Verbs in Vrkhazhian

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Vrkhazhian verbs are called narībūm (singular narībum). Because Vrkhazhian is a triconsonantal root language, the fundamental part of the verb form is the transfix, a discontinuous affix inserted between a root, though they primarily only convey the grammatical voices (active and passive). There are only two tenses (future and non-future) and these are indicated by prefixes attached to the base form. Additionally, there are also two moods (indicative and subjunctive) although the indicative is unmarked. Lastly, verbs are also conjugated for number, singular and plural, with the plural indicated by the suffix -am.

When referring to a particular verb pattern, they are referred to by a derivation of the canonical (exemplary) verb p-r-ḫ (to speak, to say). For example, when referring to the verb pattern of the citation form of a verb, which is the first person nonfuture singular indicative, it is called paruḫna because that is the first person nonfuture singular indicative form of the verb.

Verb Patterns

Most verbs are typically conjugated in their full phonetic forms, known as "full verbs". However, many roots contain the radicals ⟨y⟩ and ⟨w⟩ which lead to conjugations that are phonetically shortened or irregular. Such verbs are known as the "fused verbs", the "short verbs", or the "cut verbs", depending on the position of the radical within the root.

(Triliteral Verbs)

Strong Verbs

p-r-ḫ (speak, say)
nonfuture future
1cs paruḫ-na na-praḫ-na
2fs paruḫ-mu na-praḫ-mu
2ms paruḫ-mi na-praḫ-mi
3fs paruḫ-tu na-praḫ-tu
3ms paruḫ-ti na-praḫ-ti
1cp paruḫ-ta na-praḫ-ta
2fp paruḫ-mun na-praḫ-mun
2mp paruḫ-min na-praḫ-min
3fp paruḫ-tun na-praḫ-tun
3mp paruḫ-tin na-praḫ-tin
n-m-r (be bad, be immoral)
nonfuture future
1cs namir-na na-nmar-na
2fs namir-mu na-nmar-mu
2ms namir-mi na-nmar-mi
3fs namir-tu na-nmar-tu
3ms namir-ti na-nmar-ti
1cp namir-ta na-nmar-ta
2fp namir-mun na-nmar-mun
2mp namir-min na-nmar-min
3fp namir-tun na-nmar-tun
3mp namir-tin na-nmar-tin
r-b-d (guard, protect)
nonfuture future
1cs rabad-na na-rbad-na
2fs rabad-mu na-rbad-mu
2ms rabad-mi na-rbad-mi
3fs rabat-tu na-rbat-tu
3ms rabat-ti na-rbat-ti
1cp rabat-ta na-rbat-ta
2fp rabad-mun na-rbad-mun
2mp rabad-min na-rbad-min
3fp rabat-tun na-rbat-tun
3mp rabat-tin na-rbat-tin

Initial-Weak Verbs

The initial radical is either a ⟨y⟩ or ⟨w⟩ and ???

I-y, u-class
y-b-l (smell)
nonfuture future
1cs yabul-na nī-bal-na
2fs yabul-mu nī-bal-mu
2ms yabul-mi nī-bal-mi
3fs yabul-tu nī-bal-tu
3ms yabul-ti nī-bal-ti
1cp yabul-ta nī-bal-ta
2fp yabul-mun nī-bal-mun
2mp yabul-min nī-bal-min
3fp yabul-tun nī-bal-tun
3mp yabul-tin nī-bal-tin
I-w, i-class
w-ṣ-ḫ (be faithful, be loyal)
nonfuture future
1cs waṣiḫ-na nū-ṣaḫ-na
2fs waṣiḫ-mu nū-ṣaḫ-mu
2ms waṣiḫ-mi nū-ṣaḫ-mi
3fs waṣiḫ-tu nū-ṣaḫ-tu
3ms waṣiḫ-ti nū-ṣaḫ-ti
1cp waṣiḫ-ta nū-ṣaḫ-ta
2fp waṣiḫ-mun nū-ṣaḫ-mun
2mp waṣiḫ-min nū-ṣaḫ-min
3fp waṣiḫ-tun nū-ṣaḫ-tun
3mp waṣiḫ-tin nū-ṣaḫ-tin
I-ʾ, a-class
ʾ-l-d (fight, battle, oppose)
nonfuture future
1cs alad-na nā-lad-na
2fs alad-mu nā-lad-mu
2ms alad-mi nā-lad-mi
3fs alat-tu nā-lat-tu
3ms alat-ti nā-lat-ti
1cp alat-ta nā-lat-ta
2fp alad-mun nā-lad-mun
2mp alad-min nā-lad-min
3fp alat-tun nā-lat-tun
3mp alat-tin nā-lat-tin
I-ʾ, e-class
ʾ-p-d (be young, be new)
nonfuture future
1cs eped-na nē-ped-na
2fs eped-mu nē-ped-mu
2ms eped-mi nē-ped-mi
3fs epet-tu nē-pet-tu
3ms epet-ti nē-pet-ti
1cp epet-ta nē-pet-ta
2fp eped-mun nē-ped-mun
2mp eped-min nē-ped-min
3fp epet-tun nē-pet-tun
3mp epet-tin nē-pet-tin

