Amal/verbs

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The infinitive

The infinitive is a verbal noun. "to walk, walking" It has no inflection to indicate mood or tense. Amal has to suffixes to indicate the infinitive, -ek, and -ra.

All roots can take the -ek infinitive, but only b, d, g, k, m, p, s, sh, and t can take the -ra ending. The endings do not typically indicate any notable distinction, but there are instances it can:

  • ishra (ʔiʃ) - v - be inside, interior
isha (ʔiʃ) - n - inside, interior
  • ishek (ʔiʃ) - v - drink; imbibe; quaff
eqish (ʔiʃ) - n - drink

ayek

  • ayek - to have [more abstract than yeshra]
past
-esh
present obligative
-id
negative
-la
interrogative
-em
tentative
-ur
1s
-an
ayeshan
I had
ayan
I have
ayidan
I am obliged to have
ayanla
I do not have
ayeman
Do I have?
ayuran
I may have
2s
-ti / -e
ayeshti
you had
aye
you have
ayide
you are obliged to have
ne aye
you do not have
ayemti
Do you have?
ayure
you may have
3s
-u / -a / -il
ayeshu
she/he/it had
ayu
she/he/it has
ayidu
she/he/it is obliged to have
ne ayu
she/he/it does not have
ayemu
Does she/he/it have?
ayuru
she/he/it may have
1p
-uk
ayeshuk
we had
ayuk
we have
ayiduk
we are obliged to have
ayukla
we do not have
ayemuk
Do we have?
ayuruk
we may have
2p
-ut / -i
ayeshut
you [all] had
ayut
you [all] have
ayidi
you [all] are obliged to have
ayutla
you [all] do not have
ayemut
Do you [all] have?
ayurut
you [all] may have
3p
-um
ayeshum
they had
ayum
they have
ayidum
they are obliged to have
ayumla
they do not have
ayemum
Do they have?
ayurum
they may have

dara

  • dara - to give; present; hand over; bestow
past present tentative passive
1s deshan
I gave
dan
I give
duran
I may give
deban
I am given
2s deshti
you gave
dati
you give
dure
you may give
debti
you are given
3s deshu
she/he/it gave
du
she/he/it gives
duru
she/he/it may give
debu
she/he/it is given
1p deshuk
we gave
daquk
we give
duruk
we may give
debuk
we are given
2p deshut
you [all] gave
daqut
you [all] give
durut
you [all] may give
debut
you [all] are given
3p deshum
they gave
daqum
they give
durum
they may give
debum
they are given

hara

  • hara - to be; exist (essentially or identified as) [permanent]
past present tentative
1s heshan
I was
han
I am
huran
I may (be)
2s heshti
you were
hati
you are
hure
you may be
3s ilhesh
she/he/it was
ilha
she/he/it is
ilhura
she/he/it may be
1p heshuk
we were
haquk
we are
huruk
we may be
2p heshut
you [all] were
haqut
you [all] are
hurut
you [all] may be
3p heshum
they were
haqum
they are
hurum
they may be


niyek

  • niyek - say; tell; speak; express
  • niyan - speak-1s - I speak
  • niyeshti - speak-PST-2s - You spoke
  • niyuranu - speak-TENT-1s-3s - I may speak to him
  • niyeshemilu? - speak-PST-Q-3s-3s - Did he speak to someone else?
  • niyeshbe - speak-PP-2s - You were spoken to
  • niye! - speak-2s - Speak [to me]!
  • niyedek - speak-CAUS-INF - made to speak
  • niyesheyu - speak-PST-2s-3s - You were speaking to him
  • niyegukla - speak-REFL-3pl-NEG - they are not speaking to each other
  • niyalabu - speak-REP-DUR-3s - he keeps on speaking

xxx

  • xxx - xxx
past present tentative
1s xeshan xan xuran
2s xeshti xti xure
3s xesha xa xura
1p xeshuk xuk xuruk
2p xeshut xut xurut
3p xeshum xum xurum