzeis tytöis tyzeti tyzetis
Future tyteran tyzera tytas tyterom tyzerus tyteros tyzare tyzares

Passive forms of verbs are also conjugated as the IIa. Noun-based verbs which carry the meaning of "turning something into..." get the hes ending.

Class III

Small class of verbs with last vowel u, and in future tense, their vowel-consonant-cluster is swapped as in class II.

IIIa) no y in declension: tos|su (to encounter)

1SG 2SG 3SG 1PL 2PL 3PL 2SG.POL 2PL.POL
PRES tosun tosu tos tosumu tosus tostus tositu tosutus
PST toisun tousi tosi tosimu tosis tostis tosuti tosutis
FUT tusorun tusoru tusos tusormu tusorus tustorus tusiru tusurus

IIIb) y appears in future and polite: tel|lu (to have)

1SG 2SG 3SG 1PL 2PL 3PL 2SG.POL 2PL.POL
PRES telun telu tel telumu telus teltus telitu telytys
PST teil teuli teli telimu telis teltis teluti telytis
FUT tylerun tyleru tylus tylermu tylerus tylterus tyliru tylyrus
Class IIII

The irregular class has verbs with multiple forms often deriving from suppletion (use of other words in conjugation) or through phonemic changes occurred during long history.

men|na (to be); 3SG PRES makes a distinction between genders and animacy, and formal situations require longer forms (in parentheses).

  • Indicative
1SG 2SG 3SG 1PL 2PL 3PL 2SG.POL 2PL.POL
PRES (a)ma(n) (me)ne ny/nu/ni anem mete niso Menite Mewyte
PRES PERF nang namet nait naom namest narast nantet nautest
PST mi(n) meni nii nomi meti nisi mite myti
PST IPFV bomiin bomeen bonnii bonoomi bomeeti bomiisi bomiite bomyyte
PST PERF mamin mameni manit manomit mametit manisit mamitet mamytit
FUT moraa mere mes moram meret meras merte merety
FUT IPFV boraa bomeere bomees boram bomereet bomeraas bomertee bomerati
FUT PERF jemorat jemeret jemest jemorant jemereti jemerast jemerteki jemeretyki
  • Conditional
  • Present and present imperfective are the same
  • Subjunctive: me + IND for 1st and 2nd person, but mi + IND for 3rd person
  • Eventive: em + COND
  • Gerund (being): benimi
  • Present active participle (being): menamo
  • Past passive participle (been): mai

wap|pe (to go)

Aspects

Imperfective is formed by adding prefixes bo for Ia & IIa or be for the others to the conjugated form and often also lengthening the last vowel: PekinBopekiin (I gave → I was giving)

Perfect prefixes: ju for Ia & IIIa, ma for IIa & IIII and je for Ib & IIb & IIIb: RokeJeroke (You run → You have run)

Ancestral past in the third person is used when discussing ancient historical events and it is formed by adding the prefix ne to pluperfect (past perfect) form: Komai sish.Jukomai sish.Nejukomai sish. (He did it. → He had done it. → He had done it a long time ago. / It was done eons ago.)

Moods

Neutral indicative is shown in the tables above and other moods are derived from it:

  • Plain imperative (suprahortative) is simply the PRES.2SG form: Roke! (Run!)
    • Longer imperative is formed by using the indicative present singular third person verb form together with a pronoun: Peko foo sish naee! (You give it to me!)
    • Prohibitive is formed similarly with negative verb söm and infinite of the main verb.
  • Optative (cohortative; imprecative with söm) is used for requests and as a polite imperative. It is formed by joining imperative and conjugated komma meaning to do: Pekokomu sish naee. (Could you give it to me.)
    • Permissive is used by those with higher social status for giving permissions to members of lower social classes. It is formed by using optative 3rd singular with second person pronoun datives: Rokkoma votei. (You all are allowed to run.) With first person datives it is antihonorific while with third person datives it expresses indifference: Wapkoma shye. (It doesn't matter if he goes.)
  • Conditional of conditional sentence apodoses is formed through final right-to-left reduplication and then conjugated normally: pekkokko, vomvom, tyte(s)tes so that Pekkokom means "We would give".
  • Subjunctive (potential), which is used in some dependent clauses, is formed through initial left-to-right reduplication, but always with CV or VC parts of the first syllable: pepekko, vovom, tytytes, ejejom
    • Double reduplication gives a mood similar to eventive and it is used in conditional sentence protasis and speculatives: Pekkokoran tetellulun. (I would give if I had.) (notice also the future tense of apodosis)
  • Interrogative is the question form of verbs which is created by adding the prefix so: Vamo Vosokusik.Sovamo Aumax? (You speak English. → Do you speak Aoma?) Stress remains on the verb but pitch rises towards the end.
    • Combination of interrogative and subjunctive gives indirect propositive: Sowawapemo? (Should we go? It might be time for us to go...)
    • See the interrogative pronouns

