User:Bukkia/sandboxVIII

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Alphabet and phonology

Small letter a ä b c ć d đ e ë f g ģ h i j k l m n o ö p q r ŕ s ś t ţ u ü v w x y z ź
IPA value [a] [æ] [b] [ʧ] [ç] [d] [ð] [e] [ə] [f] [g] [ɣ] [h] [i] [j] [k] [l] [m] [n] [o] [œ] [p] [q] [r] [ʀ] [s] [ʃ] [t] [ʦ] [u] [y] [v] [w] [x] [ɨ] [z] [ʒ]

Pronouns

Personal pronouns

Personal pronouns have oblique forms, remnants of the former case system. The oblique forms are used as objects and with every preposition.

Person Nominative Oblique Possessive ending
1st sing. ajo ajn -j/-(i)m
2nd sing. rej irn -(i)r
3rd sing. hin/ho uhn/ho -(i)h
1st plur. sed esd -(i)s
2nd plur. rad urd -(i)rd
3rd plur. hol hle -(i)hl

Preposition

  • të = of
  • ky = to (indirect object)
  • źa = for
  • ćom = from
  • re = in, into (state)
  • lo = to (motion toward)
  • ru = in (motion inside)

Verb

verb đremil, to sell, verb klukul, to break

Indicative

Momentaneous present

The momentaneous present point to an action/state which exists or is running in the moment of talking. It does not point to an action/state which usually repeats more that once.

Person 1st declension 2nd declension
1st sing. jođremu jokloku
2nd sing. jađremu jäkloku
3rd sing. jađrimu jäkluku
1st plur. đremum klokum
2nd plur. đremuź klokuź
3rd plur. jeđrimul jëklukul

Continous present

(+m/n)

Person 1st declension 2nd declension
1st sing. jomđremu jomkloku
2nd sing. jamđremu jämkloku
3rd sing. jamđrimu jämkluku
1st plur. đremnum klokmum
2nd plur. đremnuź klokmuź
3rd plur. jemđrimul jëmklukul

Perfect past

Person 1st declension 2nd declension
1st sing. đeremo koloko
2nd sing. đeremi koloki
3rd sing. đirem kulok
1st plur. đirmom kulkom
2nd plur. đermoź kolkoź
3rd plur. điremol kulokol

Continuos past

(+m/n)

Person 1st declension 2nd declension
1st sing. đermemo kolmoko
2nd sing. đermemi kolmoki
3rd sing. đirmem kulmok
1st plur. đirmnom kulkmom
2nd plur. đermnoź kolkmoź
3rd plur. đirmemol kulmokol

Resultative past

Person 1st declension 2nd declension
1st sing. öđremo ökloko
2nd sing. öđremi ökloki
3rd sing. öđirem ökulok
1st plur. üđirmëm ükulkëm
2nd plur. üđermëź ükolkëź
3rd plur. öđiremol ökulokol

Plusquamperfect past

Person 1st declension 2nd declension
1st sing. vëđeremu vëkoloku
2nd sing. vëđeremi vëkoloki
3rd sing. vëđerem vëkolok
1st plur. vëđirmom vëkulkom
2nd plur. vëđermoź vëkolkoź
3rd plur. vëđiremul vëkulokul

Future

Person 1st declension 2nd declension
1st sing. pëđermu pëkolku
2nd sing. pëđermo pëkolko
3rd sing. pëđirmu pëkulku
1st plur. pëđirmom pëkulkom
2nd plur. pëđirmoź pëkolkoź
3rd plur. pëđirmul pëkulkul

Future in the past

Person 1st declension 2nd declension
1st sing. pođeremu pokoloku
2nd sing. pođeremi pokoloki
3rd sing. pođerem pokolok
1st plur. pođirmom pokulkom
2nd plur. pođermoź pokolkoź
3rd plur. pođiremul pokulokul

