ADJECTIVES of ABCL

From FrathWiki
Jump to: navigation, search

BASIC/ROOT ADJECTIVES

Basic adjectives consist of three letters as VCV/x, yielding about 500, but doubling by using of “x” at the ends giving an adverse meaning such as “ebe” for beautiful and “ebex” for ugly. Adjectives have also been separated in classes. “Determiners” with the subtitles: “interrogative, demonstrative, indefinite (quantifier), indefinite numerical, main colours, placing and possessive” where first vowel “o”/“ö” and “u” (for colours only) indicates the “determiner group” and varying consonants (C*’s as “t, s, ş, m, y” (colours have also other consonants)) decoding the subtitles like “interrogative”. Second group is the “qualifier/classifiers” with three subtitles: First title beginning with “o” is special classes as human feature, frequently used etc.); second with “a” evaluative-descriptive for “people” (personality and behaviour mainly) and third with “e” description of “things”.

Each of them has been subdivided internally according to the scheme e.g. V#V (eC*a, eC*e; eC*i; … eC*ü). Although each subtitle was originally designed to indicate a special type of the adjectives such as “aC*e-being”, “aC*i-behaviour” or “eC*ü-nature/science, the order could not be kept due to new idea of “harmonizing” the sound between ABCL and English adjectives for the ease of memorizing by connotation. (e.g.: ebi=big, where the last letters “bi” of ABCL same (or similar) with the first letters “bi” of English word). Thus, even though the first idea has been kept; e.g. for the “aC*V, the subtitles “physical features, appearance, human attribute, opinion-view, etc.,” at the end they are mixed up to the certain degree anyway.

Examples for Root Adjectives:

Indefinite (Quantifier): o/ö.ş.V* English Physical Descr. of Things e/o.C*.V* Person-Behaviour a/o.C*.V*
oşa more, _er eşe-x sweet-bitter apo-x polite/kind/gentle-impolite/rude
oşe most, _est ece certain ofe-x fair-biased
oşu-oşux several/many/much -few/little eso sour aju-x just-devious
öşo-öşox some_ - any_ oho-x hot-cold aşe-x sedate-excited
öşö each ova-x warm- cool asu superficial
öşu-öşux every_ -no_ eva-x wide-narrow aki keen/eager

Possessive Determiners: az, oz, uz, ez, öz, üz- my, your, its, our, your, their

Possessive determiners are adjective in their role in syntax but because genitive suffix “_z” is placed after the word they don’t agree with the rules set here. Therefore, they will be handled in ABCL as possessive pronouns exceptionally.

DERIVED ADJECTIVES

Adjectives will be derived by adding suffixes to the verbs and nouns. As the root adjectives, also derived one’s end with a vowel, typical for adjectives. Thus, they will have six to eight letters.

Deverbal Adjectives

They will be derived by the suffixes “_ado/_adox” (in place of the English suffixes “_ful, _less, _ant/-ent, _ive, _ile, _ic, _ate, _y/ly,_ic, _ous, etc.), “_amo” (for capability “_able/_ible”). Differently from English, for past participle and present participle ABCL uses not the conjugated verb forms for adjective but derives new words as “_ono” (for past participle _ed) and “_iko” (for present participle _ing).

Examples for Deverbal Adjectives:

_ado-adox _ful-less (_azo)_ado _ant/-ent _amo _able, _ible _ono p.p _ed/irregular _iko _ing
boh.ado-x hope.ful-less nel.ado relaxant keb.amo breakable dol.ono boiled ted.iko dancing
bus.ado-x use.ful-less sip.ado pleasant mir.amo admirable bon.ono known tis.iko singing
roh.ado-x harm.ful-less fur.ado dominant höç.amox incredible muv.ono worried moh.iko terrifying

Denominal Adjectives

Denominal adjectives will be derived by the suffixes “_do/_dox” (in place of the English affixes “_ful, _less, _ive, _ulent, _ile, _holic, _ic, _ate, _y/ly,_ic, _ous, un_, im_, etc.) and “_no” (for capability “_able/_ible”)

Examples

_do _ful, _ous _dox -less, in-, ir- _no _able,_ible
fenpü.do peaceful bonho.dox hope.less posfa.no fashionable
sonye.do handful camti.dox timeless halta.no taxable
minşi.do-x merciful-cruel pasha.dox homeless

With these 8 suffixes (ado, adox, ako, amo, ano, do, dox, no) it is possible to get unnumbered new adjectives from verbs and nouns additionally to 520 root adjectives.

Antinomies of Adjectives

As stated already, the antinomies of adjectives will be generally defined by adding the suffix “x”. This has been done preferably with the pairs where in English a separate adjective available for the antinomy. This way the number of words to be memorized would be reduced considerably. For the adjectives used very often we made however some exceptions. In order to avoid a mix up which comes first, it is necessary to implement certain rules. These are: For physically quantifiable, the bigger/larger/heavier/stronger etc. is the base adjectives, the latter will get “_x“ (like: big-small: ebi-ebix; for qualitative, what people normally prefer, comes first (like: honest-false: oho-ohox; hot-cold: ovo-ovax etc.). Adjectives which are used in speech mostly shall have basic form even the foregoing stated rules implies differently. (e.g.: “eda-x” (dark- light/pale), even though “dark” implies physically “unfavorability” because “light” is used relatively seldom competed with “dark”.

The suffix “_x” comes always directly after the adjective (basic or derived does not matter- e.g. ohox.ka, enux.l, minşi.do.x), followed by other derivational suffixes.