Negation

Aoma has a conjugated negative verb söm which is otherwise conjugation IIa, but has special forms for future and polite 2nd person (present, past, future):

  • Future: sörön, sörö, sör, söröm, sörys, sörös
  • 2SG.POL: suvannoo, suvennoi, suvannaa
  • 2PL.POL: suvummoo, suvimmoi, suvummaa

Notice how suvan also means "I'm sorry".

Söm is used as an auxiliary together with the infinite form of a verb: Soleran. (I will come.) → Sörön solle. (I won't come.)

also means "no".

Non-finite forms

Infinitive is the dictionary form of verbs in Aoma which is used in subordinate clauses and with auxiliary verbs: danna (to read) → jun danna (I can read).

  • Declension: vowel-ending forms follow temporal declension; infinites with s or m ending use their PRES.3SG forms: sumsux (to eat → while eating)

Gerund which describes the act of doing: (ba(') +) INF + mi

  • The gerund is inflected according to neuter gender: Bodenan ba'ysollomik. (I enjoy drawing)
    • Direct objects of gerund get genitive case: Bodenan ba'ysollomik koser. (I enjoy drawing buildings)

Present active participle as an attribute: INF + po

  • Attributes follow their heads, and objects of participle get a bare genitive case: gy dannapo duter (a book-reading person)
    • Adjective-like inflection: dutesh gör dannappo duter (books of book-reading people)
  • If the head is possessed, the genitive comes between the head noun and the verb participle with its object: tymy henury musihespo musir (food-cooking man of a woman)
    • Compare with tymy henuryy musihessoo musiir (a man of the food-cooking woman) where definiteness and genitive declension have been used to change the meaning.

Past passive participle: INF + na or INF + ma for IIa

  • Attributive: duti duutesna cerra (slowly written book)
    • Divine gender inflection: Bodanan essä dutiik duutesnax cerra. (I'm reading the slowly written book fast.)

Passive Voice

In Aoma, there are ways for creating passive voices:

  • 1st Passive (Impersonal): Passive infinite and derived forms: rokkeburokkem, nyhesbunyhem
    • Present tense for general truths: Buefam ketixu. (Cities are lived in.)
    • Imperfective aspect may show current conditions (notice the IIa conjugation morpheme): Buborokkem ogehixu bor. (Some people are running outside our house.)
    • Perfect aspect may indicate how things used to be: Bunakommam irrä. (Things used to be done well.)
    • Subjunctive mood for how things could be: Buefefam kyxu. (Here could one live.)
  • 2nd Passive (Personal): Conjugated construct from the 1st passive (with accusative pronoun): TollaButollamButollan. (I am seen.) and SumBusumumBusumu musik. (Food is eaten.)
    • Can be thought as present passive participle after nominative noun: musi busumu (eatable food)
    • "Be made/forced to do something" with imperfective aspect and accusative: Buborokkein nas. (I was forced to run.)
    • Gives verbs other meanings as well (deponent verbs): Jussa (make, cause to be) → Bujussam (become) → Bujussa shy tööreke. (He became angry.)
  • Past passive participle with nouns (see non-finite forms above): Gehish gollanol irrä (Houses been built well.)

Auxiliary verbs

In Aoma, there are only modal auxiliary verbs which are followed by verb infinites. Only the auxiliaries are conjugated, conveying the tense, aspect and mood as well.