Subjunctive

Present

Person 1st declension 2nd declension
1st sing. juđremu jükläku
2nd sing. jëđramu jyklëku
3rd sing. jëđrëmu jyklëku
1st plur. đramom kläkum
2nd plur. đramoź kläkuź
3rd plur. jađrëmul jüklëkul

Past

Person 1st declension 2nd declension
1st sing. vëđaremo vëkaloko
2nd sing. vëđaremi vëkaloki
3rd sing. vëđärim vëkaluk
1st plur. vëđärmom vëkalkom
2nd plur. vëđarmoź vëkalkoź
3rd plur. vëđärimul vëkalukul

Future

Person 1st declension 2nd declension
1st sing. pëđarmu pëkalku
2nd sing. pëđarmo pëkalko
3rd sing. pëđärmu pëkälku
1st plur. pëđärmom pëkälkom
2nd plur. pëđärmoź pëkälkoź
3rd plur. pëđärmul pëkälkul

Conditional

Present

Person 1st declension 2nd declension
1st sing. jiđrimu jikliku
2nd sing. jëđrimu jykliku
3rd sing. jëđrymu jyklyku
1st plur. đrimom klikum
2nd plur. đrimoź klikuź
3rd plur. jyđrymul jyklykul

Past

Person 1st declension 2nd declension
1st sing. vëđiremo vëkiloko
2nd sing. vëđiremi vëkiloki
3rd sing. vëđirim vëkiluk
1st plur. vëđirmom vëkilkom
2nd plur. vëđirmoź vëkilkoź
3rd plur. vëđirimul vëkilukul

Future

Person 1st declension 2nd declension
1st sing. pëđirmu pëkilku
2nd sing. pëđirmo pëkilko
3rd sing. pëđyrmu pëkylku
1st plur. pëđyrmom pëkylkom
2nd plur. pëđyrmoź pëkylkoź
3rd plur. pëđyrmul pëkylkul

Optative

Person 1st declension 2nd declension
1st sing. đjerëmu kjolöku
2nd sing. đjerëmi kjolöki
3rd sing. đjërim kjoluk
1st plur. đjërmum kjölkum
2nd plur. đjermuź kjolkuź
3rd plur. đjëremul kjölokul

Renarrative

Perfect

(+l/r and vowel changing)

Person 1st declension 2nd declension
1st sing. đelrëma kurlëka
2nd sing. đelrëme kurlëke
3rd sing. đëlrema kürleka
1st plur. đlërmam klülkam
2nd plur. đlermaź klulkaź
3rd plur. đelremal kurlëkal

Imperfect/Continuous

Person 1st declension 2nd declension
1st sing. đlermëma klulmëka
2nd sing. đlermëme klulmëke
3rd sing. đlërmam klülmal
1st plur. đlërmnam klülkmam
2nd plur. đlermnaź klulkmaź
3rd plur. đlermënal klulmëkal

Resultative

Person 1st declension 2nd declension
1st sing. śuđlërëma śuklëkëka
2nd sing. śođlërëme śoklëlëke
3rd sing. śođlërena śoklëleka
1st plur. śuđlërmam śuklëlkam
2nd plur. śođlërmaź śoklëlkaź
3rd plur. śëđlërmal śëklëlkal

Imperative

Person 1st declension 2nd declension
1st sing. - -
2nd sing. đerem kolok
3rd sing. - -
1st plur. đremem klokom
2nd plur. đremeź klokoź
3rd plur. - -

Participles

Active

Present Past Future
đromiś vëđrëmuś pëđromiś
klokoś vëklëkuś pëklokoś

Passive

Present Past Future
đurumun vëđurëmun pëđurumun
kulükun vëkülëkun pëkulükun

Lexicon

  • root: potr making
    • pteril: to do, to make
  • root: corp construction
    • crupul: to build
    • ocörpum: building
    • cërmepek: construction
    • tacrupul: rebuild
  • tape (plur.: utpi): father
  • anna (plur.: nuni): mother
  • root: śotv writing
    • śtevil: to write
    • ośötvum: text
    • śëtmevek: writing
    • taśtevil: rewrite