Middle-Weak Verbs

The middle radical is either a ⟨y⟩ or ⟨w⟩ and ???.

d-w-l (dig, reveal)
nonfuture future
1cs dūl-na na-dūl-na
2fs dūl-mu na-dūl-mu
2ms dūl-mi na-dūl-mi
3fs dūl-tu na-dūl-tu
3ms dūl-ti na-dūl-ti
1cp dūl-ta na-dūl-ta
2fp dūl-mun na-dūl-mun
2mp dūl-min na-dūl-min
3fp dūl-tun na-dūl-tun
3mp dūl-tin na-dūl-tin
r-y-b (plant [seeds], place)
nonfuture future
1cs rīb-na na-rīb-na
2fs rīb-mu na-rīb-mu
2ms rīb-mi na-rīb-mi
3fs rīb-tu na-rīb-tu
3ms rīb-ti na-rīb-ti
1cp rīb-ta na-rīb-ta
2fp rīb-mun na-rīb-mun
2mp rīb-min na-rīb-min
3fp rīb-tun na-rīb-tun
3mp rīb-tin na-rīb-tin
II-ʾ, a-class
ṣ-ʾ-b (kill, slay)
nonfuture future
1cs ṣāb-na na-ṣāb-na
2fs ṣāb-mu na-ṣāb-mu
2ms ṣāb-mi na-ṣāb-mi
3fs ṣāb-tu na-ṣāb-tu
3ms ṣāb-ti na-ṣāb-ti
1cp ṣāb-ta na-ṣāb-ta
2fp ṣāb-mun na-ṣāb-mun
2mp ṣāb-min na-ṣāb-min
3fp ṣāb-tun na-ṣāb-tun
3mp ṣāb-tin na-ṣāb-tin
II-ʾ, e-class
l-ʾ-b (yield, give up)
nonfuture future
1cs lēb-na ne-lēb-na
2fs lēb-mu ne-lēb-mu
2ms lēb-mi ne-lēb-mi
3fs lēb-tu ne-lēb-tu
3ms lēb-ti ne-lēb-ti
1cp lēb-ta ne-lēb-ta
2fp lēb-mun ne-lēb-mun
2mp lēb-min ne-lēb-min
3fp lēb-tun ne-lēb-tun
3mp lēb-tin ne-lēb-tin

Final-Weak Verbs

The final radical is either ⟨y⟩ or ⟨w⟩ and becomes elided while lengthening the preceding vowel.