Basic verbs include: jum (can, be able to), nom (must, need to), gam (be going to)

Derivational Morphology

Aoma uses suffixes, gemination and apophony to create new words from existing ones. Same noun stems often occur in all four genders. Most important are the eight elemental nouns, for example gesha (life):

  • (divine noun, verb, (secondary verb,) masculine, feminine, neuter, adjective form, colour form)
  • gesha (life), gesse (live), geshy (brain), geshu (heart), geshi (nature), geshare (lively, active), geshari (yellow)

This is taken even further when adjectives are derived from the already derived nouns in other genders, for example mily (sailor) → milyre (wet, "sailor-like")

Suffixes

Verb → Noun (endings to PRES.3SG)

  • Abstract, happening: si: mille (to rain) → mil (it rains) → milsi (rain)
  • Doer, cause: ky/ku/ki: duuteku (woman writer, authoress)

Verb → Adjective (from INF)

  • Participles
  • Doable: (j)e: nirrraje (burnable), sume (eatable)
  • Tendency: pi: ijempi (creative)

Adjective → Verb (from NOM)

  • Turn something into (TR): mma: xaremma (strengthen as in "I shall strengthen it")
  • Turn oneself into (INTR, INCH): mme: iwaremme (brighten as in "it is brightening")

Adjective → Adjective

  • Slightly: ni: ennarini (greenish)
  • Becoming: combining mme + pi: ohaasa kelarim(me)pi (reddening evening)

Adjective → Noun

  • Concept, quality: su: iresu (goodness)

Noun → Verb (from NOM)

  • Tool, characteristic way: m: bemim (ride boat), önym (hunt)
  • Turn something into, add: hes: zykihes (turn into field, plough), musihes (turn into food, cook)

Noun → Adjective (endings to SG-GEN)

  • Similarity, having something: e: ennare (airy)
  • Abstraction, colour: i: ennari (green)
  • Origin: INF + si: Herookusi (Herookuan, from Herooku)
  • Material: o: kuuturo (wooden) (ultima stressed)
  • Full of, having something: ro: kuutur'ro (full of trees) (penult stressed), döpir'ro (poisonous)
  • Absence: ö+ N-SG-GEN +ö: ökuuturö (treeless)

Noun → Noun (to INF; i-ending might be omitted if the suffix and root consonants are the same)

  • Place, region, collection: tu: dutitu/duttu (library), miinutu (archipelago)
    • More geographical: cu: Okucu (Northern Land)
  • Large collection, throng: (')ivo: acoxivo (bank); *X > M.PL, F.PL, *thymy'ivo > tymuvo
  • Relation, emotional attitude (+DAT): cy: copucy (friendship), Ny nyshacy naee. (He is my loved one.), Nu tööcy naee! (She is the cause of my anger!)
  • Origin (as above), person: sa/sy/su/si: Herookusy (Herookuan man)
  • Diminutive: ni: kuutuni (bush)
    • Sometimes ayui: eharry (deity), eharru (saint), eharri (priest, devout worshiper)
  • Augmentative: a(')+ N +ta: ahenuta (matriarch)
    • Often to emphasize the elements and gods: A'iwata (Element of Light, God Light of all lightlisteners), Ahallata (Sun God Halla of believers of Halla in the east)
    • Or opposite to diminutive letter change ("up the ladder"): keku (stone), keky (bedrock), keka (continent; foundation (mainly abstract)), Akekata (Grundet (material))

Prefixes

Originating from prepositions; can be combined with nouns, verbs and adjectives.

  • Negative, opposite (especially with adjectives & adverbs): o(w): oxare (weak)
    • Also ö: ökevi (night sky)
  • Again, repeat, re-: sa: samillo (irrigate, remoisten)
  • Together, com-: su: sumenne (consist)
  • Internal, into, intra-: fa: faketyre (inside town walls, urban)
  • External, out, extra-: vo: vokevore (outside empire borders, foreign)
  • Between, middle, inter-: po: porranol (between Grundet and Spiritual World or planets, intermundane)
  • Around, circum-: ke: ke'cala (circumstellar)
  • Across, trans-: ta: tamilire (transoceanic)
  • Over, above, high, super-: au: auga (spellcaster; < *augam "who thinks highly")
    • Also (h)a: hakora (temple, high-shrine)
  • Under, below, low, sub-: : wökelare (subterranean)
  • Preceding, pre-: ro: rotolla (foresee)
  • Succeeding, post-: na: natöshi (postwar period)

Numerals

Nowadays, numbers use decimal system, but according to Mikannan academy, the system was originally of base twelve also known as dozenal (nasos, nonnanos), even though there was a special mark for twelve which is still used. Arruumunian school of numerologists has proposed that six was the ancient base just as in Rinap (mausol, mamasos), while Eetioshians claim it was eight (nowol, nosos), the number of all elements when they separated light and darkness from life and death in favour of Lightlisteners' beliefs. According to Memerrian scholars of Negovia, six is the true base of our universe and must have been the original. Use of eight came later from coastal peoples of Sceptre. When all of this is combined, a quite difficult system arises.

Cardinal Numbers
1 ibani 11 mawis 21 notesbanis
2 noris 12 nasos 22 notesnoris 200 nori(co)totesh
3 conis 13 macis 23 notesconis 36 mamasos 300 coni(co)totesh
4 toris 14 mathis 24 nonnasos 40 vorwesh 400 tori(co)totesh
5 fonis 15 mafis 25 notesfonis 50 fomesh 500 foni(co)totesh
6 mausol 16 nonos 26 notesmasis 60 mausesh 600 mautosh
7 mabis 17 mopis 27 notesmabis 70 mabesh 700 mabi(co)totesh
8 nowol 18 casos 28 notesnovis 80 nowolesh 800 nowo(co)totesh
9 noltis 19 cashis 29 notesnoltis 90 noltesh 900 nolti(co)totesh
10 metesh 20 notesh 30 vimesh 100 totesh 1000 mopesh

Other numerals

  • Or (0), meemopesh (10 000), toomopesh (100 000), hammesh (1 000 000) and meeresh (1 000 000 000).
  • When used in larger numbers, ibani, mausos and nowol turn into banis, masis and novis: notesbanis "twenty-one"
  • As a multiplier for powers of ten, the cardinal number gets a co (/skɔ/ though sometimes reduced into /kɔ/) ending seen in the table above, though in casual language co is elided. Mauco is that of six: maucomeemopesh (sixty thousand), but muuposh (six thousand)
    • Also alone: banico "once", norico "twice" and so on
  • When added together, the /ʃ/-ending of large numbers changes to simple /s/: ni vimesh i ibani a vimesbanis "thirty plus one is thirty-one"
  • In large numbers, stops can be used to separate the powers of ten except in numbers smaller than hundred: fonicomopes'fonicototes'fomesfonis "5555"

Ordinal Numbers

  • Waci "first", nohi "second", wauti "sixth", nousti "eigth", meeshti "tenth" which are used in larger ordinal numbers as wel.
  • Others are created by adding te (and changing /ʃ/ to /s/) to the powers of ten (before stops) and the last single cardinal (or changing it to corresponding ordinal): coniste "3rd", toteste' "100th", noteswaci "21st", conicototeste'vorwes(te)wausti "346", noricomopeste'noricototeste'notesnohi "2222th"
    • With growing popularity, keeping /ʃ/ can be used to indicate that the number is ordinal: mopeshtoteshmawiste "1111th" instead of mopeste'toteste'mawiste
  • In texts, ordinal indicator .e is used only for longer ordinal numbers and special forms are always written: hala nohi (second day), hala 15.e (15th day)

Fractions

  • noti "one half", cotu "one third", tootu "one quarter", footu "one fifth", muutu "one sixth" and nototu "one eighth"
  • With others, tu is added to the cardinal number: meteshmeteshtu (one tenth) (sometimes the endings eshtuessu and eshtivoessivo)
  • Larger parts are created with the co multiplier form (explained in the "Other numerals" section), stop and plural: norico'cotivo "two thirds", mabico'meteshtivo or mabimetessivo (seven tenths)
  • In case of declension: pati notiri sinirri (juice of half a lemon)