n-d-w (to begin)
nonfuture future
1cs nadū-na na-ndā-na
2fs nadū-mu na-ndā-mu
2ms nadū-mi na-ndā-mi
3fs nadū-su na-ndā-su
3ms nadū-si na-ndā-si
1cp nadū-ta na-ndā-ta
2fp nadū-mun na-ndā-mun
2mp nadū-min na-ndā-min
3fp nadū-sun na-ndā-sun
3mp nadū-sin na-ndā-sin
m-l-y (give)
nonfuture future
1cs malī-na na-mlā-na
2fs malī-mu na-mlā-mu
2ms malī-mi na-mlā-mi
3fs malī-su na-mlā-su
3ms malī-si na-mlā-si
1cp malī-ta na-mlā-ta
2fp malī-mun na-mlā-mun
2mp malī-min na-mlā-min
3fp malī-sun na-mlā-sun
3mp malī-sin na-mlā-sin
III-ʾ, a-class
ḫ-ṣ́-ʾ (be correct, be true)
nonfuture future
1cs ḫaṣ́ā-na na-ḫṣ́ā-na
2fs ḫaṣ́ā-mu na-ḫṣ́ā-mu
2ms ḫaṣ́ā-mi na-ḫṣ́ā-mi
3fs ḫaṣ́ā-su na-ḫṣ́ā-su
3ms ḫaṣ́ā-si na-ḫṣ́ā-si
1cp ḫaṣ́ā-ta na-ḫṣ́ā-ta
2fp ḫaṣ́ā-mun na-ḫṣ́ā-mun
2mp ḫaṣ́ā-min na-ḫṣ́ā-min
3fp ḫaṣ́ā-sun na-ḫṣ́ā-sun
3mp ḫaṣ́ā-sin na-ḫṣ́ā-sin
III-ʾ, e-class
k-m-ʾ (get up, stand up, rise, ascend)
nonfuture future
1cs kemē-na ne-kmē-na
2fs kemē-mu ne-kmē-mu
2ms kemē-mi ne-kmē-mi
3fs kemē-su ne-kmē-su
3ms kemē-si ne-kmē-si
1cp kemē-ta ne-kmē-ta
2fp kemē-mun ne-kmē-mun
2mp kemē-min ne-kmē-min
3fp kemē-sun ne-kmē-sun
3mp kemē-sin ne-kmē-sin

Extensions To the Verb

Causative Voice

t-p-r-ḫ (coerce)
nonfuture future
1cs tapruḫ-na na-tapraḫ-na
2fs tapruḫ-mu na-tapraḫ-mu
2ms tapruḫ-mi na-tapraḫ-mi
3fs tapruḫ-tu na-tapraḫ-tu
3ms tapruḫ-ti na-tapraḫ-ti
1cp tapruḫ-ta na-tapraḫ-ta
2fp tapruḫ-mun na-tapraḫ-mun
2mp tapruḫ-min na-tapraḫ-min
3fp tapruḫ-tun na-tapraḫ-tun
3mp tapruḫ-tin na-tapraḫ-tin
t-n-m-r (spoil, corrupt)
nonfuture future
1cs tanmir-na na-tanmar-na
2fs tanmir-mu na-tanmar-mu
2ms tanmir-mi na-tanmar-mi
3fs tanmir-tu na-tanmar-tu
3ms tanmir-ti na-tanmar-ti
1cp tanmir-ta na-tanmar-ta
2fp tanmir-mun na-tanmar-mun
2mp tanmir-min na-tanmar-min
3fp tanmir-tun na-tanmar-tun
3mp tanmir-tin na-tanmar-tin
t-r-b-d (station, employ)
nonfuture future
1cs tarbad-na na-tarbad-na
2fs tarbad-mu na-tarbad-mu
2ms tarbad-mi na-tarbad-mi
3fs tarbat-tu na-tarbat-tu
3ms tarbat-ti na-tarbat-ti
1cp tarbat-ta na-tarbat-ta
2fp tarbad-mun na-tarbad-mun
2mp tarbad-min na-tarbad-min
3fp tarbat-tun na-tarbat-tun
3mp tarbat-tin na-tarbat-tin

Applicative Voice

Vrkhazhian as a secundative language

Unlike most languages, Vrkhazhian has a secundative alignment with regards to ditransitive verbs. This means that the recipient of a verb is treated like the patient of a transitive verb rather than the theme.

Below is an example, in the active voice:

Kuwam rēbis bēdūk paltu.
Kuw-am rēb-is bēd-ūk pal-tu
3fs.NOM man-ACC.MASC.SG book-INS.FEM.PL give\ACT-3fs
"She gives a man some books."

In the passive voice, the recipient is promoted to subject, rather than the theme:

Rēbim bēdūk pilti.
Rēb-im bēd-ūk pil-ti
man-NOM.MASC.SG book-INS.FEM.PL give\PASS-3ms
"A man is given some books."