Declension

Numerals always agree with their heads' case, and while cardinal numbers always preceed it, ordinal numbers are often placed after the head:

  • i ending ibani is singular and follows neuter gender declination unless used as an attributive when it also change gender: ibanyee tymyee (for one man), ibanuee henuee (for one woman)
    • special ordinal numbers such as nohi are in this group as well: halax wautax nirrarex (on the sixth hot day)
  • is ending plural numbers follow related adjective declension: dyt norice pamöshe xarece (with two strong hands)
    • os decline similarly: nasoci guhee (for twelve people)
  • ol indicates divine gender plural forms: mausol bebiwalol (six astrological ritual days)
  • esh ending numbers are declined according to neuter plural declension: gehii meterii görii (the house of ten people)
  • osh final mautosh and muuposh are as feminine gender in their forms: nal muupor jeelong (after six thousand years)
  • e ending ordinals follow the common adjective declension: has Taulaxe 7.eke (about Taula VII)
  • Temporal case is created by changing cardinal number s/sh-ending into x or with ordinals simply by adding x.

Temporal expressions

Temporal case is used for expressing that something happens during or around a specific point in time: anasax (in the morning), halaax (today, on this day), jeelax (this year). Plural temporal forms indicate habitual behavior: haloox (every day, during daytime), jeelox (every year).

It can be combined with dative and genitive cases:

  • TEMP+case: norix halaxaee (in two days' time) and conix jeelax(ang) (for three years)
  • case+TEMP: norix halaeex (next two days) and conix jeelangx /jɛ:laŋs/ (three years ago)
  • case+TEMP+case: conix jeelangxaee /jɛ:laŋksæeˑ/ (for last three years)

The use of following temporal determiners is however more commonplace:

  • wanga (last, before present): Soling kyxuee jeelax wangax. (I came here last year.), wangaax (last time)
    • rowanga (previous, preceding an moment in past or future): Bomiin ösumyre rolax ros masöin sum irrä halax rowangax. (I was hungry yesterday for I hadn't eaten well on the previous day.)
  • zuupa (next, after present): hezalax zuupax (during next month), zuupaax (next time)
    • nazuupa (following, succeeding an moment in past or future): Lehen bebosi halax nazuupax. (I know they left on the following day.)
  • dola (since): dolax jeelax wangax (since last year)
  • banico (once): banicox hezalax (once in a month)

In polite language, ordinal numbers of dates also receive an x-ending: (halax) casostex hezalax Reetyr (on the 18th (day) of Horse month). Cardinal numbers get a temporal case through s/sh being changed into x.

See the description of calendar system.

Syntax

A few topics about sentence construction not properly discussed above.

Word order

  • Preposition (agrees with gender)
  • Cardinal number (agrees with all)
  • Head noun & declension & definiteness
  • Ordinal number (agrees with all)
  • Adjectives (all agree with case, and some with gender as well)
  • Genitive noun (agrees all)
  • Possessive pronoun (agrees all)
  • Participle & its objects


Simple sentences have Verb-Subject-Object order. Since the verbs are conjugated, pronoun dropping is common unless required by the verb structure.

  • Negative verb comes before the head verb.
  • Questions may begin with interrogative words instead of verbs, but in those cases there is still tendency to begin with adjunct soni (is it?).
  • Adverbs come straight after their head verb (even with non-finite form).
  • Dependent clauses are usually located at the end of the main clause unless other information (such as time and location) of the main clause requires space.

Clauses

Independent

Independent clauses follow the rules mentioned above and

  • Nominative-accusative alignment: subject in nominative and direct object in accusative
  • Indirect object in dative: Pekoran waa sish shye. (I'll give it to him.)

Conjuntion

Coordinating conjunctions:

  • I (and) is often omitted and replaced with a short pause indicated with comma: Bebing rolax (kuk) cuxu, (i) tola shy nas lettepo. (I went there yesterday, and he saw me walking.)
  • Is (but): Bomiin cuxu, is söin tolla sysh. (I was there, but I didn't see him.)
  • Ros (for), indicating reason: Sui zu, ros nii musi josi cuxu. (She ate, for there was much food.).
    • Can be used together with i, but then ros is placed after the first verb: Sui zu, i nii ros musi josi cuxu.
  • Naas (so) indicates consequence and works similarly to ros: Tös bibinu, naas bomiin özore. (Grandmother died, so I was sad.)
  • Tas (or): Sol foo kyxu, tas soleran cuxu! (Come here, or I will come there!)

Some of these conjunctions can be used by themselves after the first verb as adverbs:

  • i (and, also, as well): Jun danna, (i) duutes Mihkanorike. Jun i irrä jassä ysollo. (I can read and write Mihkanor. I can also draw quite well.)
  • is (however): Ijen vosek. Sön is jum vom sösh. (I create languages. However, I can't speak them.)

Noun clauses

Similarly to English, simple noun clauses do not require the introductory word: Tolin nii zu cuxu. (I saw (that) she was there.), Ejoin manit kyxu. (I heard (/was told that) she had been here.)

  • Demonstrative pronouns are used to clarify relations: cu (that) refers to the former and cy (this) to the latter: Nisi Roody i Saahy cuxu. Tolai cu bebi cy i bebi i. (Roody and Saahy were there. Former saw that latter left and left as well.)

Different forms:

  • For present and future: PRESP(-ACC): Tolan gesepik lettepoke. ("I see a walking animal." I see that an animal walks.)
    • Subject being the same, reflexive pronouns are used: Pi ys lettepoke nalax. ("He says himself walking tomorrow." He says that he'll walk tomorrow.)
  • For preceding events (compare ACI): SBJ.ACC + ju+INF(Ia/IIIa)/ ma+INF(IIa/IIII)/ je+INF(Ib/IIb/IIIb): Ejoin mamenna zus gehixu. (I heard been her at home." I heard that she had been at home.)
  • For passive forms: PPP: Leshei dutiik dannanax ("You knew the book been read." You knew that the book had been read.)

Interrogative (indirect questions):

  • Corresponding to actual questions, but with verb in subjunctive: Sön lehes zax bebebosi. (I don't know when they left.)

Adverbial clauses

Clauses behaving as adverbs can be created either with coordinating conjunctions, or with conjugated verb infinites or gerunds in temporal/locative or with prepositions:

  • To indicate "when/while": INF-TEMP: Efi lettex. ("She laughed during walk." She laughed while walking.)
    • Also with longer GER-TEMP: Leti ba'efimmix. ("She walked during the the act of laughing." i.e. She walked while laughing.)
  • To indicate "after" in the future: INF-TEMP-DAT: Soleran mennaxaee ketyxu. (I'll come after being in the town.)
    • Also with PREP + GER (+POS): Soling nal benimir (närir) cuxu. (I came after being there.)
    • Compare past "having done something": Soling mamennaxaee wat kosikee kelarikee. (I came having been inside the red building.)
  • For "since": PST-INF-GEN.TEMP: Jetelun gesepek joshek mamennangx ny puure. (I've had many animals since I was a young boy.)
  • Indicating "where": GER-LOC (+POS): Niso özore baferammixu ör. (They are sad where they live.)

Indirect speech

Subjunctive is used in reported, questionable information:

  • Pii totolai uu amys. (She said she saw a lion with her own eyes.)
  • If it's doubted by the speaker, eventive may be used: Pii totollalai yy ungarifo. (He said he saw a flight of yules with his own eyes.)

Relative

There are no proper relative pronouns in Aoma so other ways of joining clauses are in use. The word order can be changed into VOS to separate the referent, demonstrative pronouns are added or clauses are expressed with participles:

Intransitive verb, relative clause object → using demonstrative pronouns:

"The man, whom I saw yesterday, will come tomorrow."
Solase nalax tymy, tolin (sysh/cy) rolax.
come-FUT.3SG tomorrow-TEMP man-NOM, see-PST.1SG (PN.3SG.M.ACC) yesterday-TEMP
Tolin tymys rolax, solase cy nalax.
see-PST.1SG man-NOM yesterday-TEMP, come-FUT.3SG DEM.PROX tomorrow-TEMP

Transitive verb → using either finite or non-finite clauses:

"Woman, who owns the object, gives it to her."
Peko dokiik zuee henu tel sish. / Peko dokiik zuee henu tellupo sor.
give-3SG object-ACC PN.3SG.F.DAT woman-NOM have.3SG PN.3SG.N.ACC / have-PRESP PN.3SG.N.GEN
Peko henu tellupo dokiir sish zuee. / Peko henu tel dokiik sish zuee.
give-3SG woman-NOM have-PRESP object-GEN PN.3SG.N.ACC PN.3SG.F.DAT / have.3SG object-ACC

Relative possession → possession:

"I encountered the girl whose house had burned.
Tois muu gehiru nirrrenaru.
encounter.PST.1SG girl-DEF house-GEN-F burn-PPP-GEN-F
"I encountered the girl of the burned house."

Referring to a sentence by plural proximate demonstrative pronoun: "The child travelled to the north which angered his parents.

Beleti puu okuee, tööhei cufo rrikosh shyrosh.
IPFV-walk-PST.3SG child north-DAT anger.PST.3SG DEM.PROX.PL parent-PL PN.3SG.M.GEN-F.PL

Conditional

A mix of moods is used to indicate protases and apodoses so there is no need for "if". Both clauses are began with the verb and separated with a short pause (comma).

General truths and high probabilities are indicated with conditional in protasis (if-clause of condition) and indicative in apodosis (the consequence) both using the same tense: Millel, bujussa kela milyreke. (If it rains, the earth will become wet.) Another yet rarer option for factual conditional sentences is imperative (simply 3SG) and 2nd passive: Ni öhaly, busömö tolla Halla. ((If) it's night, the Sun is not seen.) Present tense is used for logical implications and future for predictive sentences.

For contrafactual conditional sentences, Aoma uses eventive (EVE = eventive mood) in protasis and either subjunctive (for hightly unlikely) or conditional mood in apodosis:

"I would be happy, if you were here."
Eman efire, ememane kyxu.
COND-be.PRES.1SG happy, EVE-be.COND.PRES.2SG DEM.PROX.LOC
"If I were a soldier, I would go to war."
Emenan töshy, paparan töshee.
EVE-be.COND.PRES.1SG soldier, SUBJ-leave.FUT.1SG war-DAT

Registers

In different situations, it is appropriate to use language best suitable to the surroundings. Following levels of formality have been attested by scholars of Aoma:

Gehiisi

  • "From home" language and dialects used with family and friends. It contains lots of ellipsis in language and variation in pronunciation such as elision.

Pan uu! Doo! "Going now! Bye!"

Ketysi

  • "From town" language spoken with less familiar people and in casual conversations. Mainly the basic form of Aoma perhaps with a couple of informalities.

Paran fuu. Tolramo sau! "I'll go now! We'll see again! (Until we meet again!)"

Faar'ro

  • "Honouring", polite language is used when discussing (after being allowed to discuss) with someone who is older or member of a higher social class, it is very important to use polite verbs and pronouns as well as full word forms. Polite forms of addressing: Nidaa ("Your Shine" with religious people), Niduu (Madam) and Nidyy (Sir).

Suvako. Sovokoman Neteki? "Excuse me. May I speak to You?"

Hakorasa

  • "Templar" language, the most formal form, in which use of polite language, personal pronouns and optative requests is required, and permissive mood is often used by higher people.
  • Honorific clitics haa' + verb-2SG.POL and hää' + verb-2PL.POL are used in front of the verb and/or pronoun to emphasize the status of addressed: Sosoltare haaNite? (Will You come?) Notice also the lower and upper case letters.
  • Anti-honorific öö' clitic might be used if the higher person is disappointed at you. Sometimes it is used after first person verb as self-anti-honorific together with second person honorifics to express respect even more strongly:

Zaurrkomaran, is sovokomanöö wana haaNeteki?

bother.3SG-OPT-1SG INT-speak.3SG-OPT-1SG-AntiHON PN.1SG.FORM HON-PN.2SG.POL.DAT
"Pardon me, but may I address Your highness."

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Featured language of February 2014 at Linguifex.

See also